The author of an archetype is C.G. Jung. He distinctly defined the negative in human existence and called it
The archetypes of a
In linguistics an archetype is often defined as “an archetypal concept” (Afanasieva, 2019; Boyko, 2016; Ivanova, 2017; Kolosov, 2013; Shushpanova, 2019, etc.). In our research of folk riddles they are presented as poetic creations, relating to small forms of folklore, and are considered a locus of preservation of archaisms, pagan traces, myths, that is why we relate them to mythological concepts and their senados is presented as mythologeme (Shesterkina, 2016).
An archaic world view is reflected in the monuments of oral folk art. The texts keep enormous layers of archaic vocabulary. With the help of comparative analysis we studied several national types of myth-concepts (Russian, German, Mordovian).
The notion shadow / shadows is realized by mystic ideas and rich symbolism. In ancient times a shadow of a human or an animal was his or its soul: its ”loss” was equal to the loss of life, that is why in some countries during the funeral till present time it is recommended to stay away from the grave in order that a shadow of a person who is accompanying the dead could not touch the grave; otherwise, reflected, it will not be able to return to the body and it will cause death (Makovsky, 1996). Categories of a shadow are correlated to the meanings “corruption”, “damage”, “ruin”: ang. scéad “shadow”, but ang. scéadu “corruption”, “damage” (eng. dial. scathe “to cause damage”, “to spoil”); rus. тень, but eng. dial. teen “ruin”, “corruption”, “damage”; lit. pa-unksne “shadow”, lit. ukas “fog”, ind.-eur. *ueg- “defect” (arm. gez “spot”, “stain”, ga. feigh “fault”, “blemish”); lit. pa-vesis “shadow”, but old-ind. nivasita “ums Leben gebracht” («cause a death»), nivasana-m “das Ermorden” («death»), “Töten” (to kill); lat. umbra “shadow”, got. ubils “bad”, eng. dial. obering “bad sign”; scc.-cr. hladovi-na “shadow”, but wel. llod “kill”, lat. laedere “harm”. The words with a meaning “shadow” are correlated with the meaning “to leave”, “to part (from body)” [in place cited].
The prediction about a demonic double of a person, where a shadow personifies evil, is connected to a shadow (Andersen has a story about a shadow parted with its master) (Adamchik, 2006). “Shadow” is related to the meaning “fire” > («soul»): rus. тень; gal. teinn “fire”; ang. scéad “shadow”, but lav. kaitet “to heat, to warm”, old.north. heitr “hot”; lit. pa-uksne “shadow”, but ind.-eur. *ug-, *og- “fire; to burn”; lav. ena “shadow”; ind.-eur. an(dh)- “fire” > “soul” (Makovsky, 1996). A shadow presents a soul, often in a lower aspect. In some languages the meanings “shadow” and “soul” are one word. There is a typical idea that a shadow as the second “I” is a vitally important part of a person: a soul as a shadow comes to a sleeping, clairvoyant [in place cited]. (Compare animistic notions about soul and spirits). In European folklore there are stories about people who had lost their shadows (compare “Peter Schlemihl” by А. Chamisso); a man without shadow is a man who had sold his soul to the devil, he has no shadow.
According to etymology a shadow is an all-Slavic word with a suffix -нь having the same base as darkness. The original is *těmnь > shadow after simplification of the consonants mn > n and changing of «ять» into е (Shansky & Bobrova, 2004). A German concept ‘Schatten’ (“shadow”) is also connected to mystic ideas, it originates from ind.-eur. *(s)kai-dh- “to burn” with a changing of a meaning to the contrary connected to ind.-eur. *kei- “to cut, to rub” > “to strike fire” (Makovsky, 2004). Dictionary (Haale, 1961) defines the kinship of this word with Celtic and Greek skótos “Dunkelheit” / “darkness”.
German have a shadow also connected to a human soul (Die Seele ist der Schatten des Menschen – “Soul is a shadow of a person”). In German folklore the kingdom of dead is called kingdom of shadows (Pimenov, 2009). The meaning of death correlating to a shadow is inseparably connected to the meaning of life (dyad life - death): comp. rus. тень, but lav. tene “mesentery” (> “genitals”); ang. scéad “shadow”; ind.-eur. *kud- “vulva”; lit. pa-uksne “shadow”»; arm. ogi “soul”; lav. ena “shadow”; bre. ene “soul” (ind.-eur. *an- “to breath, soul”) (Makovsky, 1996). A shadow is a ghost of a dead person. Greeks have their kingdom of dead inhabited with ghostly shadows (Adamchik, 2006). Ancient Slaviс people did not distinguish paradise and hell, they "believed in a single world beyond the grave situated far away over the seas, in heavens" or under the ground. According to beliefs, during the remebrence days Polessky dead come from the cemetery to their native houses and then “come back to the churchyard as white shadows” (Tolstoy, 1995).
The reflection of a person in the water presaged death. The words with the meaning “shadow” correlate to the meanings “liquid, moisture, water”: rus. тень, but ang. ðan “wet”, and also gre. θανατος “death”; lit. dial. uksme “shadow”; but ind.-eur. *ues- /*uer- “water, moisture”, ang. scéad “shadow”; but ang. géotan “to pour” (Makovsky, 1996). According to C. Jung, a shadow is connected to collective unconscious, which constantly “let the consciousness know about itself”. It comes up in consciousness as archetypical images seen in the dreams, during spirit seance or a mystic trance. Archetypes show themselves in consciousness as personified and material images; the most common among them is the ”Shadow” of a man, his inner opponent, with whom he constantly has a dialogue (comp. for example, “A Black man” by S. Yesenin). In the “Shadow” the dark qualities of a soul are personified, this is the other side of his own individuality, realizable by a person, and a meeting with it, by Jung, is not pleasant (Kosarev, 2000). “The one who looks at the mirror of waters, first of all sees his own reflection. Going to himself risks to meet himself” (Jung), it means, to meet with his Shadow, see his real face. Only the one who is able to stand this spectacle and not to recoil in horror, can expect a successful going out [in place cited: 114]. Probably this explains the version of a solution – “Shadow” in the riddle: rus. Stoit starik nad vodoy, kachayet borodoy (1898) – “There is an old man above the water, swaying his beard”: a man looks at the water and sees himself an old person with a beard (anthropomorphic mythological metaphor).
Shadow is a constant “companion” of a light and this is what we see when we verbalize the concepts Schatten / Licht (Shadow / light) in German language through the ‘conceptual feature’ (onward CF) “the connection of light and darkness”, comp.: “Where is light, there are shadows”; (rus. “Where is a lot of good, there is [a lot of] bad”). In this phraseological unit there is also a СF “good / bad impact”. ‘Shadow’ and ‘darkness’ are etymologically connected in both languages. German Schatten correlates with ind.eur. root *skai-, *ski- “gedämpft schimmern” [to shimmer], old gle. scath “shadow”, got. skadus “darkness” (Makovsky, 2004).
According to the etymological diary of D.V. Tsygankin and M.V. Mosin (Tsygankin & Mosin, 2015), the word “сулей” / “shadow” has Finno-Ugric roots. In Finnish suoja means “cover; protection; sanctuary”, in Mansi language salt is “hoar”. Ugric languages, as we know, are a special branch of Finno-Ugric languages, which, in their turn, together with a Samoyed branch, unite into the common for them Ural language family. Hungarian, Khanty, Mansi are Ugric languages.
Purpose of the Study
Comparative analysis of the mythological concept (hereafter referred: myth-concept) ’SHADOW’ in Indo-European (Russian and German) and in Finno-Ugric (Mordovian-Moksha and Mordovian-Erzya) languages, belonging to the different language families.
Сonceptual-comparative analysis we studied several national types myth-concepts.
Therefore, the analysis of ancient versions of nominations
In Russian and Mordovian riddles there are additional
In German riddles we have detected a lot of both
1) shadow –
3) the same is observed
4) it is not lighted up by the sun:
Several factors are combined in the following
A shadow has male and female gender only in Mordovian riddles:
5). Has human feelings: “Embarrassed by the sun, Afraid of the night”.
6). Zoomorphic feature:
7). Connection with water and zoomorphic feature:
Thus, concepts ‘shadow’ / ‘Schatten’ / Цильфсь / Сулеесь belong to supernatural phenomena, occupying a transitional position between light and darkness, however the "dark" prevails. A shadow is considered as a weather phenomenon, directly observed and verbally represented in all the analyzed languages. In these concepts an animism is reflected - a common “animation” and “spirituality” (biomorphic and anthropomorphous mythological metaphors). But there are almost no traces of multiple etymology in the riddles about shadow (comp. M.M. Makovsky's statements). A microcosm and its connection to the common arrangement are reflected in them. A shadow is presented as a living thing, sometimes human-like, a man's double (black in German), able to move without legs, bodyless, speechless, scary, but immortal comparing to a man. In Russian, German and Mordovian riddles there are some lacunas in relation to each other, comparing to light and darkness. In German riddles a shadow appears much more often. This attention to a shadow probably can be explained by the preference of German to semitones, to transitions between light and darkness, occultness, supernatural, mystic.
An anthropomorphic mythological metaphor is not reflected in Russian riddles. Also in Russian riddles there are lacunary conceptual features “shadow - nothing and at the same time something”, “is presented in the sun light, sometimes in the moon light”, “isn't lighted up by the sun”, “black” color; at the same time in German riddles there are no CFs “impossible to get rid of a shadow”, “speechless”, “immortality”, “outpaces a person”.
Having analyzed the body of folk riddles, which in the ancient times were a secret speech for people and fulfilled an euphemistic function of covering true names of forbidden subjects and phenomena, we undertook a try to find a way into the inner code nature of riddles, to reveal a concept "shadow" from the different sides and correlate them with the most ancient archetypical ideas of the three ethnic groups. The mechanism of coding in folk riddles is considered as a universal cognitive process. Everything, existing in the world and lighted by the rays of the sun, casts shadows, and German and Russian riddles witness it. In the structure of the Solar system only the Sun cannot have a shadow, however, according to German and Russian riddles, God does not also cast a shadow, although each object and idea has its reverse side, because negative features, vices and drawbacks ontologically inherent to human nature due to reflecting universal world order.
By folk concepts of Mordovians, shadow / сулей / цильф can have a definite type of appearance with features of an anthropomorphous creature (in the lake a silver goose swims, in the corner of the house there is a black cat, with a head, embarrassed, doesn't ask, afraid of, hides, meets, chases, guards, lives an age), but at the same time it is correlated with a silent noiseless image (has neither eyes, nor tongue, doesn't gurgle, doesn't rustle). The coding of information happens through zoological vocabulary, but also through an actional code of culture, because a shadow moves in a space without any sounds. It's important to emphasize that in Mordovian riddles a shadow has feelings. We can easily explain the creation of an external image of a shadow as a black cat, because in the dark of the night sparkling eyes hide a secret, dark sides of universe. In Erzya riddles the creation of an external image of a shadow as a swan connected to a water, because you can see identical features in water like in a mirror. A wide-known layer of riddles in Russian and Mordovian languages states the localization of a shadow and changing of its contours depending on time, it has an ability to stay bodiless, incorporeal creature. In Russian and Mordovian linguistic cultures intangibility and invulnerability of a shadow, impossibility to get rid of it, its presence in the rays of the sun are emphasized. It should be noted that a shadow in Russian and Mordovian riddles always accompanies a person, shows up as a companion, and therefore in many cultures a shadow causes a reverent fear, contribute to creating of rituals, brings new meanings in culture. We should not forget about Mordovian riddles-questions: Мези эстэт а паниве? – What can't you chase off yourself? [Shakhmatov, 1910, p. 403]. Basing on these witnesses, we can conclude that, according to its nature, a folk riddle is, on the one hand, a way of ”archiving” of the cultural constants, but, from the other hand, it is an instrument of generating new meanings in culture.
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03 August 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Shesterkina, N. V., & Vaganova, Е. N. (2020). The Mythological Concept ‘Shadow’ (On The Material Of Folk Riddles). In & N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1529-1539). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.177