The paper is devoted to the importance of preserving the cultural heritage. It defines the caused by insufficient planning of reconstruction and restoration with regard to preservation of architectural, historical and cultural monuments, which further leads to difficulties in the development of the national architectural school. The importance of cultural heritage is emphasized alongside with conditions under which systematic restoration of historical museum complexes can be ensured on the example of the architectural heritage of Russia. The study highlights the importance of the domestic architectural museum in the cultural and educational activities of the country as a key component of the modern culture. The paper gives the historical analysis of a number of museum complexes as a cultural component of not only traditional historical features but as a unique system of practical research in architecture and education. The national museum holds a special place as an art school and an important section of higher education. The task of the study is to propose conditions to solve the problem of preserving the architectural heritage, which were determined in the course of the used practice-based methods, practical analysis of historical experience and its application through modern architectural solutions. The study focuses on practice-based methodology, which is important in solving problems in the field of architecture, restoration. Changing priorities on the way towards the restoration of the national architectural museum of Russia and the study in this field determine the relevance of saving architectural heritage, monuments of culture and history.
Keywords: Museumeducationcultural heritagearchitectural monuments
The period of the late 18th – early 19th centuries is important for the architectural and design history of park complexes. The process of planning decisions of architectural complexes led to special style principles formed at this time within the artistic and aesthetic system. The desire to create an architectural complex of special planning taking into account national features, scientific and technical thought defining the character of the Russian architecture of that time was a major priority. The architectural intent of the country retreat was aimed at mixing all kinds of arts. A single architectural structure was organic with the landscape thus creating a spatial composition. A single artistic design was connecting all structures of complex, including the inner decor. Culture is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, where the identity and history of one nation or people cannot be considered without the influence of the world history and artistic practice in general. The formation of cultural policies is closely linked to the economy of the state and proves that the revival of heritage is based not on the enthusiasm of certain individuals, but on a specific cultural, political and economic program. In this trajectory it is possible to talk about culture in numbers, assessment of the quality of work compared to previous periods of heritage restoration.
Preservation of architectural heritage is now becoming a priority and at the same time a combination of a number of problems caused not only by the difficulties of architectural, restoration, urban and historical works, but mainly by the changes of values in the world arts. The problem of preserving historical and cultural monuments of the fatherland is urgent, similar to the need of creating the cultural heritage fund. Changing priorities on the way towards the restoration of the national architectural museum of Russia and the study in this field determine the relevance of saving architectural heritage, monuments of culture and history. Today, with the advent of new innovative technologies in various types of arts we forget about the global artistic values. Historians, art experts, practicing architects are clear about the extraordinary potential of the works of art fairly presenting social processes and the state of national culture.
A good example in the study of this topic is the architecture and decoration of Russian park complexes, since this example shows the historical heritage as a sustainable system of planning and harmony, preserving all kinds of fine arts. Definitely, the Russian estate of the late 18th and throughout the 19th century was presenting magnificent collections of painting, sculpture, decorative and applied arts, graphics, practical arts, mastery of museum art and striking collections of libraries. During the construction of palace complexes-museums, the group of serf masters was created, the schools of painting, sculpture and architecture which trained domestic artists was also holding a special place. The principle of symmetry and axial construction was used to make the plans of the estate and park landscapes. It was this system that became the main one in the construction of architectural and park complexes of Russia. The formation of classicism takes place together with the development of humanism and civic consciousness. Classicism in Russian architecture, painting and literature was approved at the same time as the ideas of education. The principles of order and ancient beauty were embodied in the style of classicism, became the basis for the creation of works of art of the entire period. Russian architectural complexes of country estates serve the evidence of international and cultural ties of the outstanding figures of the 19th century, artists, illustrators, sculptors, theatre decorators. During the construction of palace museum complexes, the group of serf masters was created, where the specific place was held by the schools of painting, sculpture and architecture which trained domestic artists. The range of pictorial means used in the Russian estate allows choosing any pattern that skillfully sounds in various artistic expressions. In this context, it is appropriate to emphasize the role of a personality in the world artistic practice, as well as its impact on aesthetic and cultural development. a large number of art galleries, historical collections of objects of decorative and applied art, funds of national art salons was created on the foundation of private collections. The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, A.A. Bakhrushin State Central Theatre Museum in Moscow, Museum of Applied Arts in Smolensk, and the local history regional museums in manor buildings were crucial for national cultures. Museum complexes: Archangelsk, Ostankino, Kuskovo, Komenskoe, and many others. In provincial cities the museums and park complexes became the basis of the educational system, a source of education (Dmitrochenkova, 2001).
But let us consider the concept of creative design, which formed the basis for the creation of architectural and park complexes. Collections of world painting, ancient sculpture, art of book graphics, decorative and applied art. Organization of a theatre, education of a theatre group, creation of art workshops, including educational institutions. Nothing could be compared to the talent of artisans with professional skills in various arts. The museum complex of the Russian estate can be called the peak of aesthetics. Numerous functions of the museum were connected in a single whole educational system with classes and production workshops. The theatre represented a strict system of artistic images. “The Ostankino Palace was created according to the latest scenic technology of the time” (Gritsak, 2007, p. 55). World celebrities were invited to stage performances and theatre productions. Thus, Duke N.B. Yusupov invited the outstanding master Pietro di Gottardo Gonzaga to Russia. By “using the laws of architectural perspective on a limited space of the stage, Pietro Gonzaga created picturesque decorations” (Dmitrochenkova, 2001, p. 36).
The combination of works of arts was combined with architectural decoration with the classics of symmetry and stylistic delights typical for the museum complex.
In their works the architects and researchers characterized the compositional and artistic merits of architectural complexes of the past often drawing similarities with the architecture of the present, which in some cases is inferior in design solutions to the historical heritage (Trofimova & Rodionovskiy, 2018; Zabalueva, 2018).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to preserve the domestic museum as an important component of the architectural heritage and to restore the unique educational system making the core of Russia’s architectural complexes.
Historical method of knowledge based on the study of the Russian estate architecture, as well as on the formation and development of the architectural heritage of Russia. The system method of the study provided an opportunity to analyze theoretical problems and to forecast the necessary measures. Systematization and analysis of historical scientific works, connection of the studied problem with modern reality allowed drawing conclusions of this study. The practical experiment confirmed the correctness of the hypothesis and revealed patterns in the results of practical research. The methods used at the practical level of the study included the creative analysis, subject-analytical method, field observations: drawings, sketches, drafts.
All stages of the research determined specific above listed methods taken as a whole.
According to the results of the study, it can be argued that the need to create a new educational system in the field of arts and architecture is quite relevant. The choice of the optimal path is connected with practical and theoretical study of projects of the Russian estate. In subsequent solutions these study was embedded into new educational programs, which became the basis for the architectural school in academic drawing, painting, architectural graphics, which are taught by more than one generation of architects.
Modern educational programs were included and became the academic norm of the tasks on study and analysis of architectural heritage of Russia thus improving the educational process in general.
Without doubt the Russian estate is a magnificent collection of artworks in a planned combination of all its types. The system of solutions related to the design, landscape planning, unity of plastic arts and small architectural forms, development of theatre art and monumental painting included all characteristics of the completed museum complex. This unity was indivisible because it was a single organism which existence carried the only purpose – education. When defining the composition of the architectural design, one cannot but notice the complex decoration of interiors, the design solutions of which are inseparable from the architectural details of the whole complex. Taking into account the brevity of classicism, proportions and order, the artistic design of the interiors represented complex coloristic compositions, the rich decoration of the halls and pavilion were characterized by colour sophistication.
The possibility to give examples of such a phenomenon from the modern life of country construction becomes unrealistic these days. The museums are separated from the educational sphere and remain extremely rare and optional, and sometimes only serve a small addition to the modern educational system (Finogenov & Popov, 2019; Popov, 2019; Zabalueva, 2018). “Young people need a rigorous, comparative analysis of modern housing...” (Popov, 2018, p. 2526).
The historical and national heritage provides lessons by offering long-established educational systems of the centers of culture and art, opportunities for development and preservation of national values. The statement that “the elements of architectural expressiveness in the history of the past” is quite relevant (Trofimova & Rodionovskiy, 2017, p. 72), ... “the study will help to restore and reconstruct on a scientific basis” (Trofimova, 2016, p. 5677).
Today, it becomes a priority to develop a unified system that ensures the preservation and formation of the national mentality, and with it the education of a careful attitude to historical, cultural and artistic heritage. In this context, it is certainly important to create new educational training programs that promote the personality of future professionals. The formation of a new level of training of professional staff in the field of architecture and urban planning is impossible without study and analytical justification of the structure of architectural and historical heritage. It is not enough to simply restore the image of the architectural heritage, there is a need to recreate the great cultural and historical content, to create the architectural museum as a social institute.
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31 October 2020
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Ulianova, N. (2020). On The Issue Of Preserving The Architectural Heritage Of Russia. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1130-1134). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.149