The object of the research are word families of Latin verba dicendi
Keywords: Speech verbsthe Latin languageword familyframeproposition
Speech verbs are the traditional research object in linguistics, but exactly by reasons of persistence of the theme this object is studied principally from the point of view of the semantics and on the material of living languages ( Chzhan & Red'kina, 2016; Dvornik, 2003; Ermolaeva, 2017; Sokolovskaya, 2002). In this paper we appeal to the material that has not been enough analysed yet, – verba dicendi in the Classical Latin. The object of the study are verbs, for which the meaning ‘to speak’ is primary and isn’t conjugated with additional modificational semes,–
The importance of the Latin language material
We suppose, that the material of the Latin language, analysed within the current anthropocentric linguistics paradigm, is important, on the one side, because it characterize the language world picture of the nation, that has played an important role in the history of the modern civilization, and on the other side, because it outlines the base, on which language world pictures of roman nations have been formed and by that affords ground for their matching.
Elaboration of the problem
In works of foreign linguists Latin verba dicendi are examined mainly from the angle of their grammar possibilities ( Rosen, 2010; Schoof, 2003). There are only few works, which present results of the semantics examination of these verbs. Thus, the second of the indicated above areas is developed in the monograph ( Barbu, 2013), where on the material of 440 verbs the author traces evolution of the semantics in the group verba dicendi from the Late Latin to the modern Roman languages in detail. Some steps in the first direction are made in the papers ( Danilina, 2016) (the influence of the cognitive specificity on the syntactic combinability); ( Danilina, 2018) (metaphors in the designation of speech) ( Danilina, 2020) (the cognitive specificity of the verb
The choice of the object of the analysis
The word as an element of the language world picture shows specificity not only in the set of the proper primary and secondary meanings, but also in the structure and in the semantics of its derivatives, thus the important object by the studying of the concept “to speak” should be not only speech verbs, but also their families.
The choice of the analysis aspect
In the cognitive derivatology the word family is analysed from two points of view: as a system of interrelated cognitive areas ( Abrossimova, 2015) and as a frame, reflecting the denotative situation ( Araeva & Li, 2019; Araeva, Obraztsova, Proskurina, Abdullaeva & Likhun, 2018; Evseeva & Ponomaryova, 2019; Evseeva & Kreidlin, 2017). The frame approach to word families allows to access the following issues: to correlate the content of the derived words with the form of their expression and to determine by them possible roles of a phenomenon, named by the root morpheme, in the denotative situation; to correlate on the unified base content and structural features of several word families; to determine the cognitive specificity of each family by the comparison of word families of one lexical-semantic group. Different slots of frames can be realized both by means of word formation, i.e. by derived words, and by means of syntax, i.e. by the particularity of the combinability. In this paper we analyse possibilities of the word formation derivation in the realization of the frame.
To determine the set of slots of the frame “To speak”, which can be realized by means of the word formation, and means of realization of each slot.
To correlate word families
dicere, loqui, farifrom the point of view of the sets of realizable slots and of the capacity of each slot in the composition of each family,
To make a supposition about the reasons for the marked similarities and differences.
Purpose of the Study
Analysing the structure of derivatives of verba dicendi we expect to determine the range of functional roles of the speech in the structure of the denotative situation according to the Latin language world picture, and to identify the cognitive specificity of each word family with the meaning “to speak”.
The main method is the propositional frame analysis, the additional methods – the morphemic analysis, the semantic word definition analysis, the methods of corpus linguistics. As source of the illustration material served the text corpus ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020), from which we will quote Latin texts and their English translations.
The proposition, corresponding to the frame “To speak”, includes the following components, corresponding to the frame slots: speech action (P), speaker (S1), interlocutor (S2), object or topic (O), product or result of the speech (R), circumstances of the speech (Sk).
Slots, which can be realized by means of the word formation
After the analysis of the content of the word families of three verbs with the primary meaning ‘to speak’ we have determined, that the word formation means can realize slots P (examples 1-3), S1 (examples 4-6), R (examples 7-10), partially O (examples 11-13), whereas slots S2 and Sk can be realized only at the sentence level i.e. syntactically, and are not filled with derivatives of verba dicendi (examples 14, 15) ( Danilina, 2016). Slots P and O can be also expressed syntactically (example 16).
Verba dicendi and their derivatives in the role of the speech action:
Obsecro ut per pacem liceat te alloqui, ut ne vapulem. I'll not(Plaut. Amph., act 1, sc. 1) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); speakunless peace is concluded, since you are the stronger with your fists.
Sese pro Caesaris in se beneficiis plurimum ei confiteri debere, quod eius opera stipendio liberatus esset… That he
confessed,that for Caesar's kindness toward him, he was very much indebted to him, inasmuch as by his aid he had been freed… (Caes. Gal. 5.27) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); Moneo, praedico, ante denuntio… I warn, I(Cic. Ver. 1.1.36) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); forewarn,I give notice beforehand
Derivatives of verba dicendi in the role of the subject of the action, accompanying by speech:
(4) Qui sunt leves et futiles et importuni locutores quique nullo rerum pondere innixi verbis uvidis et lapsantibus diffluunt… The talk of empty-headed, vain and tiresome
babblers,who with no foundation of solid matter let out a stream of tipsy, tottering words… (Gel. 1.15) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020);
Albucius, non obscurus. (Quint. Inst. 2 15) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); professoratque auctor, scientiam bene dicendi esse consentit. Albutius, a distinguished author and professor of rhetoric, agrees that rhetoric is the science of speaking well
Credo ego vos, iudices… I imagine that you, O… (Cic. S. Rosc. 1) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020). judges
Derivatives of verba dicendi in the role of the product or result of speech action:
Puppique deus consedit in alta, Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore l(Verg. A. 5.827) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); oquelas… Upon thy ship the god in guise of Phorbas stood, thus whispering…
nondum ad eum fama de Tituri morte perlata. …. (Caes. Gal. 5.39) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); the reportof the death of Titurius not having as yet been conveyed to him
Romae composui edictum. I drew up my. (Cic. Fam. 3.8) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); edictat Rome
aut, pro praede litis vindiciarum cum satis accepisset… or if he had taken security for the(Cic. Ver. 2.1.115) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020). claim
Derivatives of verba dicendi as characteristics of the object of the speech or action, accompanying by speech:
Non ut redire ex Macedonia nobilis imperator sed ut mortuus infamis referri videretur? so that you did not appear to be returning from Macedonia as a noble commander, but to be being brought back as a(Cic. Pis. 22) ( Perseus Digital library 2020); disgracedcorpse?
Aeque enim perfidiosum et nefarium est fidem frangere quae continet vitam, et pupillum fraudare… For it is equally perfidious and(Cic. Q. Rosc. 6) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); wickedto break faith, which is the bond of life, and to defraud one's ward…
(13) Hanc tibi legem Clodius scripsit spurciorem lingua sua, ut interdictum sit cui non sit interdictum? Did Clodius frame this law, more infamous than even his own tongue?—that it has been i
nterdictedto a person to whom it has not been interdicted?(Cic. Dom. 18) ( Perseus Digital library 2020).
Filling of the frame slots with syntactical means:
dicam ea quae dicenda hoc tempore arbitror. I say those things concerning… which I think myself bound to say(Cic. Phil. 1.1) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); at the present time.
honestissimi homines… (Cic. Ver. 1.1.20) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020); inter seet mecum loquebantur… …the most honourable men spoke to one anotherand to mein this manner
Ego autem si omnia quae dicenda sunt libere dixero… But if I should say… (Cic. S. Rosc. 1) ( Perseus Digital Library, 2020). all the things which must be saidwith ever so much f reedom
Features of the realization of each slot in different families
The slot P is presented by 1) non derivative verbs
It should be said about the following feature of the slot P in the family
We suppose, that both the detected feature of the verb
The slot R, like the slot P, is homogeneous in ways of realization. It consists of nouns, built both from parent verbs, and from prefixed derivatives. Here are frequent presented nouns with formant -io, which was able in the Latin language to combine meanings of the process and of the result, e.g.;
The slot S1 demonstrates the most diversity of the derivatives. In all three word families it consists both the names of speaking subject and his characteristics, connected with speech. As word formation mean for the signification of the subject is used as a rule the formant -or. Examples;
The slot O, like the slot S1, includes the names both of objects, expressed by nouns, and of their features, expressed by adjectives and nouns, and besides features are named more often, than objects. Examples:
In the structure of the frame “To speak” by means of the word formation can be realized slots “Speech action”, “Subject”, “Object”, “Product or result”. Derivational means correlate with slots partially: suffixation and substantivation are presented in all slots, prefixation – only in the slot “Speech action”; there are formants, which are able to combine the meanings of the process and the result. Slot sets in the families
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03 August 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Danilina, N., & Nosacheva, M. (2020). Propositional Frame Structure Of A Word Family: Latin Verba Dicendi. In & N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 332-339). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.39