The question of grammatical nature, varieties, meaning of compound syntax constructions remains the most relevant due to insufficient study. Hence, the study analyzes various opinions on the problem of compound sentences in foreign, domestic and Ossetian linguistics, which currently have no unambiguous solution in the works of linguists despite quite a few attempts to syntax in Russian and foreign linguistics in the 17th–18th centuries, in Ossetian – since the 19th century. The analysis of all considered classifications made it possible to determine that the structural-semantic classification of compound sentences is the most correct. This classification takes into account all structural features of considered structures: the relations of a subordinate clause with a single word in the main part or with the whole main part, the nature of conjunctional means, the nature and functions of correlates (correlation words), the position of a subordinate clause, the paradigm of a compound sentence. Based on the above, we analyzed the grammatical linkage of compound sentences in Ossetian and Russian languages from the point of view of structural-semantic approach. This currently leading approach takes into account the whole set of structural characteristics typical for compound sentences as particularly syntactic units, and grammatical meanings, which are directly related to the specified characteristics, which allows defining and consistently considering a variety of types of compound sentences with regard to their structural and semantic peculiarities, describing the specifics of a compound sentence, its linkage to a phrase and a simple sentence.
Keywords: Ossetian languagecompound sentencesclassification
The question of the essence of a compound sentence, its grammatical nature and functional capabilities currently fails to find an unambiguous solution in the works of linguists. Despite the fact that the first attempts to study compound sentences in Russian and foreign linguistics date back to as early as the 17th–18th centuries, in Ossetian – since the 19th century, the problem of grammatical essence of compound sentences (CS), their functional capabilities, varieties, meanings is still the most relevant in both foreign and domestic linguistics, which served the purpose of this study.
The classification of compound sentences is now explained by the coexistence of three different classification approaches of CS: traditional, formal-grammatical and structural-semantic. The analysis of the presented classifications made it possible to establish that the study of CS should be based on structural-semantic classification, since it helps to understand the meaning, structure and function of this syntactic unit, to understand the role of a subordinate clause, to see the CS features in a number of related structures.
The subject of study are compound sentences in Ossetian and Russian languages. Although they perform the same functions, have similar definitions, show structural-semantic similarity, yet compound sentences in both languages under consideration have significant differences.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine differential features of grammatical means of linking compound sentences in Ossetian and Russian languages according to the structural-semantic approach.
The work is based on observation, analysis and synthesis methods, as well as comparative, inductive and deductive methods.
The history of studying compound sentences in English linguistics is divided into three periods: dichotomic (formed by the late 17th and early 18th centuries (Butler, 1633; Greaves, 1969; Lane, 1979), which is based on the division of all sentences into simple and compound; trichotomic (traditional grammar) that appeared in the mid-19th century (Quirk et al., 1972; Watts, 1745) and identified two types of compound sentences: complex or compound and two ways of communication (parataxis/subordination), and the second ever in English linguistics dichotomic classification (system grammar), founded by Halliday (1961), which considered the system of grammatical units (a morpheme, a word, a group, i.e. a phrase, a clause, a sentence) within a grading scale where the lower limit is formed by a morpheme and a word, while the upper – by a sentence, and hence a simple sentence was a sentence consisting of one grammatical unit located a rank below (i.e. clause), and compound (or complex) – consisting of two or more constituent units ranked below.
There are currently three different classification approaches in Russian: traditional (Buslaev, 1959; Vostokov, 1867), which is based on the principle of likening a subordinate clause to a member of semantics, i.e., a predicate unit is functionally identified with a member of a simple sentence; formally-grammatical (Peshkovskij, 2001; Shapiro, 1957) reducing the analysis of a compound sentence to the analysis of conjunctions or connective words and not considering its other structural features; and structurally semantic (Beloshapkova, 1977; Dibrova, 2001; Pospelov, 1990), according to which all structural features of considered structures are taken into account (the relations of a subordinate clause with a single word in the main part or with the whole main part, the nature of conjunctional means, the nature and functions of correlates (correlation words), the position of a subordinate clause, the paradigm of a compound sentence).
Despite the fact that structural and semantic features of compound sentences in Ossetian language have been studied by many linguists since the beginning of the 19th century (Abaev, 1959; Akhvlediani, 1969; Gagkaev, 1956; Shëgren, 1844; Stackelberg, 1886), three concepts of compound sentences are currently used in Ossetian linguistics: N.K. Bagaeva’s approach based on the combination of traditional and structural-semantic classification, CS classification stated in the textbook for students of higher educational institutions Nyrykkon iron ævzag (Modern Ossetian Language), based on the definition of formal-grammatical and semantic features of CS (as cited in Dzhusoity et al., 2010), and the approach of Tsarikaeva (2017) considering all structural features of CS. Besides, the classification of compound sentences in Ossetian language is considered in the article Ossetian Compound Sentences: Problem of Classification (Kudzoeva et al., 2019).
At present, the most rational approach is the structural-semantic approach of studying compound sentences, since it considers the whole set of structural characteristics.
Having made a brief overview of various classification approaches to CS, this paper attempts to consider the peculiarities of grammatical means of linking compound sentences in Ossetian and Russian languages according to the structural-semantic approach.
The most important elements of a CS structure in both languages include subordinate conjunctions, relates (connective words), correlates (correlation words in the main part), prop words, order of predicative clauses, paradigm, specialized lexical units, parallelism of the structure and incompleteness of one of the clauses, intonation.
Special type of grammatical means of linkage in CS of Ossetian language are parenthetic words
According to a number of positions in Russian and in Ossetian languages, there are
Along with double conjunctions, both languages use homonymous
Regarding the relation to certain syntax meanings, there are semantic conjunctions in Russian (
In Ossetian language such differentiation is not observed, as most conjunctions are critical, and this allows using them in different types of subordinate CS. Thus, conjunction
The distinctive feature of conjunction
The grammatical means of linkage in both Russian and Ossetian languages may include connective words (relates), which, unlike conjunctions, perform the function of one of the members of a sentence and can correlate with certain reference words (correlates) in the main part, where in both Russian and Ossetian languages defining, demonstrative pronouns and pronominal adverbs are important:
In both Russian and Ossetian languages, connective words expressed by relative pronouns and related words associated with them expressed by index pronouns, can be used in different grammatical forms:
Compared to the Russian language, the order of the main and subordinate clauses of the CS in the Ossetian language is relatively free: In most cases there is a preposition of the subordinate clause, but the reverse order is not contrary to the norms, “which is relatively rare in Ossetian language” (Bagaev, 1982):
Interposition of the subordinate clause is less often met in Ossetian language:
The categories of mood, tense and aspect play a significant role in CS structure of in both Russian and Ossetian languages since the compound sentence always implies a certain ratio of tense-aspect forms of a verb-predicate, which in both languages serves the syntactic means of their linkage. Thus, there is a full compliance of tense-aspect forms of a verb-predicate of main and subordinate clauses:
The predicate can also be expressed by verbs having unequal forms of mood, tense and aspect:
1) modal vocabulary associated with the expression of different conditionality values (cause, purpose, effect):
2) antonymic vocabulary – vocabulary usually in close association with the expression of not only comparative and counter relations, but also of the additional meaning of the concession:
3) emotional vocabulary that defines the additional causal value:
Russian and Ossetian languages are characterized by the use of
The results of the comparative analysis, which constitute the necessary linguistic base and reserve for intensification of the modern educational process, which involve the establishment of similarities and differences between the compared languages, made it possible to use them in the learning process as a means of enabling a teacher to overcome difficulties related to the peculiarities of the students’ mother tongue.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Tsarikaeva, F., Gazdarova, A., Khadasheva, S., & Khanaeva, Z. (2020). Grammatical Means Of Linkage In Compound Sentences. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1107-1114). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.146