Analysing Political Activity Through Psychological Typology

Abstract

The article discusses comparative psychograms of respondents formed on the basis of the manifestation of a particular type of political activity among respondents (8 non-degenerate responses). For analysis (120 respondents, 2 sociological questionnaires, 6 personality tests). The analysis was conducted using multiple-comparison method (generalized version). As a result, there were determined extremities of 8 groups within the problem with 89 groups compared. Based on the total severity (extremeness) of personal qualities for two groups of high extremeness (participated in elections to government bodies; signed collective appeals, petitions) and for the following three groups (participated in the election campaign, rallies, demonstrations, pickets, strikes) are considered abbreviated psychograms, which indicate only pronounced personal qualities (comparative weighting modulo more than 2000). The last three groups in terms of extremeness (not active in politics, politically active or do not like politics), where no pronounced qualities were revealed (the picture quite averaged over the whole of 89 groups) are only mentioned with an interval of comparative weight of personal qualities. Based on the description of the selected groups of respondents, we can conclude that the types of political activity of the respondents are largely determined by their psychological identity.

Keywords: Political activitypsychogrampersonal qualitiesmultiple comparisoncomparative weightiness

Introduction

The socio-political consciousness of youth is influenced by both external factors (cultural-historical, regional, etc.) and intrapersonal (spiritual, moral, psychological, etc.). Youth social activity is mainly aimed at realizing socially significant interests, an important place is occupied by socio-political activity. Olshansky ( 2002) defines socio-political activity as the activity of social groups or individuals associated with defending their own needs and interests, aiming to change the political or socio-economic order or political institutions’.

Problem Statement

Although politics is not a priority for today's youth interests, students are interested in political events. Nowadays, interest in political events is mainly associated with obtaining information from official sources. Despite the interest in politics, the real participation of young people in political activities is extremely low, which means political and civic activism are not the priority interests of the younger generation ( Chuev et al., 2017). In educational institutions, the process of socialization of students is regulated by a number of state, departmental, regional, municipal and school programs for the education and socialization of students. These programs influence the formation of civic-patriotic competence, but not youth competence in politics.

Research Questions

The political preferences of youth (the formation of groups according to the results of answers to questions with nominal answers) and their personality characteristics were examined using 6 methods:

  • personality traits according to MMPI basic scales;

  • the socio-psychological characteristics of the personality identified by the 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire;

  • Solitary personality types and disorders identified;

  • The subject's self-image using method of "Questionnaire for the interpersonal circle model

  • Personality factors of temperament and character according to the technique of 5-factor personality questionnaire;

  • Personality factors of temperament and character using the method Questionnaire.

Local empirical classifications consider the internal (meaningfully determined by the selected questionnaire questions) structure of the empirical research data, which shows how heterogeneous the set of answers to the questionnaire represented by interval variables, and how external factors represented by nominal variables highlight and strengthen this heterogeneity, gave it definite typological structure. The method was used in a variety of sociological and psychological studies.

Purpose of the Study

The article aims to study the cause and effect conditionality of the socio-political consciousness of youth and the personality characteristics of the respondents. The article discusses its component relating to the problem of manifestation in the youth representing different types of political activity and their dependence on the psychological portrait within the indicators of six methods described above.

Research Methods

The sociological studies have two types of variables at the same time (answers to two types of questions): nominal and interval variables. In this case, it is possible, without involving additional information, to set the task of studying local empirical classifications (typologies), when both external (classification criteria) and internal characteristics of the classes are considered, which gives new opportunities in describing the results of the survey. Our method studies the richness of differences between classes formed by the results of answers to questions (one or more) with nominal answers, based on a set of interval parameters describing the same objects.

The procedure of the author’s method of multiple comparison with regard to sociological research is considered in detail (with the necessary justifications and examples) in the monograph ( Basimov, 2012).

Findings

The study of political preferences, political activity, behaviour and personal characteristics of respondents solved the problem of multiple comparison. Data processing (120 respondents) was carried out using the method of multiple comparison (by author). There were 89 selected groups compared to the nominal answers to the questionnaire. In the calculation for comparison of groups according to political preferences (63 in total) there were 26 groups included in relation to “civil marriage”. As a result of the calculation, political preferences are known more determined by psychological personal characteristics than the attitude of young people to “civil marriage”.

Within the proposed article, we will consider the results for 9 nominal groups of respondents formed for reasons of voting for their candidate. These groups determined the results of answers to the following question of the sociological questionnaire:

Please rate your political activity:

  • G05-02. Participated in elections to government bodies of various levels.

  • G05-03. Signed (a) collective appeals and petitions.

  • G05-04. Conducted the election campaign.

  • G05-05. Participated in rallies, demonstrations, pickets.

  • G05-07. Participated in strikes.

  • G05-08. No, I didn’t have to participate in any of them.

  • G05-09. I do not care about the political activity.

  • G05-10. Politics annoy me.

As a result, 8 (out of 12 possible – the number of suggested answers to the question) non-degenerate groups were identified, the data of which were processed in the general problem of multiple comparison. But first, consider the ordered extremes (the sum of the absolute values of the comparative weightings of indicators within the group) of the groups (table 1 ) selected for further description.

Table 1 -
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Groups can be divided into three subsets. The first subset (for the question under consideration is two groups) – groups of high extremeness. There are brief comparative psychograms given. As an exception for the first extreme group, a fragment of a full psychogram is presented – a structural component according to a 5-factor personality model. For the following extreme groups of three groups, abbreviated psychograms are also considered, in which only pronounced personal qualities are indicated. For the remaining three groups, in which no pronounced personal qualities were revealed (the module of comparative weight is more than 2000, which is determined by the dimension of the problem), a fairly averaged picture within the totality of 89 groups is observed for all test personality indicators. There are names indicating their political activity, the minimum and maximum comparative rating of personal indicators within the group.

Let us turn to the description of 8 selected groups by political activity. The headings of the groups show the number of levels in the comparative psychogram (KOL/ur), the minimum (VES / min) and maximum (VES / max) value of comparative rating within the groups.

Response Group (G05-05)

KOL / ur = 84 VES / min = - 2770 VES / max = + 5433

The group G05-05 of respondents assessed their political activity as being involved into rallies, demonstrations and pickets (15 respondents) was in tenth place in terms of the total extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight among the studied psychological indicators is +5433, while the minimum comparative weight of reason is –2770 (Table 02 ).

Table 2 -
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The group of respondents who assess their political activity as participating in rallies and demonstrations is characterized primarily by pronounced hysteria (comparative weight is +5433), to a lesser extent depression (comparative weight is +2457) and psychopathy (comparative weight is +2210).

Table 3 -
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Representatives of this group are characterized by susceptibility to feelings (factor G), which is determined by a significant negative comparative weight (–2161) on the scale of “exposure to feelings – high normative behavior” (Table 03 ).

Table 4 -
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Accentuations according to Smishek determined that representatives of the group can be described as quite demonstrative (comparative weight +2550) (Table 04 ).

Table 5 -
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Within Leary’s method, in the group, a rather significant negative comparative weight (-2770) is observed on the “Subordinate Type” scale, which considers not typical (Table 05 ).

Table 6 -
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Politically active representatives of the group are described as inaccurate (the comparative weight of reason on the scale of “Accuracy – Inaccuracy” is +2819) (Table 06 ).

Response Group (G05-07)

KOL / ur = 55 VES / min = - 6483 VES / max = + 4375

The group G05-07 of respondents who evaluate their political activity through participation in demonstrations (6 respondents) was on the 13th rate in terms of the aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight of reason among the studied psychological indicators is +4375, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –6483.

Table 7 -
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Accentuation according to Smishek shows, the representatives of the group can be described as very demonstrative (comparative weight of reason +4040) (Table 07 ).

Table 8 -
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Leary’s methodology revealed a group of respondents evaluating their political activity by participating in demonstrations, positive extremeness is observed on the Aggressive Type scale with a comparative weight of reason (+3082) (Table 08 ).

Table 9 -
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In the DSM questionnaire with a minus sign, i.e. which is completely unusual for the representatives of the group in question, it is possible to note a self-confident type with the “narcissism” disorder likely for this type (comparative weight is –5130) (Table 09 ). The predominant type of this group is the adventurous type with an antisocial disorder likely for this type (comparative weight is +4375).

Table 10 -
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As part of additional indicators, the “Reliability” scale of the MMPI questionnaire (comparative weight of reason is -6483) (table 10 ), which indicates a very reliable self-esteem of respondents who assess their political activity as participating in strikes. You can also note a pronounced aggressiveness, which is determined in the framework of the combined scale according to two opposite types of Leary's methodology “Aggressive – friendly” with a comparative weight of reason –5402).

Other psychograms with meaningful results on the individual components of one or another of the considered personality models are also considered in a brief presentation, i.e. we will cite abbreviated comparative psychograms, within the framework of which only those comparative weights are presented that we define as worthy of consideration, namely, comparative weights that exceed 2000 in absolute value.

Response Group (G05-04)

KOL / ur = 81 VES / min = - 3695 VES / max = + 5187

The group G05-04 of respondents, who define their political activity as participation in the election campaign (11 respondents), was in 23 (out of 63) places in terms of the aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight among the studied psychological indicators is +5187, the minimum comparative weight is –3695.

Table 11 -
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The considered group of respondents is characterized by brightly survived paranoia (comparative weight is +5187) (table 11 ).

Table 12 -
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Representatives of the group defining their political activity as participating in the election campaign, can be characterized, firstly, as depressed (the comparative weight of the reason on the scale “Depression – emotional comfort” with a negative sign is –3208); to a lesser extent as tense (comparative weight on the scale of “Tension – Relaxation” –2596) (table 12 ).

Table 13 -
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In the DSM questionnaire with a negative sign, i.e. which is completely unusual for the representatives of the group in question, it is possible to note the “Hermit” type with the schizoid disorder probable for this type (comparative weight of reason –3695) (table 13 ).

Response Group (G05-10)

KOL / ur = 81 VES / min = - 2815 VES / max = + 1812

A group of G05-10 respondents annoyed by politics (17 respondents), was in 26 (out of 63) rate in terms of aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight of reason among the studied psychological indicators is +1812, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –2815.

Table 14 -
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Respondents annoyed by politics can be described as depressed (the comparative weight of reason on the scale of “Depression is emotional comfort” shows –2479) (table 14 ).

Table 15 -
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The Leary's technique revealed a negative trend observed on the scale of the integral factor “Dominant” with a comparative weight of reason (–2815) (table 15 ). The results are surprising.

Response Team (G05-09)

KOL / ur = 81 VES / min = - 2763 VES / max = + 3164

The group G05-09 with respondents indifferent to political activity in assessing their political activity (15 respondents) was in 32 (out of 63) places in terms of aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight among the studied psychological indicators is +3164, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –2763.

Table 16 -
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The group representatives are characterized by emotional stability (factor C), which is determined by a significant positive comparative weight of reason (+3164) on the scale of “Emotional instability – emotional stability” (table 16 ).

Table 17 -
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The group representatives indifferent to political activity can be described as responsible (the comparative weight of reason on the scale “Responsibility – irresponsibility” is –2763) (table 17 ).

The third part of the groups of nominal responses within the sociological questionnaire includes three groups, in the psychograms of the respondents. There are not sufficiently substantial psychological characteristics (test scales) for the consideration of personality typologies for our consideration (module of comparative weight of reason over 2000). The test indicators of these groups are close to the average indicators of the combined totality of 89 groups by nominal answers. There is no psychological originality, discussion and description.

Response Team (G05-03)

KOL / ur = 85 VES / min = - 1499 VES / max = + 1696

The group G05-03 of respondents determining their political activity by signing collective appeals, petitions (22 respondents), was on the 50th rate (out of 63) in terms of the aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The greatest comparative weight of reason among the studied psychological indicators is +1696, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –1499.

Response Group (G05-02)

KOL / ur = 86 VES / min = - 1272 VES / max = + 979

The group G05-02 of respondents assessing their political activity as participating in governmental elections (26 respondents), was in 52nd rate (out of 63) in terms of aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight of reason among the studied psychological indicators is +979, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –1272.

Response Group (G05-08)

KOL / ur = 79 VES / min = - 401 VES / max = + 528

The group G05-08 of respondents assessing their political activity as extremely passive (61 respondents), was on the 62nd (out of 63) rate in terms of the aggregate extremeness of personal qualities. The largest comparative weight of reason among the studied psychological indicators is +528, the minimum comparative weight of reason is –401.

Conclusion

According to the results of the information presented, it can be said that the reasons for the manifestation of one or another type of political activity among the respondents were mostly determined by their psychological identity. 8 extremity groups were divided into three subsets.

  • I. High extreme group respondents:

    • participated in demonstrations and pickets;

    • participated in strikes;

  • II. Moderate extremity group respondents:

    • conducted the election campaign;

    • annoyed by politics;

    • indifferent to politics.

  • III. Low extremity group respondents:

    • signed collective appeals, petitions;

    • participated in governmental elections;

    • did not participate in political actions.

The research is considered to be a part of the study of nonlinear nature study to social and human sciences. Although the nonlinear nature of psychological and sociological data is not relevant for most researchers, the conversation about traditional errors arising from the “new” rules of statistics. There are mistakes invisible to the vast majority of researchers, the “necessary” results obtained by the author and his associates at sociological (ESA, ISA) ( Kornienko, 2017) and psychological (ECP, IPC) ( Basimov, 2016; Ilinyh, 2012a; Ilinyh, 2012b; Padurina, 2012) congresses (total 58 presentations), as well as in numerous articles.

Acknowledgments

The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 18-011-01071a.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.188

Online ISSN

2357-1330