Elementary School Students' Patriotic Education As A Form Factor Of Value-Semantics Competence
The article discusses patriotic education as a factor in the formation of the value-semantic competence of younger students. The study is based on an analysis of scientific psychological and pedagogical literature, as well as modern school practice. The authors suggest ways to solve the problem of the formation of value-semantic competence in the educational system of primary school. In elementary school, patriotic education, most of all, orientate a person toward developing, as a personality and socially valuable orientations of students, humanistic ideals of peace, kindness, and justice. These qualities are connected with the “value ideas of the student, his ability to see and understand the world around him, orient himself in him, be aware of his role and purpose, be able to choose goals and meanings for his actions and actions, make decisions”. The study actualization is confirmed by the results of surveys conducted by the authors over the past years. These surveys were conducted using methods of sociological and pedagogical measurements, such as observation, questionnaires, interviewing, diagnosis, interviews, introspection, and self-esteem. An analysis of the results of the survey confirmed our assumptions about the following. Firstly, teachers have an urgent need for programs-algorithms of educational work with younger students to form their valuable worldviews and orientations, which together form a value-semantic competence. Secondly, there is a need to increase knowledge in issues of modern methods of patriotic education, which acts as the most important formation of value-semantic competence in younger students.
Keywords: Value-semantic competencepatriotic educationelementary school studentsformation factor
The patriotic education of a modern student is updated in the program documents of the educational policy of the state, in particular, in the Federal State Educational Standard of Primary General Education. The Federal State Educational Standard specifies the problem of achieving by each student the personal results of mastering the basic educational program of primary general education. In this regard, the mission of the teacher is “1) the formation of the foundations of Russian civil identity, a sense of pride in their homeland, the Russian people and the history of Russia, the awareness of their ethnic and national identity; the formation of the values of multinational Russian society; formation of humanistic and democratic value orientations; 2) the formation of a holistic, socially-oriented view of the world in its organic unity and diversity of nature, peoples, cultures and religions; 3) the formation of a respectful attitude to a different opinion, history and culture of other peoples; 4) mastering the initial skills of adaptation in a dynamically changing and developing world; 5) the adoption and development of the social role of the student, the development of motives for educational activities and the formation of the personal meaning of learning ” (Federal State Educational Standard).
Confirmation of the state importance of patriotic education is the Law on the Education of the Russian Federation. The Law on Education focuses on the education of students as “not only a competent but also a cultural member of society, which takes care of the historical heritage, natural wealth and social values” (Federal State Educational Standard). In this context, the words of the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin in the program article “Russia is the national question that the mission of education is “to give everyone that mandatory amount of humanitarian knowledge that forms the basis of self-identity.” On this basis, the development of the value foundations of life and activities in it among students, in particular among younger schoolchildren, takes place. The development of emotional-volitional qualities contributes to the socialization of the child in the modern world, where values and meanings are life guidelines. Hence, the determination of the dominant values of modern professional and pedagogical education becomes an important task. Of great importance are the traditional spiritual values of the peoples of Russia and the historically established humanistic orientation of pedagogical activity. In this regard, “understanding of the value of the sociocultural mission of the teacher (educational work) is of particular importance; the acquisition of skills to create a socially safe and conflict-free environment of the student (linguistic, mental) and pedagogical organization of leisure activities of students” (Morova et al., 2015, p. 183). Thus, the teacher forms value-semantic competencies in children, appealing to his own.
Patriotic education is a tool for the formation of the value-semantic competence of students. Patriotic education involves the development of methods and forms of events aimed, firstly, at the formation of value-semantic competence of younger students and, secondly, at providing methodological support to teachers in the formation of this competence of younger students.
An analysis of the historical and pedagogical domestic and foreign literature on this problem showed that the problem of patriotic education was a problem of scientific research at the theoretical and practical levels of many scientists from different countries in different historical periods. This problem is also covered in the works of modern scientists (Alexandrov et al., 2012; Khutorskoy, 2003; Slonevskaya, 2008). However, it should be noted that the questions of patriotic education are not sufficiently covered in the scientific and pedagogical literature (Bezrogov, 2012; Kuznetsova et al., 2015; Schurkova, 2005). These questions are connected with many contradictions between the modern requirements of society, educational standards, and insufficient theoretical and methodological elaboration in the conditions of the modern school system. Teachers do not always understand the essence of the value-semantic competence of a younger student. They do not always represent how patriotic upbringing can be considered as the most critical factor and tool for the formation of the value-semantic competence of a student. They do not always know all the modern methods for solving this problem.
The previous allows highlighting the research problem: are teachers theoretically and practically knowledgeable about the technologies of patriotic education, considering it as an active factor and a tool for the formation of value-semantic competence in younger students.
The introduction of the Federal State Standard of General Primary Education into the general education system outlined the competency-based approach as the technological basis of education in the aggregate of children's education and upbringing. The role of a comfortable, educational environment is being updated here. The patriotic orientation of the educational environment contributes to the development and appropriation by students of those values that form an active and thinking personality, capable of choosing an educational trajectory, filling it with life meaning.
Value-semantic competence is a pedagogical phenomenon, which is considered from the perspective of philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy. So, the ancient Greek philosophers saw virtue in real value. The German philosophers considered everything that makes sense and what one should strive for, that is, life, to be felt – in all this, the value-semantic characteristic of value is felt. Of particular interest is the philosophical approach of Rickert (1998), who believed that "values do not represent reality, neither physical nor mental. Their essence lies in their significance, and not in their factuality" (p. 35). These circumstances determine the significance of the value, in terms of its semantic characteristics.
Thus, the subject of this study is focused on the identification and scientific justification of the contingency and mutual conditionality of the patriotic education of younger students and the formation of value-semantic competence in a single problem field.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is the scientific justification of technological support for the formation of the value-semantic competence of elementary schoolchildren taking into account an essential factor - patriotic education. Patriotic education is an essential factor and a tool for the formation of value-semantic competence of younger students. The dominant components of the competence of primary schoolchildren are ideological and personally significant qualities.
From this comes the solution of educational problems in the unity of training and education, directing the student's personality to develop personal and socially significant value attitudes, relationships, decision-making methods based on the developed emotional-volitional sphere.
For problem-solving, the following methods were used:
a theoretical analysis of socio-cultural, patriotic, psychological and pedagogical, socio-pedagogical, methodical literature on the problem under study;
study and analysis of advanced pedagogical experience in the system of patriotic education of the younger generation;
sociological and pedagogical measurements: observation, questioning, interviewing, diagnosing, interviewing, introspection, self-esteem,
sociometric methods, analysis of pedagogical activity on patriotic education,
diagnostic conversations, discussions;
methods for collecting empirical information, testing, statistical analysis of the results of the study, tabular interpretations of the data obtained, a qualitative analysis of experimental work.
The solution to the problem of the formation of value-semantic competence of primary schoolchildren of students is based on the following approaches: axiological, determining fundamental values for primary schoolchildren; competence as a determinant of characteristic features of the basic concept of "value-semantic competence." Based on these approaches, it became possible to consider the research problem from the value orientations of the personality of students, their meaning-forming principles.
The main methods in the study identified the following: theoretical analysis of the philosophical (disclosure of the basic concepts of research in a broad philosophical and cultural aspect), psychological and pedagogical (substantiation of theoretical and practical provisions of the competency-based approach, determination of the component composition of the value-semantic competences of students) literature, state documents in the field of education; empirical observation and analysis of the results of the educational process, a survey of teachers, conversations with teachers and students, a pedagogical experiment.
To achieve the goal of our study, we surveyed teachers of elementary school № 22 of the city of Cheboksary of the Chuvash Republic. The questionnaire was compiled, taking into account the understanding of the mechanism of the formation of value-semantic competence through the motivational, cognitive, and activity components of the patriotic education of younger students.
The questionnaire took into account the features of the diagnostic study of the level of theoretical and practical awareness in the matter of patriotic education as a tool for the formation of value-semantic competence of younger students. Teachers were asked to answer and give complete, detailed answers to the following questions of the questionnaire:
Who is a patriot?
What do you mean by patriotic education?
How is the patriotic education of your students expressed?
How often do you talk about patriotism in your class?
What events are held in your class to educate patriotic feelings, as the basis for the formation of value-semantic competence?
Are elementary schoolchildren actively participating in events of a patriotic nature? Rate their activity on a five-point scale.
Do the students' parents in your classwork on the upbringing of patriotism as the basis of the value-semantic competence of younger students? Rate their activity on a five-point scale.
Are you in direct contact with the parents of your class students on the issues of education of patriotism as the basis for the formation of the value-semantic competence of younger students?
Do you feel the need to increase knowledge in issues of modern methods of patriotic education as a tool for the formation of value-semantic competence to increase the efficiency of your work?
Would you like to have ready-made development of programs – algorithms for the formation of value-semantic competence through patriotic education?
The questionnaire was attended by 16 teachers – class teachers in primary classes.
After analyzing the questionnaires, we found that for the bulk of the respondents – 15 people, the meaning of the word "patriot" is fully understood: "this is a person who loves his homeland, knows its history and traditions." Two respondents added, "that he is a person who is ready to do great things in the name of his homeland." By patriotic upbringing, ten people mean "a willingness to happen to their homeland, honoring its customs and traditions, respecting the multinational culture." Four respondents consider that patriotic upbringing is "a polite attitude to elders, to their country, government." Two respondents do not fully understand the term "patriotic upbringing." To the third question, ten respondents answered that patriotic upbringing is not expressed at all in their wards, linking this with the fact that it is not yet sufficiently expressed. Six people noted that patriotic upbringing is expressed in a strong desire to participate in events, contests, and olympiads, for example, "Review of the system and songs," which takes place annually, as part of the week of memory at school № 22. All respondents noted that they often talk with their students about patriotism, listing a sufficient number of activities aimed at patriotic education, as the basis for the formation of value-semantic competence of younger students. The majority of respondents (12 people) in response to the question, "Do the parents of your class's students work on the upbringing of patriotism as the basis of the value-semantic competence of younger students?" The answer, "I do not know." Only four respondents gave a definite answer. To the question of communication with parents in matters of patriotic education as the formation of value-semantic competence of primary schoolchildren, eleven respondents answered negatively. This answer indicates that not all teachers and parents pay due attention to the issue of patriotic education as the basis for the formation of value-semantic competence of younger students. The majority of respondents answered positively (13 people) to the penultimate question of the questionnaire, which indicates that teachers have insufficient, as they would like, level of preparedness in theoretical and practical questions on the education of patriotism. To the tenth, last question of the questionnaire, all teachers unanimously answered that they would like to have a program as an algorithm for the formation of the value-semantic competence of patriotic education as an instrument for the formation of this competency. The results of the study can be visualized in the form of a Table (Table
Based on the data obtained from the empirical part of the study, we can conclude that teachers do not fully understand the technological component of the patriotic education of younger students. Nevertheless, patriotic education is an essential factor in the formation of value-semantic competence in a new school. This circumstance determines the development of program-algorithms for the formation of value-semantic competence of elementary schoolchildren for primary school teachers.
The problem solution of the formation of value-semantic competence in elementary school children based on patriotic education is considered from the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of general primary education. The Federal State Educational Standard defines patriotic education as the target guide for the education of students as a cultural member of society, which takes care of the historical heritage and social values. This provision determines the target guidelines, content, spiritual, and moral characteristics of the value-semantic competence of younger students. In the process of forming value-semantic competence, the formation of the personality, its intellectual and spiritual development takes place.
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