Before a Medium-Term Development Plan is in legal form, it must go through a Strategic Environmental Study (SES) to ensure every policy, plan, and programs have met the principles of sustainable development in Indonesians’ cities. The Medium-Term Development Plan is an urban development document containing non-spatial and spatial development programs, in this case, Cimahi for five years period. The process of formulating and legalise the Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi must be going through stakeholder and community participation as well as political arrangements with regional legislative councils. The latter process especially distorts the development programs from achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 indicators and become the roots of urban problems. This paper explores (1) to what extent does the Cimahi’s urban development program still meets the SDG 11 indicators, and (2) to what extent does the participation and political processes influence changes in development programs. Evaluation result based on SDG 11 criteria and indicators on Cimahi’s urban development program through content analysis shows that there is distortion from the SDG 11 value mainly driven from more private interests and less of public interests.
Keywords: SDG 11sustainable developmenturban policydevelopment programs
The New Urban Agenda (NUA) is the official document as the result of Habitat III congress in 2016. This document becomes a reference for adoption by cities on a global scale in urban and settlement development up to the year 2036. The New Urban Agenda is a detailed elaboration of the Sustainable Development Goal 11 (United Nations, n.d.) which purpose is to "make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable". The New Urban Agenda is the set of goals for future urban developments and are expected to be adopted by all stakeholders tailored to their individual needs. The New Urban Agenda explains that each city has specific characteristics, hence requires a customised spatial planning and development approach. The SDG 11 has seven targets, and each target has its own set of indicators. Conceptually, the indicators are not entirely clear, although there are methods and standards set to each indicator. However, not all countries have related data to measure the achievement of the indicators for realising these targets. These are some of the global progress on SDG11 as of 2019 (United Nations, 2019):
There has been notable progress in the effort to reduce the proportion of global urban populations living in slums, even though more than one billion people continue to live in such situations;
The ratio of urban residents who have access to public transportation remains low especially in developing countries;
Billions of people still not accounted for waste collection services, and another billion do not have access to waste disposal facilities;
In 2016, 9 out of 10 people who live in urban areas still breathe air that does not meet the value of air quality standards;
Most cities have made the effort to make sure that their population has immediate access to open public spaces.
Rapid city development in line with an increasingly high rate of urbanisation with 55% of the population living in cities in 2018 and expected to reach 68% in 2050 (United Nations, 2018) demands even stricter efforts to achieve the SDG 11 targets, especially with top down approach. Despite much debate regarding how to operationalise the SDG11 indicator in practice (see Caprotti et al., 2017), the efforts to realise SDG 11 remains. For more optimal results, Caprotti et al. (2017) suggest the need for the role of experts, data, measurement and its implications for the production, performance and promotion of the new urban agenda. In Indonesia, procedural steps are taken to ensure that development principles are the primary consideration in formulating government policies, plans and programs. Even though in the process of formulating policies, plans and programs must be based on sustainable development, the process of participation, as well as the political process, allows changes in the substance. This change does not always lead to the realisation of SDG 11 targets and indicators. This paper will be presented in three parts. The first part discusses how the government integrates the principles of sustainable development in the formulation of policies, plans and programs. The second part explores the extent to which development programs in the Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi lead to the realisation of the SDG 11 targets and indicators. The final section discusses the challenges of implementing SDG 11 in Cimahi City.
The Medium-Term Development Plan is a regional planning document for a period of 5 years; from the inauguration to the end of the term of office of the elected Mayor. There are four approach in preparing the Medium-Term Development Plan based on Indonesian Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation 86/2017 (Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia Nomor 86 Tahun 2017). The first approach is technocratic approach which carried out using scientific methods and frameworks to achieve the goals and objectives of regional development. The second one is participation approach which involve various stakeholders. The third one is political approach that based on the vision and mission of the elected Mayor (executive) which is discussed together with the legislative. Lastly, top-down/bottom-up approach through public hearing among village, sub-district. Ideally, the four approaches should make up a firm Medium-Term Development Plan (in this case, in Cimahi). However, the political approach plays the most dominant part during the process. The driver behind this is because vision and missions of the elected Mayor (that later would be developed as the Medium-Term Development Plan) initially prepared by the elected Mayor Campaign team (see Figure
The Strategic Environmental Studies (SES) are carried out to ensure that the principles of sustainable development have become the basis and are integrated into urban development programs, in this case, Cimahi City. Nevertheless, the participation and the political process in the formulation of Cimahi urban development programs might lead to the emergence of populist programs merely to sugarcoat the Mayor's campaigns agenda instead of what is more important: the result on the SES. These whole processes raise the possibility that the programs are unrelated to or even in conflict with efforts to achieve SDG 11. To make sure that these programs are in line with SDG 11 is crucial because it works as a practical guideline for the Mayor to shape Cimahi within five years.
This study attempts to answer the question to what extent the Cimahi urban development program consistently meets SDG 11 indicators. The next question is the extent to which political participation and processes affect changes in the formulation of development programs.
Purpose of the Study
Against the background mentioned above, this study aims to identify whether development programs in the Cimahi Medium-Term Development Plan related to or relevant to the achievement of SDG 11. This study also explores the factors that influence the formulation of regional development programs.
This research is descriptive exploratory in nature and using a formal evaluation approach based on the formulation of legal criteria on targets and indicators set by UN-HABITAT (2016). This study is not meant to measure the achievement of SDG 11 targets, but rather identify and assess whether the development program developed in the Cimahi Medium-Term Development Plan leads to the accomplishment of SDG indicators/targets 11. The content analysis method is used through systematic procedures (Erlingsson & Brysiewicz, 2017; Krippendorff, 2018) to make an inference from the text, in this case, is the Medium-Term Development Plan document. The Medium-Term Development Plan and the Strategic Environmental Studies (SES) documents become the central secondary data. Meanwhile, primary data were obtained from the results of focus group discussions with the Cimahi Local Government and field observation. This study is not based on implemented programs but on program plans in the Medium-Term Development Plan to see whether the development program plans aligned with SDG 11 principles. This study assumes that the activities carried out by the sector are always in line with the program set out in the Medium-Term Development Plan.
Development Planning System and Strategic Environmental Study in Indonesia
In Indonesia, there are two laws and regulations central to development planning. Firstly, Law No. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning (Undang-Undang Nomor 26 Tahun 2007) which produces comprehensive and detailed spatial planning documents at the national, provincial and district/city levels. Secondly, Law No. 25 of 2004 on the National Development Planning System (Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2004) which produces development plan/program documents such as the Long-Term Development Plan, the Medium-Term Development Plan and the Strategic Plan. As with spatial planning documents, development/program documents exist at every level of government (e.g. national, provincial and district/city levels). Spatial planning documents act as a reference for the government as well as the private sector and the community to use urban space, while development documents/programs act as a reference for the government in budgeting (based on the Law on State Finance) and implementing development.
In their preparation, the spatial planning document and the program/development document must be referred to one another to ensure that plans and programs are aligned and integrated. Every policy, plan and program in the spatial plan and development plan/program document must respect the principles of sustainable development. Law No. 32 of 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management (Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009) is the necessary attempts to ensure that every policy, plan and program has taken into account the principles of sustainable development. This law translated into implementing regulations in the form of Government Regulation No. 46/2016 on the Procedures for Conducting a Strategic Environmental Study (Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 46 Tahun 2016). Then the Ministry of Environment followed up by issuing Environmental and Forestry Ministerial Regulation P.69/MNLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2017 On the Implementation of Government Regulation No. 46/2016 on the Procedures for Conducting a Strategic Environmental Study. In this regulation, there are at least 11 processes for the preparation of a Strategic Environmental Study. In article 17 paragraph 1 and 2 Government Regulation No. 46/2016 it is mandated that ministries/non-ministerial government institutions, provincial and district/city governments regulate the making and implementation of the Strategic Environmental Studies (SES).
There are fundamental differences in the implementation of the SES of the spatial planning document and the development program planning document. Until recently, the Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning are still processing Ministerial Regulations regarding the implementation and preparation of Strategic Environmental Studies (SES) in the development of spatial plans. Environmental studies on spatial plans must follow the rules set out in Government Regulation No. 46/2016 as well as Environmental and Forestry Ministerial Regulation P.69/MNLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2017. Both regulations are conducted to determine whether each content in the spatial plan has considered the principles of sustainable development. The evaluation is carried out after the content of the spatial plan is formulated before it is determined as a regional regulation. In contrast, in the preparation of the Medium-Term Development Plan, a strategic environmental study was carried out at the beginning as an inclusion in the formulation of policy material, plans and programs.
The Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 86/2017 and No. 7/2018 mention that the local government prepare the Strategic Environmental Studies (SES) to realise the Medium-Term Development Plan following sustainable development principles. The SES for the Medium-Term Development Plan is based on a systematic, comprehensive, and participatory analysis which is the basis for integrating sustainable development goals. The process itself is an ex-ante evaluation with the strategic issues raised are in line with SDGs. The Strategic Environmental Studies should be focusing on achieving SDGs targets and accommodating SDGs issues related to the environment, economy, social, law and governance, including the integration of various national development strategic policies. There are 420 regional performance indicators reviewed, namely 45 Community Welfare Indicators, 10 Regional Competitiveness Indicators, and 319 Public Service Indicators. These indicators intersect with the indicators regulated in Presidential Regulation No. 59 of 2017 on the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals which contains 319 indicators of sustainable development and Government Regulation No. 2 of 2018 on the Minimum Service Standards which include 6 government affairs. Figure
The Embodiment of SDG11 in Cimahi Urban Development Program
Cimahi City is located ± 11 km to the west of the Government Center of West Java Province in Bandung with an area of 4,052.88 ha. Originally, Cimahi was a sub-district that became part of the Bandung Regency area. Then in 1975, its status was upgraded from a sub-district to an Administrative City through Government Regulation No. 29 of 1975 on the Establishment of Administrative Cities. Cimahi has experienced positive population growth in the last five years. The average annual population growth of Cimahi City is 1.31 per cent. Cimahi is considered a dense city with the total area of only 40.20 km2 and a population of 601,099 people in 2017 (Statistics Bureau of Cimahi, 2018). Compared to the population density index formula, the ideal population of Cimahi should be around 389,077 people. This number makes Cimahi one of the cities with the highest population density per kilometre in Indonesia. In addition to limited space, the city is faced with problems of slums, infrastructure, transportation, public policies and services as well as the carrying capacity of carrying capacity, where SDG 11 is facing various obstacles. Cimahi has a high population density of 14,953 people per square kilometre, far from the ideal density.
Cimahi's economic growth is relatively stable in the range of 5 to 5.5% per year. This amount is already higher than the average provincial and national economic growth. In Cimahi, the budget to implement the SDGs indicator accounted for 32.31% of the total direct expenditure budget of IDR 759,826,189,056.51 (approx. USD 53.11 million).
Based on the Strategic Environmental Studies (SES) for the Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi, various environmental conditions must be taken into account. The SES shows the following findings:
Food and water needs in Cimahi have exceeded the city's carrying capacity of food and water;
The area of agricultural land in Cimahi is currently only able to meet 3.39% of the total food needs of the population;
The availability of clean water in Cimahi is only able to achieve 5.07% of the overall clean water needs in the city;
The use of groundwater (artesian wells) by industry has reached 57.82% of the total groundwater availability in Cimahi City of 13.612 million m3;
Clean water consumption that can be served by PDAM is only 0.8% of the overall domestic needs of 25 million m3 per year;
Five rivers in Cimahi have experienced pollution with BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) level that has exceeded the river's capacity;
The vulnerability index for floods and drought in Cimahi are as follow: 27% of its area is in the very low category. Meanwhile, 6% of its territory is in a low category, and 67% of its area is in the moderate category, meaning that the ability of Cimahi to tolerate events related to climate change needs to be upgraded.
The implementation of the Medium-Term Development Plan in Indonesian cities, including Cimahi, is for the period of five years (2017 - 2022) stipulated under Local By-Law No. 2/2018. The substance formulation of this Medium-Term Development Plan referred to the provisions of the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 86/2017 and the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 7/2018. At the same time, the formulation of the Medium-Term Development Plan must be companied by a Strategic Environmental Study (SES) to ensure it has reflected principles of sustainable development. The Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi accommodates 21 priority programs, which are the vision and mission as well as the political commitments of the Elected Mayor (Ginan, 2018). These 21 priority programs are a response to the problems faced by the people of Cimahi. The process of participation and the political process influenced the formulation of this Medium-Term Development Plan. As a result of this process, often, the principles of sustainable development are distorted.
The Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi has five missions, 11 targets and 74 strategies. The direction of the Cimahi urban development policy is as follows:
First-year (2018) focus on the equitable distribution of economic growth supported by the synergy of development, superior resources and quality of facilities and infrastructure with an environmental perspective, towards an independent society.
Second-year (2019) focus is to increase equality and economic competitiveness through community empowerment supported by quality infrastructure and human resources.
Third-year (2020) focus is to improve city competitiveness through economic equality and community empowerment supported by infrastructure stability.
The development of quality infrastructure supports the fourth-year (2021) the realization of economic funding through community participation.
Economic equality towards a prosperous society supported by sustainable infrastructure.
The policies and strategies mentioned above were revealed in various development programs for five years. Table
Of the 207 programs in the Medium-Term Development Plan of Cimahi, there are 83 programs (40%) that are directly related to the SDG11 targets and indicators (see Table
Challenges on SDG 11 Realisation in Cimahi Urban Development
The Strategic Environmental Study is the base of Development Programs for Indonesian Cities, Cimahi is no exception. It is used to ensure that the formulation of development programs has considered the principles of sustainable development. The Medium-Term Development Plan document refers to the Long-Term Development Program that at the time of its preparation has no Strategic Environmental Study. This different period of programs means that the plans in the Long-Term Development Program (20-year program) are not necessarily programs directed at realising the SDG 11 indicators. The Medium-Term Development Plan includes not only development programs but also those related to increasing internal capacity. The size of the internal capacity building program is highly dependent on the conditions and resources of Cimahi. In the future, more attention needs to be directed to the ideal proportions to ensure that the principles of sustainable development can work well because the Medium-Term Development Plan is often considered the working document of the Mayor. It is essential that the Mayor fully understand the principle of sustainable development so that the government would deliver not merely populist policies but ones with more significant benefit in mind.
This study is limited to the depth of the program and not to sectoral development activities in Cimahi City. This study is not based on implemented programs but on program plans in the Medium-Term Development Plan to see whether the development program plans aligned with SDG 11 principles. This study assumes that the activities carried out by the sector are always in line with the program set out in the Medium-Term Development Plan.
The process of participation, political and regional head election system often disrupts the efforts to realise the SDG 11 targets and indicators in development plan documents. Programs that are populist and profitable in the short term are more appealing than those that hold a more significant benefit in the long run. Therefore, all parties need to grasp the importance of the realisation of sustainable development. There are ways to optimise the efforts to achieve SDG 11 targets and indicators with the help the decent economic conditions, the fiscal capacity, as well as the involvement of many communities in development in Cimahi. Cimahi's economic growth is relatively stable in the range of 5 to 5.5% per year. This amount is already higher than the average provincial and national economic growth. In Cimahi, the budget to implement the SDGs indicator accounted for 32.31% of the total direct expenditure budget of IDR 759,826,189,056.51 (approx. USD 53.11 million). Furthermore, the parties who actively carried out their activities in the achievement of the SDGs in Cimahi City amounted to 17 institutions, consisting of NGOs, academics, and several other non-governmental organisations. This resource should be able to boost the effort the SDG 11 implementation in Cimahi. Future studies will be directed at assessing the actual programs implemented in Cimahi and crosscheck the programs with realisation of the Sustainable Development Goal 11.
We would like to acknowledge Research, Community Service and Innovation Program (P3MI) 2019 at Institut Teknologi Bandung for their grant to make this research possible.
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Indradjati, P. N., & Hasan, T. (2020). Evaluating SDG 11 Coverage on Cimahi Urban Development Program. In N. Samat, J. Sulong, M. Pourya Asl, P. Keikhosrokiani, Y. Azam, & S. T. K. Leng (Eds.), Innovation and Transformation in Humanities for a Sustainable Tomorrow, vol 89. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 280-291). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.02.26