Social And Pedagogical Rehabilitation Of Adolescents With Deviant Behaviour As Social Work

Abstract

The essential characteristic of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations is examined. The following structural components are determined: existential, emotional-behavioral, motivational-volitional. The levels of forming social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior are highlighted. Specifically, these are the level of negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life, the level of neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life; the level of incomplete (partial) adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life. Criteria and indicators of forming social and personal viability of deviant adolescents in the process of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation are identified. The results of testing the structural-functional model for implementing the concept of forming social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior, which included two stages of the pedagogical experiment (ascertaining and formative) and was carried out in special boarding educational institutions, are also presented. The formative stage of the pedagogical experiment included three stages. At the first stage of the experiment, the task of forming socially oriented and positively developing personality meaning-and-life attitudes in adolescents with deviant behavior was solved. At the second stage of the experiment, the task of forming adolescents’ readiness to manifest social and personal viability in various real situations of everyday life was solved. At the third stage of the experiment, the problem of forming the experience of implementing the social and personal viability of adolescents in various situations of everyday life was resolved.

Keywords: Social and personal vitalityspecial boarding educational institutionsadolescents with deviant behaviour

Introduction

In our country, the leading place among the social institutions involved in the rehabilitation and correction of the deviant behavior of adolescents is occupied by special boarding educational institutions. The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation is orienting special boarding educational institutions to the priority of rehabilitation measures aimed to re-evaluate negative social attitudes by adolescents with a view to their successful socialization in the post-boarding period. At the same time, the problem of unpreparedness of adolescents with deviant behavior for independent life activity in society remains relevant. The traditional practice of re-educating adolescents with deviant behavior in special boarding educational institutions does not guarantee that most graduates of such institutions will not demonstrate various forms of recidivism after taking a rehabilitation course (Paatova & Pakhmutova, 2018).

Social adaptation of the students of special boarding educational institutions is possible only with deep personal changes as a result of their socio-pedagogical rehabilitation, which should be directed to a humanistic paradigm. The latter is most effectively manifested in the formation of adolescent social and personal viability skills.

A large number of works have been devoted to the problems of children and adolescents’ rehabilitation (Gordeeva, 2005; Ushakova, 2010; Tarkhanova, 2005; Tishchenko, 2007; Rean, 2018a). At the same time, the majority of educators, researchers and methodologists note that the system-forming factor of any pedagogical process is its objective considered as a multi-level phenomenon (Slastenin et al., 2002). According to the proposed definition, the objective of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational institutions is to form social and personal viability of adolescent with deviant behavior as a necessary condition for their return to society and further successful socialization.

Problem Statement

By socio-personal viability as a person, we mean an integrative personal quality that characterizes the individual’s readiness for self-determination (moral, personal, social, professional) in the projected life scenario, also the willingness to manage (modify) this scenario and bear responsibility for the results of the decisions concerning self-determination in life.

When determining the structure of socio-personal viability we used the results of Laktionova (2013) and Makhnach (2016) for describing the hierarchical structure of human vitality in interconnection (integration) with personality resources (self-regulation, behavior control, coping behavior, psychological defense mechanisms, motivation for achievements and communicative features). The hierarchical structure of social and personal viability can be represented as follows: a) the system-forming element is existential; b) integrated elements are subordinate to it (emotional-behavioral and motivational-volitional element).

Based on the research of Naumenko (2008, 2013), Makhnach (2006), Nesterova (2015), Rylskaya (2009) the criteria and indicators of forming social and personal vitality of adolescents with deviant behavior in the process of social and pedagogical rehabilitation, namely: the existential component (socially oriented and positively developing a personality, meaning-and-life attitudes), the emotional-behavioral component (positive attitude towards other people and oneself, adoption of socio-cultural norms, values, laws and willingness to reconsider the meaning of their existence in accordance with them), motivational and volitional component (steady and conscious motivation for long-term efforts (practically throughout life) aimed to change oneself with the objective to achieve personal well-being in accordance with the conscious and accepted socio-cultural values and norms) were defined.

Research Questions

In psychological and pedagogical research, a great attention has been paid to the problem of identifying the levels of forming personal qualities (Rean, 2018b). Within the framework of our problem to determine the levels of social and personal viability formation, we relied on the ideas of the Volgograd school of a system-holistic approach to the level structure of pedagogical phenomena (Borytko, 2011; Sergeev, 2007; Serikov, 2017):

  • any pedagogical phenomenon remains integral, despite the differentiation by the levels of manifestation;

  • each level of manifestation of a pedagogical phenomenon is a certain stage that has its own qualitative features distinguishing them from others in general (common indicators);

  • the development of a pedagogical phenomenon implies a sequential change in qualitative states (levels);

  • the formation of components of a higher level and their high-quality development is impossible without a complete holistic development of previous levels.

In the process of analyzing works on vitality devoted to various levels of its manifestation (Guryanova, 2016; Rylskaya, 2009; Makhnach, 2016), the following four levels of social and personal vitality formation were identified: 1) negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and living standards; 2) neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life; 3) incomplete (partial) adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life; 4) adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life. We suggest describing the proposed levels of social and personal viability via the following indicators: theology - causality; general level of meaningfulness; correlation of value and consumer orientation; temporary localization.

The level of negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life includes the following:

  • the existential component being a negative attitude towards all social life-oriented attitudes, without exception, since, according to an individual, they impede the achievement of personal well-being;

  • emotional-behavioral component is manifested in all life situations, behavior is determined by satisfying two life needs (security and personal gain);

  • motivational-volitional component denotes that the motivation to achieve material personal well-being is stable and is not associated with long-term self-improvement. Attempts to change oneself (one’s behavior) in accordance with the situation are short-term and possible under the condition of guaranteed quick personal gain.

The level of neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life includes the following components:

  • existential component recognizes socially oriented life-purpose attitudes in other people. Moreover, a conviction has been formed that in some situations it is “useful” to justify one’s behavior and actions based on socio-cultural norms and rules;

  • emotional-behavioral component implies that along with security and personal gain, behavior is also determined by the desire to achieve personal goals with the least loss for themselves. If necessary (a threat to personal safety or a guarantee of personal gain), behavior can be adjusted in accordance with socio-cultural norms and rules;

  • motivational-volitional component connotes that the impetus to achieve material personal well-being is stable and involves efforts to change oneself in accordance with certain socio-cultural norms, subject to a guaranteed and long-term personal well-being.

The level of incomplete (partial) adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life includes these components:

  • existential component implicates that the life activity of a person in most life situations is determined by socially oriented meaning-and-life attitudes (especially if these situations affect close people). However, there is simultaneously a belief that in some situations a deviation from socio-cultural norms and rules is possible (especially if the conviction is only moral) for achieving personal and/or group (family) well-being;

  • emotional-behavioral component connotes that the behavior within a group of close people is completely determined by socio-cultural norms and rules. In most situations behavior in relation to surrounding people is also amenable to being monitored by socio-cultural norms and rules. The duration of socially acceptable behavior is determined by the security and well-being of the loved ones. If there is a threat to the safety of personal and/or loved ones, as well as when it is possible to achieve personal and/or group well-being, behavior can be adjusted but not always in accordance with socio-cultural norms and rules;

  • motivational-volitional component implies that the motivation to achieve the well-being of the loved ones is stable and involves certain efforts to change oneself in accordance with the existing socio-cultural norms, subject to guaranteed success;

The level of adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life implies the following:

  • existential component alludes a happy and prosperous life considered as the result of socially oriented life-purpose attitudes. Situations in which a person is forced to deviate from socio-cultural norms and rules are perceived negatively and as exceptions to the general rule;

  • emotional-behavioral component infers that a teenager has a positive attitude towards himself/herself and other people, is able to control their behavior in accordance with the existing sociocultural norms and rules of life, to plan life according to their own life scenario and to manage this scenario as well, to show positive self-criticism concerning the life and its results;

  • motivational-volitional component connotes sustainable and conscious motivation for long-term efforts to change oneself with the objective to achieve personal well-being in accordance with the conscious and accepted existing socio-cultural values and norms.

Purpose of the Study

The approbation of the developed structural-functional model for implementing the concept of forming social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior included two stages of the pedagogical experiment (ascertaining and formative) and was carried out in special boarding educational institutions of Maykop (Republic of Adygea) and a number of Russian cities (more than 500 participants).

In the process of experimental work, two groups of respondents were formed. Specifically, these are as follows: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The experimental group included the pupils of the FSBEI of the Maykop special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior (Republic of Adygea, Maykop) and consisted of 249 respondents. The control group included the pupils of the FSBEI of the Shchekino special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior (Tula region) and consisted of 242 respondents.

To assess the social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior, a questionnaire on the “Social and personal viability of adolescents” was developed. In addition, a number of standardized methods were used.

At the stage of the ascertaining experiment, the empirical basis of our study was formed by the following institutions: FGBPOU “Maikop special boarding educational institution for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior” (Republic of Adygea), FGBPOU “Neman special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior” (Kaliningrad Oblast) (Neman), FGBPOU “Reftinsky special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (social dangerous) behavior no. 1” (Sverdlovsk region) (Reftensky), FGBPOU “Shchekino special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior” (Tula region) (Pervomaisky). The teachers of these institutions conducted a mass study of pupils in order to distribute them according to the levels of social and personal viability.

Research Methods

Analysing the outcomes of the pupils’ distribution in special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant (socially dangerous) behaviour by the levels of social and personal viability formation enables to draw the following conclusions:

  • the quality of forming social and personal viability among pupils of various special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant behavior is comparable (approximately the same level);

  • there are no teenagers with deviant behavior who accept social and cultural norms and rules of life (level 4 of social and personal vitality formation) among the pupils of all special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant behavior;

  • the largest group in all special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant behavior is represented by pupils with a neutral adaptive attitude to social and cultural rules and standards of life (level 2 of social and personal vitality formation);

  • the second largest group in all special boarding educational institutions for students with deviant behavior included pupils with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of life (level 1 of social and personal viability formation);

  • the percentage of pupils with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of living and pupils with a neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and standards of life corresponds to the percentage of teenagers with deviant behavior who do not associate themselves with personalities able to affect the course of their lives and change your destiny;

  • the percentage of adolescents with an active form of deviant behavior coincides with the percentage of pupils with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life;

  • the percentage ratio of adolescents with a passive form of deviant behavior coincides with a neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life, incomplete (partial) adoption of socio-cultural norms and rules of life

Findings

Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the pupils of special boarding educational institutions, after being in the institution temporary, return to the society, to the socio-cultural conditions of their existence from which they were removed once. Therefore, the formation of their readiness for manifesting social and personal viability in various real situations of everyday life is a necessary condition for their non-return to the criminal environment.

The experiment devoted to the abovementioned qualities development included three stages, specifically, the stage of re-evaluating life-meaning attitudes by adolescents with deviant behavior; the stage of developing practical skills for implementing socially-oriented life-sentiment attitudes; the stage of forming readiness for positive changes in an open society.

At the first stage of the forming experiment, the task of forming adolescents with deviant behavior of socially oriented and positively developing personality life-purpose attitudes was solved. According to the results of the first stage of the forming experiment, the following statistically significant differences were found (p <0.05): in the EG there were fewer adolescents at the level of negative acceptance of sociocultural norms and rules of life compared with adolescents in the CG (EG – 22.7 %, CG – 55.2 %); there were more adolescents in the EG at the level of a neutral adaptive attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life, compared with adolescents in the CG (EG – 50.7 %, CG – 32.7 %).

At the second stage of the forming experiment, the task of forming adolescents’ readiness for manifesting social and personal viability in various real situations of everyday life was solved. According to the study outcomes, the following statistically significant differences were found in the control and experimental groups (p <0.05), there was a significant positive redistribution of adolescents according to the level of formation of social and personal viability (from negative to neutrally adaptive and partial adoption of social and cultural rules and norms of life). In the EG, the formation of social and personal viability was more effective than in the control group: in the EG the number of respondents decreased statistically and significantly at the level of negative attitude to sociocultural rules and standards of life (EG – 10.9 %, and CG – 26.2 %); in the EG there were adolescents adopting social and cultural rules and norms of life (EG – 2.7 %). According to the results of the second stage, the presence of adolescents with a negative attitude to socio-cultural rules and norms of life confirms the need for individual psychological and pedagogical support of such adolescents.

At the third stage of the forming experiment, the problem of forming the experience of implementing the social and personal viability of adolescents in various situations of everyday life was solved. According to the results of the third stage of the forming experiment, the following statistically significant differences were found (p <0.05): in the EG there were fewer adolescents at the level of negative adoption of sociocultural norms and rules of life as compared with adolescents in the CG (EG – 7.3 % and CG – 28, 3 %); in the EG there were more adolescents at the level of incomplete (partial) adoption of sociocultural norms and rules of life as compared with adolescents in the CG (EG – 49.3 % and CG – 27.5 %); in the EG, the number of adolescents increased at the level of adoption of sociocultural rules and norms of vital activity, and in the CG not a single adolescent appeared at this level (EG – 1 .1% and CG – 0 %).

According to the results of the experimental work, the following statistically significant differences were found (p <0.05) (table 3): 1) there were fewer adolescents in the EG at the level of negative acceptance of sociocultural norms and rules of life compared with adolescents in the CG; 2) there were more teenagers in the EG at the level of incomplete (partial) adoption of sociocultural norms and rules of life in comparison with pupils in the CG; 3) in the EG, the number of adolescents increased at the level of adopting sociocultural rules and standards of life, and in the CG not a single pupil appeared at this level.

When analyzing the results of experimental work, the following patterns for the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior were revealed: the level of social and personal viability (as an integrity cannot be higher than the level of formation of the existential component); social and personal viability is effectively formed at the level of neutral adaptive and partial adoption of social and cultural rules and norms of life, if the comparability of the levels of formation of existential and emotional-behavioral components is pedagogically ensured; social and personal viability is effectively formed at the level of adopting social and cultural rules and norms of vital activity if the comparability of the levels of forming existential and motivational-volitional components is pedagogically ensured.

Conclusion

Testing the developed structural-functional model for implementing the concept of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special boarding educational institutions has shown its effectiveness in comparison with the existing practice of educating adolescents with deviant behavior. The effectiveness of the results is confirmed by high quantitative and qualitative indicators of the pedagogical experiment, data on the implementation of research results in the educational practice of the region.

In the course of the study, the hypothesis was scientifically grounded, theoretically proved, experimentally verified and confirmed, all the tasks set in the work were solved; The results confirming the effectiveness of the study to solve the problem of designing the process of forming the social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special boarding educational institutions are obtained.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.116

Online ISSN

2357-1330