The Role Of Native Culture For The Implementation Of Intercultural Communication

Abstract

The article formulates a social order; the definitions of the concepts "language" and "culture”, examines the concept of "secondary linguistic personality". The purpose of the work is defined: the development of secondary linguistic personality of a student in a non-linguistic University through co-studying language and culture, which is based on contrastive study of foreign and native languages and cultures based on developed and published materials by the author of this article (textbooks and articles in magazines and Newspapers. The author reveals the role and significance of using "region-specific" educational and training materials for the formation of valuable orientations in learning a foreign language and also shows the role of the native language and the multinational native culture of South Ural region in the implementation of intercultural communication. The use of these materials in the educational process played an important role in the development of motivation to learn a foreign language for students of a small team group, as well as contributed to the acquisition of solid knowledge. High results in the "foreign language" educational field indicate the involvement and feedback of students: last academic year the 1st and 3rd places were taken in All-Russian student essay contest in foreign language among students of non-linguistic departments of higher education institutions, and the 3rd place the year before last. Qualitative growth is noticeable. This growth is evidenced by individual case studies that reflect the student's personality, creativity, and interest in acquiring new knowledge and applying it in practice.

Keywords: Dialogue of culturessecondary language personality of a student of a non-linguistic Universitycultural valuesculture of the country of the studied languagenative cultureculture of the multinational South Ural people

Introduction

The state's need for specialists who speak foreign language at a high level increased in the modern world, characterized by such process as globalization, i.e. the "involvement of national cultures in the qualitatively new world unity, by its very nature is transnational, lying beyond the boundaries of individual States, Nations, and civilizations have their own qualitatively specific principles of operation (V. S. Glagolev, N. And. Biryukov, N. N. Zarubina, etc.); (Zharkova & Sorokovykh, 2017, p. 9) " To prepare future specialists for life and work in a constantly changing world characterized by such processes as integration, internationalization, globalization, where intercultural interactions are carried out, it is necessary to develop students 'skills to establish personal contacts, conduct business negotiations and presentations, telephone conversations, exchange correspondence, participate in seminars, conferences, forums, symposiums, and congresses" (Zharkova, 2019c, p. 25). For this purpose, future professionals in the field of Finance and Economics, Management and Marketing, Entrepreneurship and business need to know not only the foreign language and culture, but their native language and culture. It should be noted that "recent years have shown a significant increase of interest in learning foreign languages as a tool for intercultural communication. Social order forces educational services to expand the scope of services for learning a foreign language through its cultural space" (Zharkova, 2016a, p. 448).

The task of the teacher at the present stage is to educate a secondary language personality by means of a foreign language. A language personality is a person who acts as a mediator of cultures, who has the ability to represent their native culture, as well as contribute to ensuring that business communication partners and participants in the dialogue of cultures do not lose their national identity. Secondary language personality of a student of a non-linguistic University is the student's ability to cross-cultural communication, to successfully implement the dialogue of cultures at a high professional level.

Problem Statement

The need to co-study language and culture.

It must be remembered that "culture lives and develops in the "language shell " (V. A. Maslova). Language serves culture, but does not define it. Language serves as a means of reflecting and perceiving the social reality and culture of the people who speak this language. Language is a means, a kind of tool for expressing thoughts. Foreign language proficiency is an instrument of cognition and thinking, a tool of intercultural communication. The student acquires direct access to vast spiritual wealth of the nation, has the opportunity to join the culture, comparing it with his and its multi-ethnic culture of the region, expands their horizons, receives additional professional knowledge, but also has the opportunity to participate in the implementation of the dialogue of cultures.

Any language is a unique phenomenon that reveals and learns the national psychology, the soul of the people, their character, customs and traditions. It is with the help of language that the cultural and historical heritage of the people is passed from generation to generation. In other words, language is the face of a nation, one of the signs of community, according to which one nation differs from another. Only through language you can get acquainted with the cultural and ethnic characteristics of the communication partner, get acquainted with the specifics of his culture, the psychology and mentality of people, their traditions and customs, myths and rituals, etc. Foreign language proficiency will undoubtedly help you to enter into other cultures, into someone else's spiritual life and determine your attitude to these cultures, to learn and master the cultural values accumulated by representatives of other society.

It is well known that language transmits not only the character of the people's thought, but also their worldview. Knowledge of any culture is impossible without learning the language. Mastering the language does not mean knowing phonetics, spelling, morphology, etc., but it means feeling the "taste" of culture, understanding and feeling its richness and value. It requires entering into the cultural space, understanding the ideals. To communicate means to get involved into the partner's culture, and join the partner to your own culture. Learning the foreign cultural world helps to know your native culture better.

It is well known that values determine the spiritual and moral education of students. When studying the culture of the country of the language being studied, the teacher must compare it to the native culture. "Understanding the culture of the country of the language being studied is no longer a goal, but only a motive for a deeper understanding of the native culture. Comparing knowledge about one's own country and region with information about the country of the language being studied makes it possible to build learning as a mutually enriching dialogue between two cultures" (Zharkova, 2014, p. 17; Zharkova, 2017a,b, p. 154-155; Zharkova, 2019b, p. 59). Therefore, the value vector of studying native culture is not in doubt.

Research Questions

National and regional component of the content of education

Thus, each language has its own so-called picture of the world, which reflects the reality in its own way. The language "passes" it to the next generation. For example, WHITE in Russian is the color of purity and joy, the color of snow. "The standard of white color for Uzbeks is cotton, for Kazakhs and Kyrgyz – milk, and for Eskimos – snow. Dominic Roland points out that Eskimos have a large number of words for white" (Zharkova, 2010, p. 78). Numerous names of snow varieties among the Eskimos do not find a match in the languages of other peoples. It creates certain difficulties in understanding the communication partner. The color palette is limited, which determines the intercultural homonymy of colors (Maslova & Pimenova, 2018, p. 3). "White color indicates positive characteristics. French examples: "blanche main (main blanche)" – "gentle hand, caring hand"; "boule blanche" – "good mark at the exam"; "carte blanche" – "freedom of action, unlimited powers"; "respecter les cheveux blancs" - "respect old age"; "fils de la poule blanche" – "lucky" (Zharkova, 2010, p. 78). It should be noted that most French people know only one word "snow" ("neige, f" ), while for French skiers there are a number of names of different types of snow ( "différente typologie de neige" ). By the way, the number of words is hardly less than in Eskimos vocabulary: neige croûtée (neige plus ou moins dure), neige sèche (neige qui contient très peu d’eau), neige humide (neige qui contient de l’eau), neige mouillée (neige qui contient une grosse quantité d’eau), neige soufflée (neige très fine, déplacée suite à du vent), neige trafollée (neige qui a déjà subi les traces des skieurs), neige transformée (neige qui a connu de multiples modifications entre le gel et le dégel), neige fraîche (premières neiges tombées), neige poudreuse (neige sèche très récente et très légère qui se rapproche de la poudre), neige profonde grande quantité de neige poudreuse), neige fondante (neige qui est en train de fondre), neige jaune (neige à éviter, risque de corrosion des carres), etc. South Ural skiers call it "grits" (snow falling in the form of balls, not snowflakes), "Crust" (dense crust of snow), and “snow porridge" (a mixture of snow and water), these words characterize the special climate of the southern Urals. You can also compare the names of the winds in two countries that characterize the climatic conditions of the regions: Vent de Bordeau-Bordeaux wind, North-West wind in Ger (France); Mistral – Mistral, i.e. the wind blowing from the Cevennes on the Mediterranean coast of France. Cold and strong wind is the scourge of agriculture in Provence. Shelonik -wind in the North, the Urals and Siberia, the wind of different directions, most often Western, the name of which is formed from the name of the river Shelon, which flows into lake Ilmen. Burun – a strong whirlwind, storm. Telposis - winds blizzard in the Urals, Siberia, the Volga region; Telposiz-nest of winds in the Urals (after the name of the mountain in the Urals).

It is well known, that dialogue itself suggests close acquaintance with cultures, as well as rapprochement, exchange, and mutual enrichment. At present, it is important to build intercultural relationships correctly, it should be based on awareness of the uniqueness of languages and cultures. The priority task for today is to strive for language and cultural polyphony, careful attitude to the spiritual and intellectual characteristics of small cultures, which there are a considerable number in the South Urals: more than 152. In addition, every nation cherishes its culture, customs and traditions. The Russian population is the most numerous, accounting for 82.3 %. The southern Urals is a multi-ethnic, where Tatars and Bashkirs are second in number. There is no chauvinism or ethnic hostility among nations. It is a lot due to University teachers. There are projects about the life, work, service, culture of the peoples living in the southern Urals. Students should know that the South Urals is the land of natural resources and legendary factories, the land where the Great Silk Road once ran, the land where the border between Europe and Asia passes. Chelyabinsk is the capital of the South Urals, the seventh city in Russia by the number of inhabitants; it is a kind of "gateway to Siberia". Chelyabinsk region is an urbanized and highly developed economic region where metallurgy, mechanical engineering, energy, agriculture, and tourism are developed. It is necessary to cultivate Patriotic feelings among the younger generation and assure them to find jobs and create their ideas in their native land.

To help teachers and students, we have published a workbook "l'Oural du Sud, mon pays natal: a student's topic workbook" (Zharkova, 2005b). These materials contribute to the expansion of knowledge about regional natural resources and the cities of the South Urals (Kopeisk, Miass, Zlatoust, Magnitogorsk, etc.), as well as world-famous personalities: fabulist I. A. Krylov (born in Troitsk), ethnographer V. P. Biryukov, triple-A world chess champion (1975, 1978, 1981) A. E. Karpov, the only 6-time Olympic champion in the history of speed skating L. Skoblikova, Professor A. G. Turbin, who studied the South Ural dialects, etc. It is sad that students learn about these people for the first time from our workbooks and articles. Students receive information about not only nature, its beauty and diversity, climate and fabulous wealth of the "Gray Urals", but also about the glorious work of Ural folk craftsmen, the past and culture of the Ural people, about the originality of their national character and mentality. At the lessons, we use proverbs and sayings, understanding that folk wisdom, combined with aesthetic perfection of expression, undoubtedly impresses our students. Proverbs of the Ural people strengthen the motivation to studies.

In the focus of our attention and research there are Proverbs and sayings. They expand and enrich the communicative-speech repertoire of students, and avoid the "failure" of intercultural communication, as a compensatory tool (Zharkova, 2020). To help teachers and students master the proverbial fund, the treasury of the language, and the most valuable linguistic heritage of the people who speak it, we published a collection of Proverbs: “Proverbe ne peut mentir” (Zharkova, 2002a), articles “Chiffres et Proverbs” in the French magazine “Le français dans Le Monde” (Zharkova, 2005a), “About proverbs and sayings in the implementation of successful intercultural communication” (Zharkova, 2019a). Obviously, the historical experience of peoples is almost equally reflected in the phraseological fund of different languages. You can ask students to find equivalents in the foreign languages they are studying. However, most phraseological units differ in their national specifics, their picture of the world. The idea that "it is good in the guests, but it is better at home” can be traced in all linguistic cultures: "On n'est nulle part aussi bien que chez soi" (Fr.), "Osten und Westen, zu Haus ist's am besten" (Ger.), "East or west, home is best" (Eng.). This is the key thought.

Students ' work with texts that contain information about the surrounding nature, life, and culture, i.e. information that is close and dear to them, significantly increases motivation. Annual meetings with guests from France facilitate it. While preparing students study the history of their native land, the richness of its mineral resources, interesting tourist routes, traditions and customs of the Ural people. At the present stage of education, we should give more attention than ever to regional studies, because of growing need for business and international communication, contacts between firms and companies from other countries. International sports competitions are also held In the capital of the South Urals, namely the World Judo Championship (August 25-31, 2014), and the World Taekwondo Championship (may 12-18, 2015). It is surprising that first-year students all want to support communication with foreigners on the topics passed in the school: "Acquaintance", "Family", "City", "Sport", etc. but foreign athletes want to learn more about the region where the competitions are held. Moreover, our students can support communication on this topic. During extracurricular time, students independently make case studies on the topic; describe their native corner of nature. The best works are published in the magazines "La langue française" and "L'Amitié" . A person loves his native land immensely and the French language as well, so he describes the sights so beautifully, to show and prove that the South Urals is not only a Treasury of Russia, but also a strong point of the Power.

The teacher is undoubtedly the main person, who cultivates both a love for the language, culture, region, and the educational institution where he/she teaches. Students are happy to participate in essay contest "A vos plumes!" , announced by the magazines "La langue française" (Moscow) and "L'Amitié" (Bratislava), and many student works are published on their pages. We are very committed to helping the teachers of French by publishing of a number of materials. These materials are devoted to sights of Chelyabinsk, the capital of the Southern Urals (Zharkova, 2005b), nature, environmental problems, historical famous places, such as the ancient city of Arkaim, the visit of French classic Louis Aragon, who came to the South Urals and Chelyabinsk in 1932. He wrote poems about the Urals, about the Chelyabinsk tractor plant ("Valse du Tcheliabtraktorostroi" ), about Magnitogorsk ("Les Amants de Magnitogorsk" ). Published works describe methods of working with materials for regional studies at the lesson (Zharkova, 2002b). Our materials on regional studies have been widely used in educational institutions in the Chelyabinsk region, and we have received a lot of positive feedback from French language teachers. We are very pleased that our materials used to conduct open lessons and master classes, as well as create travel brochures. We believe that the use of regional studies materials in the educational process is associated with the upbringing of certain character traits, such as dignity and pride, respect and love for their culture, the culture of the multi-ethnic Ural peoples. The most important thing is to develop a value orientation related to the attitude to the values of native and other cultures, to ranking these values in the conditions of modern cultural dialogue and intercultural exchange!

Russian students who study abroad acquaint foreigners with Russian language and Russian culture; manners, customs, traditions, and rituals of the Russian South Ural peoples, while maintaining their self-identity, because they lived and educated the South Urals, absorbed with "mother's milk" love for their Motherland, they are the representatives of the Russian linguarium. Russian culture and language are being introduced, disseminated, and preserved at the international level. "Language is the key to a large home" ("La langue, C'est la clef de la grande maison", Gilles Vigneault, chanteur et compositeur Québécois ). We would add to this home a "home" called the Earth (Zharkova, 2016b, p. 45). We agree with the statement of the French diplomat and writer Paul Claudel that there are homes for tolerance: "La tolérance? Il y a des maisons pour a!" (Paul Claudel). Homes are undoubtedly able to eliminate national disagreement and unite peoples on our planet (Zharkova, 2016b, p. 49).

Purpose of the Study

4.1. Bilinguistic and bicultural development of students of a non-linguistic University with the help of author's methodological materials.

4.2. Research-based development of methods for teaching skills of all types of speech activity (listening, speaking, reading, writing) on the material of regional studies.

4.3. Co-learning the language and culture in order to maintain a successful dialogue of cultures with partners in business and professional communication.

4.4. The use of regional studies materials in intercultural communication with native speakers.

4.5. Providing methodological support to young teachers of foreign languages.

Research Methods

5.1. General scientific methods of theoretical research (comparison and analysis of definitions of basic concepts and terms and their characteristics; description; explanation; generalization systematization and comparison).

5.2. Theoretical analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature on the research topic, analysis of literature on regional studies.

5.3. Empirical methods (pedagogical observation, generalization of pedagogical / methodological / linguodidactic experience).

Findings

Currently, publishing a series of educational and methodological manuals, including material on regional studies is very necessary. This need is overdue thanks to political and socio-economic changes in society, in the era of «unique, planetary civilization "(P. Ricker), expanding the unified information space in which the next generation will live. There is an urgent need to help future specialists of Finance and Economics, management and marketing, entrepreneurship and business to develop their abilities to communicate with representatives of a foreign linguistic society in order not only to meet their needs in interpersonal communication, but also to realize professional goals, which will directly affect the successful implementation of deals and contracts, as well as the prosperity of the region and the homeland, the bright representatives of which they are.

Materials textbooks and publications in national and international journals increase motivation to learn a foreign language and at the same time expand and enrich the knowledge of students about their region, cultivate love to native language and native country/region/Homeland.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I would like to note that:

7.1. The use of "region-specific" educational and training materials plays an important role in the development of motivation to learn a foreign language for students of a small team group, as well as contribute to obtaining solid knowledge. For the realization of intercultural communication, it is necessary to not only know the native language, own the native culture and its values, but also to use them skillfully in intercultural interaction, which would contribute not only to mutual exchange, but also to mutual development and mutual enrichment.

7.2. Learning a foreign language and foreign culture contributes to the development of the individual student (Volodina, 2016, p. 6), namely the development of secondary linguistic personality of the student, to develop his communicative abilities. Communication with representatives of various linguistic communities is a solid basis for introducing students to the global values of civilization.

7.3. Learning a foreign language in comparison with the native language should help the student to understand their roots, their place and role in the world, their conscious right and responsible choice. Learning a foreign language in comparison with the native language should also help instill respect, tolerance for another society, another culture, another people, as well as provide an opportunity to open yourself in another culture while maintaining your identity.

7.4. Student engagement and feedback reflect high results in the "Foreign language" educational field: in the all-Russian student competition of essays in a foreign language among students of non-language faculties of higher education institutions, two places were taken last academic year: 1st and 3rd, and 3rd place the year before last. It is qualitative growth. Individual case studies reflect the students’ personality, creativity, and interest in acquiring new knowledge and applying it in practice. All students try to summarize the results of their research activities in writing and publishing scientific papers (2-3 papers each), and participating in International and all-Russian conferences and Forums.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

03.08.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.186

Online ISSN

2357-1330