Relevance: the forming process of the unified cognitive picture of the world represents the integral processes in the international community. We take media discourse slices in Russia and China dated 2014-15 and 2019 to get the productive results of the concept representatives’ activity. The contrastive comparison of “money” concept representatives’ activity show increase or decrease of concept’s use frequency and changing processes in cognitive picture of the word. The methods of the research are diachronic, statistical and contrastive analysis which are united in diachronic and statistic methodic. The results of the research show that in Chinese cognitive picture of the word the cognitive volume of “money” concept increases, its structure becomes more complex, its constructive cognitive indicators actualize. The results of the research demonstrate the development of the integration process of the Chinese cognitive picture of the word into the world community cognitive picture of the word. We have the decrease of the cognitive volume of the concept, the simplification of the representation field structure, the actualization of destructive cognitive indicators (the sema of the social justice intensifies). The results of the research show the absence of the integration process of the Russian cognitive picture of the world into the world community cognitive picture of the word.
Keywords: Concept “Money” in China and Russianrepresentatives of the conceptfrequency of usecontrastive analysisdiachronic and statistic methodiccognitive processes
The relevance of the research is connected with further increasing of integration processes’ activity in the world community. The research of integrative cognitive processes which can be observed through linguistic methodic application appears to be crucial against this background.
The further research of “money” concept with an objective of detection of different nations’ cognitive pictures of the world changing evidences is certainly relevant.
The important cognitive qualities of “money” concept also occur while doing contrastive research of other basic concepts (Liu Chaoze & Liu Chen, 2018; Voloshina & Tolstova, 2017, p. 16). For example, in comparative research of “family” concept on material of paroemia Yang (2013) found representants of “money” concept both in Chinese language (“Husband is rich – the wife is honorable” 夫贵妻容) and in Russian (“When married are rich, when single is poor”) (Yang, 2013, p. 252). The basic “money” concept is important for mankind cognitive world picture formation. This is supported by the fact that “money” concept is “one of the most common concepts in literature” (Badalova, 2014, p. 41).
It is common knowledge that the concept is field-based historical formation fixed in language and in cognitive picture of the world of a nation.
The concept being in cognitive system can be observed through the field of its lexical representation which can be formed by extraction of concept representants from discourse.
However, every event of concept functioning in a discourse is a new moment of its being identifying an actual for nation sphere through its different representatives.
In the research process in the field of concept “money” representants the methodic revealing the growth of the concept representants’ relevance level was developed. The growth of “money” concept relevance was determined by comparison of the number of representants in traditional and modern discourses which allowed to get a sense about the dynamic of the concept development.
It was revealed a significant historical growth of “money” concept relevance in Chinese concept sphere compared to Russian concept sphere (contrast is 70 %). The growth of relevance of Chinese “money” concept in the development process corresponds to simultaneous decrease of its cognitive volume. The cognitive volume of the Russian “money” concept oppositely increased (Li Huizi, 2016).
Since establishment of concepts is a historical process there for the comparative analysis of concept representants’ activity in different time periods makes visible the process of formation of cognitive model of the world. Integral processes in the society demand a convergence of cognitive models of the world of different nations which is why the analysis of contemporary state of “money” concept representation should be continued.
The cognitive volume of a concept we determine as a number of lexeme-representants fixing diverse cognitive links and qualities of a concept at the moment of its usage in speech production. Cognitive volume of a concept is regarded as historically variable category and its cognitive structure is described in a certain historical moment. In order to analyze the dynamics of “money” concept cognitive volume in relevant discourse we chose newspapers as the material with firmly indicated (fixed) moment of cognitive state of the concept in mass conscience.
For analysis of “money” concept lexical representation dynamics in China three typical central newspapers were used: “The Folk Daily Newspaper”, “The Light” and “The Reference News”.
The first time slice for contrast material collection has an accidentally chosen date of issue – the 16th of April 2014 (Chinese newspapers) and the 11-17th of February 2015 (Russian weekly newspaper). The second time slice has the date of issue of the named newspapers for getting the material with the minimal time contrast of “money” concept representants usage as well with accidentally chosen date – the 22th of November 2019 (Chinese newspapers) and the 20-26th of November (Russian weekly newspaper).
The research of the process of “money” concept being was started from constructing the fields of lexical representation on the material of traditional texts (folk fairytales and paroemia). The research was made using the same methodic and the same succession of actions as introduced in that article (Korbut & Li Huizi, 2015; Li Huizi, 2016). The results received on the material of traditional texts are used for thinking on new results.
Course of the study
For comparing the states of “money” concept representation with a gap of about five years in media discourse of both languages the following components were found:
the list of units of lexical representation in each slice;
the number of occurrences of every representant (frequency index) in each slice;
the share of “money” concept representants in media discourse at a point of time;
average activity of abstract “money” concept representant at a point of time;
the field of “money” concept lexical representation in media discourse at a point of time based on representants’ frequency.
Doctrine of the study
Establishing the list of units of “money” concept representation in each time slice shows the state of the “money” concept cognitive volume in cognitive picture of the world at a point of time.
Determining the number of occurrences of every representant allows to find its place in cognitive picture of the world and observe the state of knowledge about a piece of reality according to representants’ relevance level, it means according their activity in speech production.
The share of “money” concept representants in media discourse at a point of time is calculated from the number of units of “money” concept representation in the total number of lexical units of a given discourse (in total slice volume). It is ratio of the number of “money” concept representants to the total media discourse slice volume presented in lexemes.
The share of “money” concept representants in media discourse despite its abstractness is an illustrative unite because it shows the number of “money” concept representants per 100 words of media discourse at a point of time.
Average activity of representant is the number of occurrences of all “money” concept representants in a slice divided by the total number of representants. Average activity is also an abstract unit which shows a general idea about cognitive activity of “money” concept representants in a national conceptual picture of the world structure at a point of time.
Field of lexical representation constructing
For field of lexical representation constructing according to representant frequency criteria we use elementary statistic procedures. The maximal frequency index is identified then the representants with frequency index under 55% from maximal are placed into the core zone while the representants with frequency index from 54 to 40% from maximal are placed into around core zone.
Near periphery is occupied by representants with frequency index 2 and more. Far periphery is occupied by representants with frequency index 1.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to compare the contemporary state of “money” concept representants’ activity in Russian and Chinese media discourse for revealing integrative cognitive processes on minimal time contrast material. We deal with contrast comparison of “money” concept representants usage in newspaper media discourse of Russia and China 2014-15 and 2019. Russian and Chinese newspapers issued in the same time period were taken as input for the research.
The contrastive analysis of one and the same concept’s content in different languages has already established itself as an effective technique of revealing a specific nature of pictures of the world and concept spheres of different nations. The core methods of the study are diachronic, statistic and contrastive analyses.
The contrastive analysis of one and the same concept’s content in different languages has already established itself as an effective technique of revealing a specific nature of pictures of the world and concept spheres of different nations (Petrova, 2016; Yan, 2019; Zalavina, Derina, Polyakova, & Yuzhakova, 2019).
Furthermore, researches of that type reveal sings of integrative processes taking place in language conscious of people since the concept is a mental unit saving information. And “money” concept was studied many times as a basic concept (Kamyshanchenko & Nerubenko, 2012; Korbut, 2017; Korbut & Li Huizi, 2015; Li Huizi, 2016; Majorenko, 2005; Zalavina et al., 2019).
The combination of that methods in the united methodic while studying languages of various typology has been already proven in contrast researches of Chinese and Russian languages (Korbut, 2017; Li Huizi, 2016; Tsibernaya, 2019) The methods of the research are diachronic, statistical and contrastive analysis are united in diachronic and statistic methodic that allows to reveal the development of potentially integrated processes.
In Chinese media discourse we discovered a significant progressive dynamics of cognitive activity of “money” concept.
Cognitive activity of “money” concept in Chinese media discourse
Lexical volume of studied time slices has almost equal numerical targets: 276392 lexemes (2014) and 277475 lexemes (2019). However, for the slice of 2014 six newspapers were studied but for the slice of 2019 only three newspapers were studied. It means that lexical volume of mass media in China increased almost in two times. Hence the volume of publically discussed information increased almost in two times too.
The list of lexical representation units fixing the cognitive volume of “money” concept movement in each slice changed. The cognitive volume of “money” concept increased in 1.89 times (from 176 to 332 units) in five years. Therefor the cognitive structure of media discourse changed but cognitive value of “money” concept increased almost in two times.
Average activity of representants increased too: 176 representants in 2014 were used 1430 times, 332 representants in 2019 were used 3177 times. So the numerical target of average activity in 2014 was 8.12 (1430:176) but in 2019 it was 9.57 (3177:332) (table
The share of Chinese “money” concept
According to previous indicators in five years the share of “money” concept representants in media discourse of China increased: 1430/276392*100%= 0.52% (2014), 3177/277475*100% = 1.14% (2019) – from 0.52% to 1.14% – more than in two times. Nowadays at an average 1 word from 100 appeals to “money” concept when in 2014 there were 5 words from 1000 (table
Structure of representation field (Chinese language)
In the core of “money” concept representation field in 2014 time slice there were two the most frequent components “yuan” 元/块 with its frequency 245 and “price” 价格 with its frequency 183. The results of 2019 time slice studying show the maximal frequency of words “enterprise” 企业 – 229 and “economical” 经济的 – 354. It means that the structure of core’s actual layer of “money” concept in Chinese language changed.
The following representants had a higher index of frequency in 2014 time slice: «economical» (69), «dollar» 美元 (41), «economics» 经济 (40), «capital» 资金 (38). In 2019 there were «economics» (193), «company» 公司 (149), «market» 市场 (98).
Representants of 2019 («economics» (193), «company» (149)) have frequency index more than 40% from maximal frequency index therefor representation field’s around core zone includes two named components. In representation field of “money” concept in 2014 there was no around core zone, the field had only three components: core zone, near periphery and far periphery.
So, the change in field structure of “money” concept representants was registered which was potentially seen in the previous time slice. The change was expected. It is reflected in progressive complication of lexical representation field of “money” concept in media discourse (table
Essentially the mass media text is intended to form public consciousness according to a state policy. The results of the study support that media discourse of China functions according to the aims of the state development. In media discourse a piece of cognitive picture of the world is formed by representation of one of the most important concepts – “money” concept.
Cognitive activity of “money” concept in Russian media discourse
As a result of study the meaningful dynamics of “money” concept cognitive activity in Russian media discourse was discovered. Lexical volume of the slice made in 2015 was not determined.
The list of lexical representation units in each slice – which is generalized “money” concept cognitive volume – changed. “Money” concept cognitive volume decreased in 1.71 times (from 314 to 183 units) in five years (from the slice at the beginning of 2015 to the slice at the end of 2019). Hence cognitive structure of Russian media discourse changed and cognitive value of “money” concept decreased.
Accordingly, the average activity of “money” concept representant in Russian media discourse decreased. In a slice of 2015 there were 314 representants which occurred 1579 times. The average activity was 5.03 (1579:314 = 5.028). In a slice of 2019 there were 183 representants which occurred 773 times. It means that average activity decreased to 4.22 (773:183 = 4.22) (table
The share of Russian “money” concept
Lexical volume of the slice made in 2019 was partly determined – only in the regional part of weekly newspaper “Arguments and Facts: Irkutsk”. It is 8627 lexemes. Since in the regional part of weekly newspaper “Arguments and Facts: Irkutsk” 166 occurrences of “money” concept representants were registered therefor the share of “money” concept representants in media discourse can be calculated in such a way: 166:8527 = 0.019 – it is 1.9 % (table
The structure of representation field (Russian language)
In the core of “money” concept representation field in media discourse of 2015 time slice there were two the most frequent components: “ruble” with its frequency index 118 and “money” with its frequency index 65. The results of 2019 time slice study show the maximum frequency of representants “pension” (55), “ruble” (52), “pensioner” (37), “salary” (33), “market” (31).
The identification of the field of representation core structure poses a problem because the gap between representants’ frequency index is not as significant as it was in a slice of the beginning of 2015. Semantical and derivational closeness of representants “pension” and “pensioner” allows to sum up their indexes and take them as a united representant. In that case the index is 92 (55+37). 60% from 92 = 55. Hence we put into the core only two named representants. 40% from 92 = 37.
It means that there is no near core zone in “money” concept representation field of 2019 time slice. The simplification of the representation field structure is observed. This fact correlates with the previous performance. So we can state that in past five years in “money” concept lexical representation field significant changes have occurred (table
The semantical destabilization of the representation field (Russian language)
The following facts show “money” concept representation field instability in Russian media discourse: 1) decrease of representants maximal frequency (from 118 to 55); 2) increase of the number of representants with close frequency index numerical targets; 3) exception of the concept name from the core structure (frequency index of “money” representant decreased to 23); 4), semantical destabilization of the core is the result of the fact that the most frequent representants of “money” concept are semantically abstracted from the concept name.
Let’s look at the reasons of semantical destabilization. The cognitive nature of money has an ability to participate in a various goods and services exchange and be a measure of various values including specialists’ labor.
On the first plan of “money” concept meaning there is an active creative function of money. However, in the meaning of the core representants “pension” and “pensioner” the semantics of passive income activates. It means that in cognitive structure of “money” concept on the first plan the problem of social groups with a passive income is placed. The idea of justice gains the maximal strength in “money” concept.
Representants “price” (64), “bank” (51), “dollar” (47) had higher frequency indexes in the beginning 2015 time slice which were in the near core zone of “money” concept representation field. Representants “economical” (42), “free” (39), “economics” (39) were put into near periphery of “money” concept representation field. In the ending 2019 time slice the named representants were used significantly rarer: “price” (2), “bank” (bank names – 2), “dollar” (5), “economical” (12), “free” (1), “economics” (11). That is why these representants were moved from the near core zone into near periphery but “free” representant were moved into far periphery.
In near periphery zone of the ending 2019 time slice the following representants had the highest frequency indexes: “ruble” (52), “salary” (33), “market” (31), semantically connected with the most frequent representant of the core representant pension “point” (26), the concept name “money” (23).
In the slice of 2015 we sum up frequency indexes of representants “economical” and “economics”: 42 + 39 = 81. It was revealed that the given cognitive characteristic overstepped the frequency of “money” representant (65) and can be put into the representation field core. “Free” representant with its index 39 (it is 30% from maximal frequency of the slice of the beginning of 2015) occurs in word combinations like “free medical supplies”, “free voucher”, “free accommodation”.
Hence in “money” concept cognitive structure in media discourse of the beginning of 2015 the semantics of social justice potentially developed.
In a whole the “money” concept field of representation in Russian media discourse of 2019 is characterized by significant weakening of constructive characteristics of the concept.
The mass media text in Russia doesn’t take part in public consciousness formation according to the state policy. The results of “money” concept representation study allows to confirm that Russian media discourse shows destructive cognitive processes in the public consciousness and doesn’t express the constructive aims of state development.
Therefor the media discourse in Russia doesn’t perform its functions. The fragment of cognitive picture of the world discovered in the slice of the end of 2019 misrepresents the sense of one of the most important concepts – the “money” concept.
The analysis of dynamic processes in the field of lexical representation of “money” concept in Chinese media discourse using diachronic and statistic methodic showed the development of potentially integrated processes: cognitive volume increasing, complication of field structure, actualization of constructive cognitive characteristics. That demonstrates the process of integration of Chinese cognitive picture of the world into cognitive picture of the world of the world community (table
The analysis of changes in the “money” concept lexical representation field in Russian media discourse showed the successive effect of potentially integrated inverse processes (table
That demonstrates the absence of the integration process of Russian cognitive picture of the world into cognitive picture of the world of the world community. Probably the revealed isolation of Russian cognitive picture of the world is a result of internal policy of the state. The revealed problem requires the following study.
Changes in China
As a result of successive research of the three slices of discourse practice of Chinese people: 1) pre-revolutionary traditional text (fairytales and paroemia), 2) media discourse of 2014, 3) media discourse of 2019 – the following progressive movement of naive public image of money was found:
Changes in Russia
The “money” concept image in naive picture of the world of 2015 was determined as “Ruble is the main characteristic of economics which functions through money (including dollars), expressed as a price, with the help of banks and has as one of the tasks the task of social justice saving”.
Therefor “money” concept destructive cognitive characteristics detected as the main characteristics (characteristics of the representation field core) in the slice of the end of 2019 are not occasional in Russian cognitive picture of the world (Safonova, 2016). In the studied concept being the process of destruction of “instrument” semantics and moving to “moral characteristics” semantics existed as a potential.
As a result of progressive research of the three slices of discursive practice of Russian people: 1) prerevolutionary traditional texts (fairytales and paroemia), 2) media discourse of the beginning of 2015, 3) media discourse of the end of 2019 – we have the following movement of naive public image of money:
Money is richness,
Money are rubles in general,
Money are received by people who don’t have an opportunity to work actively.
- Badalova, E. N. (2014). Money. Cognitive Dictionary of literary philosophy discurs, ed. D. M. Bychkov, Astrahan state university, 41–42. Retrieved from https://b-ok.xyz/book/2718488/16c643
- Kamyshanchenko, E. A., & Nerubenko, N. V. (2012). Comparative аnalysis Proverbs and Sayings in English and German, representation of concept “money”, Philological science, Guestions оf Theory and Practice, 1(12), 78-80 Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kontsept-dengi-v-kontekste-natsionalnyh-lingvokultur
- Korbut, A. Yu. (2017). Puti issledovanija aktualnosni i kognitivnogo objoma konceptov (na primere koncepta “dengi” v russkoj i kitajskoj kovceptosferah) [The way to research the relevance and cognitive volume of concepts (on the example сoncepta “money” in Russian and Chinese conceptual sphere)], Scientific dialogue: philosophy, culturology, art criticism,“social science” [“Sciense Public”], 20–25. Retrieved from https:// conf.sciencepublic.ru/
- Korbut, A. Yu., & Li Huizi (2015). Comparative аnalysis representatives сoncept “money” in Russian and Chinese (traditional stratum), Messenger of Chelyabinsk State University. Philosophy, Art criticism. Dition 95(10) (365), 113–119. Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sopostavitelnyy-analiz-reprezentantov-kontsepta-dengi-v-kitayskom-i-russkom-yazykah-traditsionnyy-sloy
- Li Huizi. (2016). Dynamica lexicheskoj representacii сoncepta “dengi” [Dynamics of Lexical Representation of the Concept “money” in Russian and Chinese], Thesis candidate of philology Sciences, Irkutsk, 198 p. http://www.dslib.net/sravnit-jazykoved/dinamika-leksicheskoj-reprezentacii-koncepta-dengi-v-russkom-i-kitajskom-jazykah.html
- Liu Chaoze & Liu Chen. (2018). Comparative analysis of the Concept “Happiness” in a Russian and Chinese lingvoculture (based on the definitions in IN Chinese and Russian dictionaries, Tomsk state pedagogical university bulletin, 6(195), 73-76. Retrieved from https:// https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelno-sopostavitelnyy-analiz-kontsepta-schastie-v-kitayskoy-i-russkoy-lingvokulturah-na-osnove-definitsiy-v-kitayskih-i-russkih
- Majorenko, E. A. (2005). Conceptualization concept “money” in the lexical system and the foundation of the Russian and English and French languages, Thesis candidate of philology Sciences. Krasnodar.
- Petrova, M. G. (2016). The representation of the concept «Money» in the Spanish language picture of the world (based on the Castilian variety), Young Scientis, 17(121), 547–550.
- Safonova, S. G. (2016). Representation of “Wealth” concept in the novel “Humiliated and insulted” by F.M. Dostoevsky, Science Journal of Volgograd State University series “Linguistics”152–158. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu2.2016.2.18
- Tsibernaya, O. F. (2019). Knowledge transfer in the Chinese language picture of the world (on the example of the concept “human”), Messenger of South Ural state University. Linguistics series, Edition. 16, no 2, 69–73. Retrieved from https://vestnik.susu.ru/linguistics/article/view/8841
- Voloshina, S. V., & Tolstova, M. A. (2017). The concept “WORK” in women`s autobiographical stories of Siberian old residents: constants and transformation, Tomsk State University Journal, 425, 12–18. https://doi.org/10.17223/15617793/425/2
- Yan, H. (2019). Representation of the core of the concept “Invention” in the Russian and Chinese newspaper discourse. Messenger of Moscow State Linguistic University, 4(820), 180-191. Retrieved from https:// cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osobennosti-reprezentatsii-yadra-kontsepta-izobretenie-v-rossiyskom-i-kitayskom-gazetnyh-diskursah
- Yang, F. (2013). Concept “family” in Russian and Chinese picture of the world, Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 323(6), 250-254. Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kontsept-semya-v-russkoy-i-kitayskoy-yazykovyh-kartinah-mira
- Zalavina, T. Yu., Derina, N. V., Polyakova, L. S., Yuzhakova, Yu. V. (2019). Concept "Money" in the Context of National Linguocultures, Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.21603/2078-8975-2019-21-1-191–196
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
03 August 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
Cite this article as:
Yurjevna, K. A., & Huizi, L. (2020). Dynamic Processes Of Representation Of Concept “Money” In Russian And Chinese Languages. In N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 727-736). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.86