The problem of studying the personality-typological features of conscious self-regulation of aggression meets the practical needs in predicting the identified psychological patterns in the regulation of destructive forms of behavior. The purpose of the study is to identify the personal and typological features of conscious self-regulation of aggression. The hypothesis was the assumption that there are subgroups of people with sufficient similarity of personal dispositions, life values, the nature of aggressive manifestations, the formation of components of conscious self-regulation. The study was conducted on a sample of 300 Russian teachers. The results of factor analysis are presented. Based on the revealed factors, the entire sample was divided into three clusters according to the such exhibitions of aggressive behavior conscious self-regulation as: instability of regulatory processes, prescriptive regulation, and conscious regulation. The group 1 with instability of regulatory processes is characterized by average level of conscious self-regulation, and above to average level of spontaneous and reactive aggression. The predominance of prescriptive regulation in the group 2 is characterized by increased identification with social requirements, strict compliance with ethical standards in behavior and activities. The group 3 with predominance of conscious regulation is characterized by perceptible ability to arbitrary regulate their activity and the formation of regulatory processes that allow in a stressful situation to restrain open aggressive manifestations, sublimate them into other forms of activity. It is established that conscious self-regulation of aggression is mediated by life values system, individual psychological characteristics, and the formation of a conscious self-regulation system.
Keywords: Conscious self-regulationaggressiontypologylife valuespersonal dispositionspersonal typological features
The problem of aggressive behavior regulation and control is one of the most significant and relevant issues of concern to both the individual and society as a whole. In theoretical models of self-regulation ( Carver & Scheier, 1998; Higgins et al., 2003), behavior, as a constant process of movement towards a goal, acts as a starting vital point and the goal of self-regulation ( Morosanova, 2003). Self-regulation, as a multi-level and dynamic system of processes, states and traits, acts as a tool for initiating, maintaining and controlling activity, with which a person coordinates their psychological resources for reducing uncertainty, adapting to the prevailing life conditions ( Morosanova, 2016). Conscious self-regulation is considered as a meta-resource that makes it possible to regulate destructive forms of activity based on the use of individual resources.
Responding to the needs of practice in solving problems of predicting the identified psychological patterns, in recent years, interest in the typological approach has intensified. The typological approach focusing on personal dispositions, regulatory, and motivational features is widely presented in scientific research ( Bergman et al., 2003; Ferguson & Hull, 2018; Lee et al., 2017; Lazarides et al., 2019; Mägi et al., 2016). The typological approach to the study of conscious self-regulation, which allows us to distinguish individual differences in mental self-regulation of arbitrary human activity, is reflected in the works of Morosanova and Fomina ( 2017), Morosanova and Bondarenko ( 2019). Within the framework of a differential approach to the study of conscious self-regulation, its stylistic features are presented, which allows us to more fully cover the entire spectrum of possible manifestations of individuality.
The presented approaches make a significant contribution to the development of the problem of self-regulation of behavior. However, there are no studies among them that would study the personality-typological features of conscious self-regulation of aggression. In this regard, it seems reasonable to conduct new research on the problem of conscious self-regulation of aggression.
Earlier studies identified and described general patterns of interaction between regulatory and personal (including motivational) features as resources for managing aggression ( Banshchikova et al., 2018; Banshchikova & Morosanova, 2015). In the presented study, the emphasis will be placed on the personality-typical manifestations of the identified patterns.
The integration of interdisciplinary research in the field of aggression has led to the need to expand understanding of psychological variables that explain the models of control, management and regulation of this form of human activity.
Evaluation of research on the problem of human aggression allows us to conclude: the interest of scientists is focused on the study of the genesis, structure, phenomenology, and socio-psychological determinations of aggression ( Ammon, 1995; Bass, 1963; Baron & Richardson, 2001; Enikolopov, 2018, Fields, 2019; Ilyin, 2014; Lorenz, 2017/1983; Nalchajian, 2007; Rean, 2018; Tackett & Krueger, 2011). The problem of regulation of aggressive behavior is characterized by insufficient knowledge ( Banshchikova et al., 2018; Morosanova & Garaleva, 2009; Ratinov & Sitkovskaya, 1989).
The indirect influence of individual features of conscious self-regulation on aggressive manifestations is presented in the works of Morosanova and Garaleva ( 2009), Morosanova and Banshchikova ( 2014). At the same time, personal and typological features of self-regulation of aggression need to be more scrutinised.
The presented study considered the following issues: first, are there latent variables that determine the relationship between the components of conscious self-regulation and aggression? Secondly, is it possible to empirically justify the typology of teachers by the parameter of self-regulation of aggression?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to identify the personal and typological features of conscious self-regulation of aggression.
The study was conducted on a sample of Russian teachers. The total number of respondents who participated in the experiment were 300 people.
The multi-scale survey "Style of self-regulation of behavior" (SSPM) was used to evaluate self-regulation peculiarities ( Morosanova & Bondarenko, 2015). This method allows us to determine the degree of conscious self-regulation development, the components of which are regulatory processes (planning, modeling, programming, evaluation of results), regulatory and personal traits (flexibility, independence) and the general level of self-regulation.
Aggression was assessed using the Buss-Durkee Inventory ( Buss & Durkee, 1957). This questionnaire is designed to determine the forms of aggression and personality traits of human aggressiveness.
The Freiburg multivariate personality questionnaire (FPI), form B, adapted for Russian sample ( Krylov & Manichev, 2003), was used to assess mental states and personality traits that are of primary importance in the regulation of behavior.
To study the individual value system of a person, in order to better understand the meaning of his activities and goings, the Morphological test of life values by Sopov and Karpushina ( 2001) was used (2001).
Mathematical and statistical data processing was performed using classical methods of mathematical analysis: k-means clustering, factor analysis using the method of main factors (iterated communalities, by Harman & Jones) with varimax normalized rotation.
At the first stage, latent variables were identified that most determine the variance of the initial parameters and specify the relationship between the components of conscious self-regulation and aggression (table
Factor analysis allowed identify 4 factors. The first factor – acute affective experiences – includes scales: emotional lability, spontaneous aggression, reactive aggression, depressiveness, irritability. This factor is showing signs increased excitability, irritability, frequent mood fluctuations, impulsive behavior, aggressive attitude to the environment, lack of self-regulation.
The second factor – aggression and aggressiveness – includes indicators of physical and verbal aggression and indicators of aggressiveness: negativism, resentment, suspicion, guilt, as well as the scale of the regulatory and personal indicator of conscious self-regulation – independence. Independence indicates autonomy, self-sufficiency in the personal activity organization. Physical and verbal aggression are caused by the expressed need to realize oneself in the current situation, in response to influences that contradict the inner personal meanings.
The third factor is bipolar. The poles of this factor are: life value – the preservation of the personal individuality (independence of their views, beliefs, their lifestyle, manifested in the desire to be original, to demonstrate their own life principles) and, on the other pole, personal disposition – femininity ― the flow of mental activity mainly according to stereotyped female type in eastern cultures: indecision, passivity, dependence, avoiding competition, compliance, acceptance of help and support. This scale was named – protection of uniqueness and independence.
The fourth factor was designated as self-regulation. It includes scales of conscious self-regulation: modeling, evaluation of results, flexibility. Sufficiently expressed indicators of the scales modeling, evaluation of results and flexibility indicate the ability to identify significant conditions for achieving goals, both in the current situation and in the long-term future, the stability of subjective criteria for evaluating results and regulatory flexibility.
Based on the selected factors, in order to find groups of similar objects, the cluster analysis method was applied. The entire sample was divided into groups (clusters) based on extracted latent variables represented by factors 1-4 (table
Obtained clusters are considered as a types of aggressive behavior conscious self-regulation. The first type is the instability of the regulatory processes. This type of respondents, in addition to high values of factor 1, acute affective experiences, is characterized by predominantly average conscious self-regulation level: modeling indicators (μ = - 0.112, μ is an arithmetic mean, calculated on mixed sample standardize values) and evaluation of results (μ = - 0.088). Even with low level of instrumental aggression, aggressive reactions (spontaneous aggression, reactive aggression) are possible in the presence of provocative actions. Expressed anxiety and depressiveness in the structure of individual typological characteristics of this type of teachers can be manifested as a kind of "regulator" of the level of aggression, and, at the same time, it is a factor that provokes the development of maladaptive mechanisms of interaction with others.
The second type is prescriptive regulation. 51.6 % of teachers are representatives of this type. Low level of factor 2, aggression and aggressiveness, indicates a lack of readiness for the direct manifestation of destructive tendencies in behavior. High demands on yourself, accuracy and order in business, actions and actions are determined by the requirements of the situation. Respect for moral norms and laws. High integrity is combined with high control and a desire to assert universal values. Moderately low values of the self-regulation, factor 4 (μ = - 0.576) suggest that such teachers often have difficulties in defining goals and programs of action, they do not always notice changes in the situation, do not notice their mistakes, and are not critical of their actions. In such situations, the regulator is a willingness to comply with group norms, strictly follow the rules, adhere to traditions and established norms.
The third type – conscious regulation, is characterized by an adequate ability to self-regulate arbitrary activity, factor 4, (μ = 0.577). The respondents who formed this group are distinguished by their individual psychological characteristics by their richness, flexibility and versatility of mind, ease in interpersonal relationships, confidence in their resources, and readiness to follow norms and requirements. Indicators of aggression and aggressiveness are close to average values. In communication, they may show tactlessness, sharpness, but others perceive it as directness and frankness. The formed ability to identify significant conditions for achieving goals, both in the current situation and in the long-term future, the stability of subjective criteria for evaluating the results of their activities and behavior, regulatory flexibility allow in a situation of frustration, stress, uncertainty to restrain open aggressive manifestations, to sublimate them into other forms of activity.
As a result of the factor analysis, 4 factors were identified: acute affective experiences; aggression and aggressiveness; protection of uniqueness and independence, self-regulation. Based on the identified four factors, cluster analysis was applied, as a result of which the entire sample was divided into three groups by indicators of the regulatory processes development. The first group, instability of regulatory processes, characterized by average level of conscious self-regulation, and above to average level of spontaneous and reactive aggression. The second group, prescriptive regulation, is characterized by increased identification with social requirements, strict compliance with ethical norms in behavior and activities, restraint and respect for the established norms and values of society. These indicators are the regulatory mechanisms of their behavior. The third type, consciously regulated, is characterized by an adequate ability to self-regulate arbitrary activity. In these teachers, the formation of regulatory processes allows them to restrain open aggressive manifestations in situations of frustration, stress, and conflict, and to sublimate them into other forms of activity.
Thus, the regulation of aggressive manifestations is mediated not only by the established system of life values, individual psychological characteristics, but also by the formed level of the system of conscious self-regulation.
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26 October 2020
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Self-regulation, personal resources, educational goals, professional goals, mental health, digitalization
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Banshchikova, T. N., & Balyk, A. S. (2020). Personality-Typological Features of Conscious Self-Regulation of Aggression. In V. I. Morosanova, T. N. Banshchikova, & M. L. Sokolovskii (Eds.), Personal and Regulatory Resources in Achieving Educational and Professional Goals in the Digital Age, vol 91. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 325-332). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.04.40