Acmeology In The System Of Secondary Education In The Russian Federation
Nowadays the system of secondary education in the Russian Federation undergoes modernization at all levels, as the previous system could not satisfy the social and economic demands of the state in human resources. Modern education should prepare a child to the successful socialization, conscious choice of the profession which will enhance his/her personal and professional development. The reforms in the system of vocational education brought forward new requirements to the applicants’ training in schools. They are high self-organization, ability to make decisions and be responsible for them, successful cognitive and socially-oriented activity, ability to life-long learning, commitment to development, ability to work alone and in a team. Acmeological approach is the most effective in this case. The peculiarity of this approach is in creating conditions for stimulating learners’ potential, supporting their personal achievements which ground their further personal-professional growth. The article reflects coherence of the acmeological approach with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standards on schoolchildren training. It has conditioned the modeling of pedagogical systems which apply acmeological technologies both in organization and contents components of the educational process.
Keywords: Acmeologyacmeological technologiespersonal developmentFederal State Educational Standards
The strives of the Russian Federation to become a developed country conditioned the reconsidering of the basic approaches to the organization of the educational system at all stages, as the quality of education services determine the quality of the human resources and the rate of economic growth (Ivanova, 2011; Aliev et al., 2016; Beljakov & Krasnova, 2016; Molchanov, 2019). Due to this the search for the most effective ways enhancing the results of education has been acute lately. New pedagogical technologies appear, the existing ones are up-dated, and it becomes evident that a traditional system of education becomes ineffective in new sociological and economical conditions.
All this conditioned a new evolution of acmeology in order to remodel the system of education in Russia (Korovnikova, 2018).
Acmeology is an interdisciplinary field of knowledge of pedagogy and psychology and studies personal development in complex when getting the best results in any activity on the principle of the top achievements, which provides personal productive development. It does not substitute these two sciences but serves as a link uniting them, which allows creating more effective pedagogical systems.
In Russia acmeology became popular at the beginning of 90 years of the XXth century. Acmeological approach was used to solve the problem of the professional development, as it was a key issue during the post-soviet development of the country. Nowadays acmeology has broadened its borders and become a science studying the perspective of top achievement of a person in all spheres and at all stages of life, conditions and ways of their achievements by an individual at different periods of life: from the pre-school to the professional activity.
The acmeology of the school education has appeared recently (Maksimova, 2002). It studies factors enhancing top achievements of the schoolchildren’s as subjects of educational activity, which become the basis for further personal and professional development of a grown-up. This trend appeared due to lowering the age of the vocational training. Providing success and self-belief in schoolchildren is a primary goal of the school acmeology.
Their achievements in compulsory education are a basis for further vocational education (Berzin et al., 2018). The conditions created by the secondary and higher educational establishments determine whether the person will develop further or stagnate.
New Federal State Educational Standards are meant to introduce such conditions in educational establishments which will support learners’ personal development to the top level with the emphasis of their life-long learning.
The problems of our research are:
Analysis of the acmeological component in the requirements of the State Federal Educational Standards to the final results of the compulsory education.
Studying methods and tools of acmeology.
Defining effective acmeological technologies enhancing the development of the system of education in Russian Federation in accordance with the State Educational Standards.
Nowadays, improvement of the system of education in Russian Federation its acmeologization are acute within the contemporary structure of the educational environment. That is why the subject of our study is acmeological conditions at every level of education in the Russian Federation. These conditions must be aimed at the self-development of the subjects of the educational process via educational activity.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the perspective of applying acmeological technologies in the process of education.
The study deals with several aspects of the issue. They are new requirements to the system of secondary education in the Russian Federation and acmeology methods, whose application will allow solving fundamental tasks of modernizing the system of education in Russia. To achieve this goal a convergent model has been used, as it allows determining the correlation of the aspects under study.
Analysis of Federal State Educational Standards for secondary education showed that they stress the creation of environment suitable for development of different personal characteristics of schoolers, which will result in development of both subject competences with the account of individual characteristics and ability to the reasonable self-development on the way to the objectives in view (Kargina, 2013; Voronina, 2018; Mashinjan & Kochergina, 2019). The Standard suggests introduction of effective systems of bonuses with different level for schoolers in order to stimulate them to the effective activity (Poletaeva, 2004).
The study period in Russian schools is eleven years and includes three stages: primary, basic and general secondary education. As the result there appears a necessity to create a model of pedagogical systems and strategies for achieving the top level of individual, group and cooperative learning activity of schoolers, both at the state level and the level of educational organizations, with the account of the children’s age. It suggests application of the acmeological technologies’ system, which have proved their efficiency. They can be divided into two groups: planning technologies and learning technologies (Konovalova, 2014; Basharuli et al., 2015).
The first group includes acmeological diagnostics, developing acme graphs, planning acmeological strategies.
At the first stage of modeling an effective pedagogical system an acmeological diagnostics is done, which determines the initial abilities and a potential of every child and a whole group, who actively interact with each other during studying at school for further planning the trajectory of their mutual development.
At the second stage when an acme graph is developed the most important factors and conditions are selected for the progressive development of every child in the group.
Basing on the results the educational establishment creates an acmeological strategy with the account of the requirements of Federal State Educational Standards. This strategy takes into account the existing conditions and determines the lacking ones which can be created further on. As basic conditions enhancing personal and group development of the schoolers can be:
corresponding equipment used in the process of education;
highly-qualified teachers, able to apply acmeological technologies;
competitive educational environment with possibility to create the situation of success via competitions in different activities with maximal involvement of schoolers (school subject-oriented conferences, competitions of science and engineering projects, exhibitions of cooperative and individual creative works, reading contests, Olympiads, track-and-field events) which allow children not only test their abilities but involve them in the competitions at the municipal, regional, state, international levels;
bonuses for high achievements from the certificates of merit, diplomas, money to a possibility to be enrolled into an establishment of tertiary education without competitive exams;
effective individual educational trajectories suggest transition from the universal education for all to unique process of education for every schooler with the account of his educational needs and potential.
The strategy involves monitoring the process of moving learners to the top levels of personal development. For this indicators are determined which allow estimate the efficiency of educational establishment functioning (Lebedeva & Sleptsova, 2018; Nemtsova et al., 2018). Thus, annually All-Russian tests are held at the state level, internal tests are held in educational establishments: diagnostics before studying the course and at the end, end-of-the-year exams in subjects. Analysis of this diagnostics is aimed at determining problems in the system of education and eliminating them.
Acmeological technologies can be divided into two groups: subject-oriented and person-oriented. The first are aimed at high achievements in subjects. The latter ones are at personal development, its demands, development, self-knowledge, self-regulation, independence, inner directness, creating conditions for self-fulfillment.
The aim strived for by the Federal State Standards is enhancing the quality and efficiency of the educational process with innovative approaches to the organization of educational activity, exactly developing acmeological position of schoolers as self-knowledge in different learning situations when achieving high educational and personal results, that will provide personal and professional activity in the future.
The expected results of mastering the curricula according to the Federal State Educational Standards are mastering the skills of cognitive, research and project activity, skills to solve problems independently, which allow schoolers receive practical results. The schoolers can present these results at science-practical conferences, Olympiads, meetings of the scientific societies, contests, which despite estimating are an effective tool of acmeology.
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