Social And Pedagogical Rehabilitation Of Adolescents With Deviant Behavior

Abstract

The article presents the strategies that make a significant contribution to the expansion of ideas about social work with regards to adolescents with deviant behavior. In particular, the theoretical, methodological and technological foundations of the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior as social work technologies have been developed and presented. The purpose of the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in the conditions of special boarding educational institutions is to form their social and personal viability as an individual and personal resource, ensuring the return of adolescents to society and their successful further socialization. The concept of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior is frequently covered in psychological and pedagogical research. At the same time, the unsystematic variability and incomparability of the definitions of this concept, as well as the lack of a generic connection with the existing pedagogical terminology, turn the real pedagogical phenomenon “socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” into the irrationality generated by the theoretical reasoning of individual researchers. The reason lies in the ignorance of logical rules when defining the concepts. In particular, all the above definitions are implicit and intense In the study, the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior as a technique of social work is a specially organized educational process of forming the social and personal viability of such adolescent, which will result in changes in the value-semantic sphere of an individual as a necessary condition for returning to society and their further successful socialization.

Keywords: Rehabilitationsocial and educational rehabilitationsocial workvitality

Introduction

In our country, socio-economic transformations, having a negative impact on the younger generation in the presence of positive trends, which is manifested in the growth of deviant behavior in the teenage environment, are taking place. Adolescents are most sensitive to social instability. A teenager is at a special stage of the formation of the most important traits and qualities (Lavrentieva, 2014; Volov, 2014).

According to scientists, factors resulting in the inability to adapt them to specific conditions are the causes of the deviant behavior of adolescents. Researchers also come to the conclusion that the personal qualities of deviant adolescents develop as a result of adverse conditions of family education, difficulties in fulfilling their social role (Kleiberg et al., 2014; Litvishnikov & Mitkina, 2004). Researches show that the development of asocial behavior of the juvenile is influenced by a whole group of factors rather than a single one. The reaction of the juvenile incapable of positive resolving the frustrating situations gradually becomes more and more negatively active under the prolonged influence of several negative factors. An antisocial person, for whom behavioral deviation becomes a distinctive characterological feature is being gradually developed (Almazov, 2000).

Analysis of domestic and foreign psychological, pedagogical and sociological studies covering the causes of adolescent deviant behavior and the corresponding methods of prevention and overcoming destructive forms of behavior showed that the essential features of adolescent deviant behavior and the prevention system of these forms of behavior are due to the socio-cultural development of a particular society. One of the reasons for interpreting the unexpected behavior of the younger generation as deviant is the increasing socio-cultural requirements for the personal development of children and adolescents (Kosabutskaya, 2017; Maddi, 2005; Rutter, 2007; Sameroff & Rosenblum, 2006; Volov, 2008).

Problem Statement

The present stage of our country development necessitate the solution of the key tasks of designing a comprehensive rehabilitation and educational support for adolescents who are in a socially dangerous position (at risk of illegal behavior and in conflict with the law), in line with the principles and tasks presented in the National Strategy in the interests of children in the Russian Federation for 2012–2017, approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of June 1, 2012, the Concept for the Development of the System for the Prevention of Crimes committed by the juvenile for the period until 2020 and the Action Plan for 2016–2020 for its implementation, approved by order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated March 22, 2017 No. 520-p. The general goal of all these documents is to form a system that ensures rehabilitation assistance to every adolescent with deviant behavior through new modern forms and methods of working with him/her, which will also help overcome their social exclusion and will contribute to social rehabilitation and full integration into society.

Currently, there are a lot of domestic psychological and pedagogical studies classifying the deviant behavior of adolescents (Hagurov, 2006; Kleiberg et al., 2014; Ushatikov, 2002). Analysis of the outcomes of a longitudinal study of the pupils studying in special boarding educational institutions enabled to highlight the generalized characteristics of the passive and active deviant behavior of adolescents, which is as follows: passive deviant behavior is the behavior that deviates from moral norms and rules of life and manifests itself in various forms of rejecting the existing social reality; active deviant behavior is the behavior that does not comply with legal standards and threatens the social order, health and well-being of people around.

In this regard, during the course of rehabilitation in special boarding educational institutions for adolescents with deviant behavior, it is necessary to form personal qualities that will allow them not only to cope with difficulties, but also help to develop positively in the future (Makhnach & Laktionova, 2013). Analysis of the psychological and pedagogical literature on the problem stated in the study has led to the conclusion that it is necessary to form socially-personal viability in adolescents with deviant behavior as a fundamental condition for their successful socio-pedagogical rehabilitation.

Research Questions

The concept of “rehabilitation” is widely used in the interdisciplinary space of various sciences (psychology, pedagogy, medicine, law, sociology).

Currently, the aspect of humanistic pedagogy contains a number of conceptual approaches to the problem of rehabilitation of maladaptive children and adolescents called an anthropological approach (Almazov, 2000; Volov, 2008), which is based on the axiom that the criminal behavior of the juvenile indicates serious problems in their psychological health. Therefore, adolescents with deviant behavior require a special medical, psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation environment; socio-pedagogical approach (Kleiberg et al., 2014; Kosabutskaya, 2017), which considers the deviant behavior of the juvenile as a natural socio-pedagogical phenomenon, reflecting the totality of unlawful acts committed by the juvenile under the influence of personality deformations, socialization disorders, influence of a criminal community in the absence of an effective pedagogical effect on the identity of the juvenile. Therefore, the rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior is interaction with a positive social environment; corrective approach (Lavrentieva, 2014; Sinyagina et al., 2001), which justifies the need for individual psychotherapeutic assistance and psychological and pedagogical correction as the essential content of rehabilitation of adolescent with deviant behavior; a personality-oriented approach (Pakhmutova et al., 2019), which considers the personality of adolescents with deviant behavior as a set of socially significant negative properties formed in the process of diverse and systematic interactions with other people. In this regard, including a teenager with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior in an active socially oriented group interaction with a healthy children’s team and simultaneous formation of reflective self-awareness is the idea of rehabilitation.

Purpose of the Study

Various definitions of the concepts “pedagogical rehabilitation”, “psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation”, “social rehabilitation” and “social and pedagogical rehabilitation” are given within the framework of these approaches. We need to analyze various definitions of the concept of rehabilitation in order to determine the essential characteristics of the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior as social work technique.

Researchers consider pedagogical rehabilitation as a process of reconstructing a person for active self-healing, positive self-change and self-development presented in the studies (Almazov, 2000; Kosabutskaya, 2017).

Researchers consider the social rehabilitation of children and adolescents as a process that ensures restoration of disturbed social ties and relationships, social qualities and skills through their inclusion in various activities covered in studies (Lavrentieva, 2014; Stepanov, 2004). Social rehabilitation of the juvenile with deviant behavior means the formation and recovery of the following aspects:

  • social qualities (social integration, social adaptability, competitiveness in life, tolerance, motivation for change, psycho-emotional state);

  • social skills (self-service skills, labor and educational skills, communicative competence, self-control, normative behavior);

  • social relations (relations in the family, relations with teachers and educators, relations with peers, social-status relations, attitude towards oneself (self-esteem);

  • the normative state of the social environment (general state of the social environment, the state of the family environment, the state of the school environment) (Kleiberg et al., 2014).

Let us consider the definitions of the term “socio-pedagogical rehabilitation” that are most frequently found in psychological and pedagogical literature. Specifically, they are as follows: socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of neglected adolescents is the process of restoring a teenager as an active social subject and a subject of formative activity, the formation of the child’s personal qualities, their active life position, and self-service skills , rules of conduct in society, interest in obtaining education (Tarkhanova, 2005); social and pedagogical rehabilitation is a social process which ensures that an individual’s behavior complies with the requirements set by society, reflected in social norms, laws and rules of social dormitory, the development of an active life position, assimilation of socially useful roles, realization of the social status of a citizen and the role behavior associated with it as a form of realizing individual personality capabilities in a microenvironment (group, work collective) (Tishchenko, 2007) social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescent delinquent behavior is a purposeful process and the result of restoring the social status of a minor offender based on changes in their personal and social positions by including him in various types of educational and labor activities in a special educational institution (Galaguzova & Moskvina, 2016).

Research Methods

Thus, we can confidently state that the concept of “social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” is actively used in pedagogical and psychological research. At the same time, the unsystematic variability and incomparability of the above definitions of “socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” as well as the lack of a generic relationship with the established pedagogical terminology turn the real pedagogical phenomenon “socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” into the irrationality generated by theoretical reasoning of individual researchers. In our opinion, the reason lies in the non-compliance with logical rules in the definition of concepts (Borytko, 2001; Kraevsky, 2006; Naumenko, 2013; Novikov, 2013; Zagvyazinsky, 2015). In particular, all the above definitions are implicit and intense. Therefore, they are judgments about the essence (content) of the phenomenon under consideration (Naumenko, 2008).

However, the specifics of social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior as a technique of social work depends on many factors. First of all, it is the specifics of the facility in relation to which it is carried out, and the specifics of the institution (Galaguzova & Moskvina, 2016).

In this regard, taking into account that we consider socio-pedagogical rehabilitation in the conditions of special boarding educational institutions, and the objects of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation are adolescents with deviant behavior, we offer the following definition of this concept through a generic difference, due to which it will become not only explicit, but will also be integrated into the existing system of pedagogical definitions.

The socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in a special boarding educational institutions is a specially organized educational process of forming the social and personal viability of adolescent with deviant behavior, which will result in changes in the value-semantic sphere of an individual (adoption of socio-cultural norms, rules of life and formation of readiness for the manifestation of social and personal viability in various situations of everyday life activity) as a necessary condition for returning to society and further successful socialization.

Findings

Considering the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior as a technique of social work, it is necessary to highlight the stages of this technique. We distinguish the following main stages: theoretical, methodological and procedural. The technique of social work should in the first instance meet the following requirements: conceptuality (scientific); a diagnostic goal; algorithmization of actions.

Thus, the goal of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior is the formation of their socio-personal viability (adoption of socio-cultural norms, rules of life and adolescents’ willingness to manifest socio-personal viability in various situations of everyday life) as a necessary condition for returning to society and further successful socialization.

Therefore, the tasks of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior aimed to form the social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior are to develop the following:

  • a socially oriented and positively developing personality meaning-and-life attitudes;

  • a stable and conscious motivated involvement in the development of individual subjectivity in accordance with the meaning of life;

  • adolescents’ readiness for the manifestation of social and personal viability in various situations of everyday life.

The methodological stage of the technique is based on a combination of methods and pedagogical tools, the use of which allows us to achieve our goal. In particular, we consider the rehabilitative and educational situation being a specially planned event-oriented personal and affirming situation that affects the vital interests of an adolescent and forces him/her to harmonize their social and personal viability as the main means of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior.

The procedural stage of the technique of social work being social and pedagogical rehabilitation for deviant adolescents is based on a comprehensive program of social and pedagogical rehabilitation of students in the following areas: patriotic education, legal education, family education, labor education, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, artistic and aesthetic education. For each area, the expected changes in the components of the social and personal viability of the pupils at the stages of the program implementation were described. The general collective and group activities proposed in each area were reformatted as rehabilitation and educational situations of a certain type. Also, together with the socio-psychological service of special boarding educational institutions, a program of individual psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of life was developed.

The conditions for implementing the technique of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of deviant adolescents include the following:

  • psychological and pedagogical readiness of teaching staff for the formation of social and personal viability in adolescents with deviant behavior;

  • individual psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of life;

  • comprehensive multi-factorial monitoring of social and personal viability development via proprietary and standardized techniques;

  • post-boarding support for graduates of special boarding educational institutions.

Thus, together with the faculty of the Adygea State University, training courses were organized for the teaching staff of the Maikop special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior. As a result of the courses, teachers of the educational institution passed testing and defended abstracts reflecting the specifics of individual professional activity in developing the social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior as the goal of their social and pedagogical rehabilitation.

In the process of research, a program of individual psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life was developed. The purpose of the program was to improve the efficiency of social and personal viability development among the students with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of life through individual psychological and pedagogical support in social and personal viability.

The main objectives of the program are the following:

  • to organize individual diagnostic and correctional development work;

  • to provide conditions for creating foundations of normative socially approved behavior and overcoming criminal attitudes;

  • to stimulate the development of self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-regulation and self-correction based on socially-oriented meaning-life attitudes;

  • to assist in solving urgent tasks of interpersonal relations development, training and socialization and normalization, improvement of individual emotional state;

  • to prevent the possible disruptions and negative phenomena in the process of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation.

The following forms of the program were implemented: psychological and pedagogical diagnostics; modeling of life situations requiring a teenager to make a decision; role-playing behavior based on socially-oriented meaning-life attitudes; conversations.

Program implementation principles include the following:

  • reliance on preserved or emerging positive qualities of a teenager’s personality with a negative attitude to social and cultural rules and standards of life, creating situations of social success and approval;

  • engaging a teenager with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life in significant socially useful activities;

  • engaging a teenager with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life in cooperative activities requiring self-regulation, self-government, self-control and self-discipline;

  • actualization of self-knowledge, self-esteem and self-correction based on socially-oriented meaning-life attitudes.

Taking into account the fact that one of the conditions for the effectiveness of the process of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in special boarding educational institutions is a complex and multifactor monitoring of the social and personal viability development using proprietary technologies and standardized methods, which is necessary for a qualitative assessment of the dynamics of changes in the criteria of social and personal viability teenagers with deviant behavior.

Post-boarding support for graduates of special boarding educational institutions includes the following:

  • advisory and methodological assistance in interdepartmental interaction on the issues of post-boarding support for adolescents who are the graduates of special boarding educational institutions;

  • holding cooperative seminars and meetings while preparing adolescents for the graduation from special boarding educational institutions (at least two times a year) and during the year after graduation (at least three times);

  • organizing open seminars and master classes by teachers of special boarding educational institutions.

The subjects of interdepartmental cooperation on the issues of post-boarding support for adolescents who are the graduates of special boarding educational institutions are as follows:

  • municipal commissions for the juveniles and protection of their rights;

  • municipal bodies of social protection;

  • municipal authorities managing education, and general educational organizations or organizations of primary vocational education, in which a teenager will continue his/her studies;

  • municipal authorities of guardianship;

  • municipal youth affairs bodies;

  • juvenile units of the municipal police departments;

  • institutions that carry out specific functions for the prevention of child neglect and juvenile delinquency created by these bodies.

Conclusion

Thus, in the process of the study, the pedagogical essence of the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior was clarified in the conditions of special boarding educational institutions as an educational process of forming the social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior. Social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in special boarding educational institutions is social and personal viability development of adolescents with deviant behavior (adoption of socio-cultural norms, rules of life and adolescents’ willingness to manifest social and personal viability in various situations of everyday life) as a necessary condition for returning to society and further successful socialization.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.117

Online ISSN

2357-1330