Poly- And Inter-Discursiveness In Complex Discourse

Abstract

This paper describes the basic principles of complex types of communicative action (for example, tourist discourse). Primary in this study is the poly- (at macro) and inter-discursiveness (at the micro level) of various types of discursive spaces in the formation of adequate perlocution taking into account the illocution of tourism discourse. The study analyzes both the genre and thematic determinism of derivation. The authors naturally come to the conclusion that the poly- and inter-discursive components of the complex text are combined due to not only a change in typological characteristics, but also because of the inherent modification of communication codes (inclusion of audio, visual elements in the fabric of verbal text). The analysis postulates the impossibility of studying modern complex discursive practices outside the concept of paradigmatic discourse-reliance both in the aspect of macrostructural polydiscursiveness and microstructural interdiscursive formation. The basis for observing interdiscursiveness is the primacy of the situationality constant within the variability of topics in the tourism sector. In the aspect of the structural organization of dominant themes that form the ideological and cultural pretext of a complex space, but also the randomness of facts and images. In contrast to the inter-component, the polydiscursive at the macrostructural level is distinguished by conventionality. These elements standardize the discursive tourist space and ensure the internal unity of its generalized content and the regularity of reproduction of functional and pragmatic settings. Common perlocutionary dominants are verbalized in the nuclear components of complex discursive practices, regardless of the thematic content.

Keywords: Intentionalitymacrostructure of discoursemicrostructure of discoursedominants

Introduction

In the context of the modern global hypertext space formed by multilyscursive interaction, polymodus, often asystemic, updated contexts, which are pre-discourses of contaminated text, are of particular importance. The accentuation of various thematic dominants in the aspect of determining the filling of the discursive space of complex communication seems to be the least explored area of linguistic research “of various algorithms for encoding and decoding information at different levels of the text hierarchy in the aspect of noematic analysis” ( Bredikhin & Vartanova, 2017, p. 52). In our opinion, one of the most productive areas of analysis of the mechanisms of complex interaction and interpenetration is the study of various development vectors of such a complex phenomenon as tourist discourse, which incorporates communicative practices of various discourses, which provides an opportunity for a comprehensive description of complicated border socio-cultural communicative practices ( Bredikhin & Bredikhina, 2018).

Problem Statement

The problem of contamination and diversification of discursive practices seems to be very relevant for modern discourse and cognitive linguistics and is reflected in the research of many scientists. So, according to the majority of linguists, each of the borderline communication practices is an integral part and is directly woven into the living fabric of civilizational social and cultural activities, various variations of verbal communication algorithms are thus caused by transformations in objective anthropological activity (a change in the conceptual-valeric system of linguistic and cultural community as a whole, the inclusion of the constants of the global value-orientation space in it, leads to the expansion of vectors explication involving previously diversified components of various discourses). However, some researchers emphasize the presence of reverse processes, when transformations of the discursive space become the basis of socio-cultural changes, as N. Fairclough justifies this postulate as a vivid example, when the improvement of the genre-stylistic system in any professional discourse seems to be a prerequisite for globalization processes characterized by discrete interaction in both spatial and temporal aspects ( Fairclough, 2003). The immanent characteristics of each of the complex types of borderline discourses legitimize the application of the principle of hybrid polydiscursive research of the heterogeneous nature of integrated communication, proposed by Filatova ( 2014), based on the interweaving and organic interaction of the language means of many discursive practices), in its various implementation. Indeed, this activity is created in a heterogeneous environment, represented by many participants, constantly changing their actual social roles in the interaction, modulating linear agent-client relations into the paradigmatic structure of variable bifurcation points (often chaotic transitions of agents and clients). Each of the genres of the studied complex communicative formations (information and advertising materials, thoughts, diary entries, blogs, encyclopedic articles) actualizes the polythematic spaces of poly- and inter-discourse, following both conventional and non-standard models of the development of linguistic, socio-historical, emotional and etc. overtones of general textual content with a periodic change of codes creating a special scheme for understanding contaminated discourse ( Bredikhin & Bredikhina, 2018).

Research Questions

From our point of view, the most interesting subject of analysis in a complex discursive space is the mechanisms of the interpenetration of elements of various types of communication (colloquial, professional), as well as changing communication codes (verbal, visual, sensual, etc.) in the realization of the pragmatic potentials of each of them and the synergetic (structural and randomly recreated) effect both in the macrostructure (generalized generalized content) and at the microstructure level of the discourse (in thematically determined ssazhah, "working" to reinforce the general idea).

Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is to identify and establish the role of the interaction of various discursive practices and complex (verbal-visual) code systems in the aspect of creating a contaminated poly- and inter-discursive communication space, as well as to ensure an adequate illocutionary goal of the perlocative effect. The study was conducted on the material of the modern English-language discourse of tourism in its various relevant implementations (prospectuses, guides, online blogs).

Research Methods

As part of our study, we used a comprehensive methodology for the analysis of empirical material, which was extracted through a continuous sample of multi-genre tourist texts, combining methods of content analysis, elements of discursive, interpretative, and hermeneutical analysis. This integrative approach made it possible to identify and analyze the main mechanisms of poly- and inter-discursive interaction in connection with the content-dominant and functional-pragmatic aspects of the studied phenomenon of complex border discourse.

Findings

The development and hybridization of discourses of various kinds is facilitated not only by the constant replenishment and diversification of the conceptual apparatus, the formation and reconstruction of the “dynamic" schemes of action "of the producer for the production" of new shades of meaning ( Bredikhin & Bredikhina, 2018), which are designed to update the new dominant topic. In conditions of unconventionalization and relative randomness of thematic sequences, accompanied by socio-cultural coherence of the totality of the described objects, general pragmatics and modality of statements, stable dominant themes are formed in the contaminated discourse. These dominant topics predict the introduction of constitutive features of thematically determined discourses into a certain conglomerate. It is in view of hybridization that isolating characteristic discourse-forming topics in a complex border discourse is extremely difficult; there are no necessary and sufficient grounds, as well as universal operational procedures for isolating the general semantic macrostructure of the entire discourse. This hypothetical macrostructure seems to be some abstract construction for describing generalized content, which is the basis of global discourse coherence.

The inhomogeneity of the community forming this type of discourse is the basis for the variability of dominant genre-thematic spaces of communication. “The polyphony of discourse” is intended to emphasize the polythematic nature of the discursive macrostructure ( Filatova, 2014).

Consider one of the most indicative types of contaminated discursive practice, including various types of influencing components (language and paraverbal means of professional discourses, household, scientific, advertising, etc.) – communication in the tourism sector. The organic inclusion of other institutional discourses in this or that type of element legitimizes the socio-cultural and linguotypological specifics of multifunctional tourism communication. The dynamism formed by the blurring of the thematic boundaries of the tourist discourse also determines the features of the analysis of its interference components, the combination of which Pêcheux ( 1990) called “interdiscourse” – a list of pre-data source dominant topics for building complex communication in areas affecting a number of public interests.

The question of defining each of their complex types of discourse as a polydiscursive space is rather controversial, and although the mechanisms of interaction of individual discourses in the case of inter- and within the framework of poly-discourse are similar, interdiscursive relationships are characterized, first of all, by constants of individuality, modality and situationality, etc. e. interdiscourse actualizes a separate proto-text, while the multidiscourse of the combined macrostructure postulates a stable set of special discursive practices in their integral interaction ( Beloglazova, 2008). That is, in essence, this is a distinction between the core and the periphery of dominantly thematic components.

Polydiscursive space components

Thus, the interaction of the nucleus and the periphery is carried out within the framework of a common communicative-pragmatic task realized in the macrostructure of complex discourse. The core positions are based on several types of discursive practices, primarily, artistic discourse can be distinguished as a base and proto-discursive in relation to tourist communication. This is travel literature, which, like other types of artistic discourse , implements an aesthetic function. It is within the framework of this discursive practice that various expressive means and axiological overtones of general generalized content enter the space of contaminated tourism discourse. It is in the layer of artistic discourse that the existential sociocultural components of the conceptosphere are updated, this happens through the inclusion of linguoculturally specific units - realities of various kinds.

However, within the framework of such an aesthetically-loaded presentation of information, cognitive information displaced in the literary text into the background in the contaminated discursive space of tourism also advances to key positions. These units are constituents of the geocultural space in the tourist discourse, i.e. form another nuclear discursive-thematic dominant – geographical discourse . This information in each of the genres of tourist literature (from itinerary to modern guides and blogs) forms a certain landmark, thematic core of orientation in the prototypical opposition “friend / foe”: “The river Loukkos runs through the heart of Morocco, from the Rif Mountains”. And supported by the artistic means of expressiveness, this cognitive component supports the evidential function of the generalized generalized content.

The modern virtual chronotope of works of art, computer games, fictional worlds, historical propositions often merges with individual real tourist sites, which, due to this, become full-fledged destination objects, acquiring new shades of emotionally axiological meanings for individual recipients of the tourist text: “La Rioja, Soria, Asturias and Teruel are places where you can follow the trail of these formidable saurian creatures”.

The next core component of tourism discourse is journalistic discourse in the aspect of the implementation of travel journalism with a distinct individual author’s beginning, verbalizing its own conceptual-Valerian system of producing tourist-oriented text on various platforms using various media channels. According to many researchers, it is the journalistic component of the contaminated discourse that implements the impacting aspect of tourist communication in connection with the explication of the ideological and conceptual mode. The special components of institutionalism formed by the proto-discursive spaces of economics and humanization determine the concept of ETHICS OF TOURISM, which can be recognized as one of the coherent universals of the macrostructure of tourist discourse. The hypertext space of modern tourist communication is not only a product, but also a means of ensuring the tourism policy of each individual state, instilling ideas of the importance of socio-cultural exchange and the pragmatics of tolerance, which is achieved by including expression means in the conventional cliched structure ( Filatova, 2014). Meta-ideological information is present in most rubrics “About the company” of various travel brochures, both print and online: “A key feature of our corporate culture is our global responsibility for economic, environmental and social sustainability”. These cliched components of the ideological description are included in the spectrum of polydiscursive means of tourist discourse

The targeted focus and intentionality constant in realizing the adequate illocutionary goal of the perlocative effect determines the inclusion of nuclear discursive components and advertising discourse in the list. Elements of presenting destinations in the most favorable light provides a fairly stable and frequency reproduction of the appealing, emotive and informative dominants of the tourist contaminated discourse. Means for targeted updating of macrostructural functional and pragmatic components (tokens of positive connotation, emotive vocabulary, phraseological units of positive evaluative semantics, emotionally expressive syntax, etc.) create “extremely positive attraction” at the level of verbalization ( Sakaeva & Bazarova, 2014).

That is, the core components that make up the field of multidiscursiveness of tourist discourse are components of art, geographical, journalistic and advertising discursive practices, these types of discourses realize the generalized content (macrostructure) of contaminated space and are implemented in each of the subspecies of tourist discourse, create a field of constant basic explication constants.

Interdiscursive elements of contaminated space

The inclusion in the conventional structure of tourism discourse of texts of texts of various fields of knowledge in their variability is a sphere of interdiscursive interaction. This variability of theme-oriented dominants explains the instability of the macrostructure of contaminated discourse. In addition to lexical-thematic groups that form the argumentative space of tourism, hypertextuality or hyperdiscursivity can be considered the main marker of inter-discursiveness, which is more typical for the online implementation of tourist discourse. This criterion characterizes not just quantum jumps from text to text within the context of intertextual inclusions, but the displacement of discourses depending on one or another communication deployment directory.

Travel literature has been a subject of history for a long time as a proto-discourse of analytical research ( Mityagina, 2007), and it was within the framework of historical science that “ethnic ideas” about a particular socio-cultural formation were considered. These components (historical facts, descriptions) as part of the tourism discourse are present on the pages of each site about a country, city, etc., sometimes similar texts are arranged in a separate directory. In fact, this is the "visiting card" of the destination: «La ville de Sète was founded in 1666 by the royal decision and the will of three aristocrats: Paul Riquet, Louis XIV et le Chevalier de Clerville».

In the absence of a separate directory as markers of historical discourse realities can be considered: The loud sounds of the veche bell gathered the ancient Novgorodians; onomasticon (names of famous historical figures): «The death of the revolutionary leader Lenin saw Joseph Stalin emerge as the dominant force in the Communist Party» etc.

Sufficient attention in interdiscursive inclusions of tourist discourse is given to the components of culinary or gastronomic discourse - these are restaurant menus, food traditions of ethnic groups of destination, etc.: «Enjoy a culinary demonstration by your ship’s chef on how to make an authentic apple strudel». Actualization of national identity, reconceptualization of ethnic specificity and authenticity contribute to an increase in the degree of reflexive verification of textual virtual space and enable the recipient to easily correlate it with prognostic expectations from objective reality.

Another interference component of tourism communication is the economic discourse , mostly realized in passages with special terminological vocabulary and numerical metadata. Such elements may take the form of intertexual inclusions or separate directories in case of a detailed presentation on the website of the tourist portal of the economic situation of the destination region: «The service industry, including a booming tourism sector now worth well over US$2 billion annually, accounts for nearly 55 % of the GDP».

The verbal explicator of destination objects (monuments, interior solutions, buildings) is an architectural discourse, the markers of which are terminological units, as well as specific stylistic techniques for accentuating a positive image of an object: «Corinthian order, uniting the second and third floors with pilasters and three-quarter columns rhythmically alternating with window openings».

Some modern researchers, for example, Karasik ( 2002), emphasize the relative similarity and pre-contamination of certain types of discursive practices included in the tourist discourse, for example, the medical and religious types of discourse , the basis of which has a rather long period of existence and a commonality of dominant sacred source: «Visit the Basilica and the Holy Tomb of the Resurrection where Jesus rose from the dead. This is the holiest place on earth».

The overwhelming majority of interdiscursive components is based on the criteria of the proposed and reactionary potential of tourism discourse, i.e. target tourism sector (religious, recreational, educational, etc.), respectively, the information provided will not only include vocabulary of the target subject-thematic sphere, but also be characterized by a specific discursive model of verbalization.

Even when considering the phenomenon of inter-discursiveness of each specific text of a tourist contaminated discourse, it is quite possible to consider the commonality and intentional unity of thematic and communicative-pragmatic goals in the framework of the genre-stylistic originality of the text space, taking into account the macrostructure. Maintaining nuclear dominants (mainly illocution of advertising components) is provided by everyday colloquial elements of domestic discourse : «There is always a way to verify the identity of someone who buddies up to you». It should be noted that these units are characteristic for genres of extreme personal orientation (blogs, diary entries, reviews). Verbalization of axiological overtones of generalized meaning using spoken units (spin a yarn, call a spade a spade, stuffed to the gills et al.), reflecting the color, rhythm of lively speech, give the tourist text expression in the framework of the convergence of oral and written communication: «The water was a different story».

Another actualizer of the virtual chronotope of tourist discourse is a number of metacommunicative tools that make up the spatio-temporal relationships of destination objects (allusions and associations): «We are at the foot of Mamayev Kurgan, on the very first site – the entrance square. Here is an introductory composition bas-relief “Memory of generations”».

The complexity of visual and interactive (in the broad sense) means of explicating aesthetic-emotive overtones suggests the legitimacy of correlating tourist discourse with polycode creoleized texts in which the actualization of verbal components is supported by other semiotic systems (audio, visual, iconic). These units, representing various sensory images in the discourse space, are distinguished by some researchers as not only auxiliary, but also integral components of contaminated discourses.

Conclusion

Based on the analysis of empirical data in the aspect of interdiscursivization, one can distinguish elements of various thematic-dominant discourses that are characterized by spontaneity, facultativeness, personality. The primacy of the situationality constant for using these components is due to the variability of topics in complex discourses. Interdiscursive components are tied to the microstructure of thematically determined segments. Intratextual markers of contamination of discursive practices coexist in the studied discourse with the phenomenon of hypertextuality as an immanent potential for a direct transition between different topics (directories). The practice of implementing complex verbal communication involves the interference of code systems (verbal and non-verbal components). In the aspect of the structural organization of thematic dominants that form the ideological and cultural pretext of contaminated discourse, not only optionality is noted, but also the randomness of facts and images, due to the fundamental impossibility of their paradigmatic systematization. In the aspect of standardization of the complex discursive space, the unity and regularity of the translation of the functional-pragmatic and ideological-aesthetic dominants of productive-recipient focus, which are explicated in the nuclear components of poly-discursiveness (artistic, geographical, journalistic and advertising discursive practices) within the framework of the macrostructure, is noted. Those. in contaminated discourse, an organic combination of poly- and interdiscursivity is observed in the field of basic and peripheral explication constants.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.198

Online ISSN

2357-1330