Synonymic-Antonymic Complexes In The Denotative Sphere "Settlement"

Abstract

The novelty of the study is determined by the identification of lexical units forming the denotative sphere "Settlement", which are in the Russian language in relations of the opposite in the synonymic-antonymic complexes LOCAL — VISITOR, EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT, CAPITAL — PROVINCE, CENTER — REMOTE PLACE. It is revealed that the interpretation of the general notions of the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" in the aspect of antonymy is carried out by lexemes of different categorical-grammatical nature with the prevalence of nominal representations. Antonymous relations in synonymic-antonymic complexes include lexemes with the semantics of the opposite; synonymous rows and one-word antonyms; antonymous synonymous rows of different volume, including both neutral and stylistically and functionally marked words. All antonymically opposed synonymous series, united by semantics related to the settlement, can be considered a macrosynonymic-antonymic complex formed by macrosynonymic-antonymic complexes in its structure. The conducted ideographic analysis has shown that in the denotative-ideographical sphere "Settlement" two denotative-ideographical groups are distinguished, and antonymically opposed synonymous series are united into synonymic-antonymic complexes "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement". It indicates that it is the cognitive characteristics of "location" and "characteristic of a person in relation to the settlement" that are salient to the Russian national consciousness in terms of their representation as synonyms and antonyms in the language picture of the world.

Keywords: Synonymsantonymssynonymic-antonymic complexdenotative-ideographic grouptypical semanticsideographic dictionary

Introduction

Antonymy is regarded by many researchers as one of the most widespread and effective ways of presenting the semantic space of language in the lexicon Babenko (2018), Novikov (2001), Shmelev (2003), and others, as "for the semantic space of language both relations of opposition closely related to the category of the world, with the horizontal hypostasis of the space, and relations of differentiation and identity related to the depth of the semantic space and its vertical hypostasis are equally important" (Babenko, 2016a, p. 15).

The lexical category of antonymy is the object of description in classical works on lexicology (Babenko, 2018; Karaulov, 1976, and others) and is placed in the focus of attention in the articles of modern Russian (Muhin, 2016; Muhin, 2017; Plotnikova, 2019, etc.) and foreign researchers concerning, for example, the study of antonymy using corpus analysis (Jones, 2002). In modern studies, scientists study the specificity of lexicographic representation of synonyms (Slovar'-tezaurus sinonimov russkoj rechi, 2017; Slovar' sinonimov sibirskogo govora, 2016); antonimia in the cognitive aspect – based on the manifestation in antonimes of cognitive relations, cognitive mechanisms (Plotnikova, 2018, etc.), the problems of categorization (Babenko, 2016b) and in the comparative aspect (Maskaliūnienė, 2016).

An ideographic approach to synonymy and antonymy categories, based on the study of the semantics of lexemes united through the identification of conceptual categories in the minds of native speakers, is productive for determining the semantic laws of lexical organization in opposition synonymous rows. The direct connection between the lexical categories of synonymy and antonymy is mentioned by Karaulov (1976) in his work "General and Russian ideography": "Words, expressing their meanings, within one lexico-semantic group at the same time appear to be connected by relations between themselves, not -indifferent to their meanings. These are relations of synonymy, antonymy, any kind of specification, differentiation and -generalization of close or contiguous values" (Karaulov, 1976, p. 49).

Problem Statement

Firstly, the problem of this research is caused by the innovative ideographic approach to the interpretation of antonyms, and secondly, it is related to the description of synonymic-antonymic complexes in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" in the lexicographical parameters of the dictionary of synonymic-antonymic complexes of the Russian language.

The novelty of this study is determined by the identification of lexical units that are in the Russian language in the opposite relations in the structure of synonymic-antonymic complexes (hereinafter – SAC), which are part of the denotative sphere "Settlement". The definition of opposing lexical-semantic sets in its composition, the study of their structural-semantic features is relevant.

Research Questions

Specific tasks of the study at its different stages included a lexicographical description of individual SAC within the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement", determination of specificity of modelling typical opposition semantics of each SAC, identification of basic antonymous oppositions and their regular specific variants forming SAC and synonymic- antonymic micro-groups within them.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to identify SAC in the denotation-ideographic sphere "Settlement", formulate their complex integrative semantics and model their special structural organization.

Research Methods

The main methods used in the study were the following: ideographic analysis of antonymical oppositions; semantic analysis; method of formulation of complex integrative type semantics of each SAC and method of description of SAC in lexicographical parameters, developed by L. G. Babenko; quantitative method of interpretation of the results of the ideographic analysis.

Findings

Definition of "synonymic-antonymic complex"

Let us consider what synonymic-antonymic complexes as new lexical sets can be distinguished in this denotative-ideographic sphere. The notion of "synonymic-antonymic complex" was introduced by Ludmila G. Babenko (see fundamental work on this topic – Babenko, 2019). Generalizing the theoretical statements of Babenko (2019), we can form the following definition: The synonymic-antonymic complex is a unified hierarchically organized system consisting of a complex of synonyms and antonyms considered within the framework of the ideological dictionary (they participate in the representation of integration of identity and opposite relations in the Russian language by lexical means and are united into semantically correlated word groupings connected by paradigmatic relations), having a specifically organized complex integrative semantics and a special structural organization, which determines the peculiarities of the lexicographical representation of typical SAC semantics, the presence of variants of its modelling, the principles of identification of basic antonymous oppositions and their regular private variants, forming SAC and synonymic-antonymic micro-groups in their structure.

Features of lexicographical representation of typical SAC semantics

All antonymically opposed synonymous series, united by semantics related to the settlement, can be considered a macrosynonymic-antonymic complex formed by macrosynonymic-antonymic complexes in its structure.

The conducted ideographic analysis has shown that in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" two denotative-ideographic groups are distinguished, therefore, the antonymically opposed synonymous rows are united into two SAC: "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement", which indicates that it is the cognitive characteristics of "location" and "characteristic of a person in relation to the settlement" that are salient to the Russian national consciousness in terms of their representation as synonyms and antonyms in the language picture of the world. These semantic components are basic for SAC and form both their typical semantics and the semantics of the first basic antonymic opposition in their structure.

The typical oppositional semantics of SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" was formulated under the concept of the dictionary of synonymic-antonymic complexes of the Russian language by Babenko (2019) in the form of "a detailed definition that interprets very briefly the semantics of the whole complex and accumulates both identical and opposite essential semantic features, as well as their lexical representations in the form of private oppositions" (Babenko, 2019, p. 49): the one who was born in a country, region or is a permanent resident, a representative of a local population — the one who was not born in a country, region, arrived from somewhere else, not a representative of a native population (local — stranger); the one who has voluntarily or involuntarily moved from his/her home country to another country for permanent residence — the one who has voluntarily or involuntarily arrived in a country for permanent (or temporary) residence (emigrant — immigrant).

In the semantics of the SAC lexemes "Person in relation to the settlement", the following semantic attributes are opposed: "the one who was born somewhere" — "the one who was not born somewhere"; "the one who is native" — "the one who is not native"; "the one who has moved to somewhere" — "the one who has arrived somewhere". Identical semantic components of private antonymic oppositions are "living in a country or region", "belonging to a native population", "voluntary or forced relocation from somewhere to somewhere", "permanent or temporary residence in a settlement".

The typical oppositional semantics of the SAC "Location of a settlement" is summarized as follows: Main city, administrative political centre of the state — area, remote from the central parts of the country and big cities (capital — province); large settlement, having administrative, industrial, cultural significance for a particular area, country — small settlement, remote place, usually distant from cultural centres and transport routes (centre — remote place).

As the opposition semantic components for the bearers of the Russian national consciousness are the "administrative political centre of the state" — "remote place"; "large settlement" — "small settlement"; "administrative, industrial, cultural significance" — "remoteness from administrative, industrial, cultural centres". A similar semantic attribute of antonymous oppositions is the only categorical semantic component "settlement".

SAC's oppositional structure

The oppositive structure of the paradigm of the opposing synonymous rows of SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" is formed by the following hierarchically organized SAC: LOCAL — VISITOR (8 oppositions), EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT (8 oppositions).

As for lexical representatives of the relations of the opposite in SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement", among them, there are no groups of words from paradigmatic rows connected with the relations of the opposite – oppositional SAC.

The SAC LOCAL — VISITOR consists of 8 oppositions [Translator note: hereinafter, examples are given in Russian]: разг. Местный , разг. здешний «Тот, кто родился в какой-л. стране, местности или является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности, представителем исконного населения» — Приезжий , пришелец, разг. пришлый, разг. чужак, устар., разг.-сниж. чужанин «Тот, кто не родился в какой-л. стране, местности, приехал, прибыл откуда-л., не является представителем исконного населения»; Местный , разг. здешний, разг. тутошний «Такой, который родился в какой-л. стране, местности или является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности, представителем исконного населения» — Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий «Такой, который не родился в какой-л. стране, местности, приехал, прибыл откуда-либо, не является представителем исконного населения»; Местный , разг. здешний, разг. тутошний «Тот, кто родился в какой-л. стране, местности или является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности» — Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий «Тот, кто не родился в какой-л. стране, местности, приехал, прибыл откуда-либо и не является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности»; Местный , разг. здешний, разг. тутошний «Такой, который родился в какой-л. стране, местности или является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности» — Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий «Такой, который не родился в какой-л. стране, местности, приехал, прибыл откуда-либо и не является постоянным жителем данной страны, местности»; Абориген , туземец, устар., книжн. насельник, устар., разг. корреник «Коренной и постоянный житель какой-л. страны или местности» — Приезжий , пришелец, разг. пришлый, разг. чужак, трад.-поэт. чужанин «Некоренной и непостоянный житель какой-л. страны или местности, который приехал, прибыл откуда-л.»; разг. Аборигенка , туземка, устар. насельница «Коренная и постоянная жительница какой-л. страны или местности» — Приезжая , разг. пришлая, разг. чужачка «Некоренная и непостоянная жительница какой-л. страны или местности, которая приехала, прибыла откуда-л.»; разг. Местный , разг. здешний «Тот, кто постоянно живет в данном месте, в данной местности» — Переселенец , устар. выходец «Тот, кто не живет в данном месте, в данной местности, пришелец, приезжий из другой страны, из другого края (с точки зрения того государства, местности, куда он переселился на постоянное жительство)»; Коренной, исконный, разг. кондовый «ЖИВУЩИЙ в данном месте, основной и постоянный (о жителях какой-л. страны, местности)» — Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий «Не живущий в данном месте (о том, кто приехал, пришел откуда-л., заехал куда-л. ненадолго или случайно)».

As we can see, whole lexical paradigms – synonymous rows, for example, synonymous rows with dominating adjectives local visitor enter into antonymous relations in this SAC: Местный (Local) , разг. здешний, разг. тутошний Приезжий (Visitor) , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий .

The variation in the typical semantics of SAC is derivative and consists in the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one, who...", grammatically represented by synonymous rows of feminine nouns and adjectives, varying the basic idea of the synonymous rows represented by masculine nouns. For example: Абориген , туземец, устар., книжн. насельник, устар., разг. корреник «Коренной и постоянный ЖИТЕЛЬ какой-л. страны или местности» — Приезжий , пришелец, разг. пришлый, разг. чужак, трад.-поэт. чужанин «Некоренной и непостоянный житель какой-л. страны или местности, который приехал, прибыл откуда-л.»; разг. Аборигенка , туземка, устар. насельница «Коренная и постоянная ЖИТЕЛЬНИЦА какой-л. страны или местности» — Приезжая , разг. пришлая, разг. чужачка «Некоренная и непостоянная жительница какой-л. страны или местности, которая приехала, прибыла откуда-л.»; Коренной, исконный, разг. кондовый «ЖИВУЩИЙ в данном месте, основной и постоянный (о жителях какой-л. страны, местности)» — Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий «Не живущий в данном месте (о том, кто приехал, пришел откуда-л., заехал куда-л. ненадолго или случайно)». There are no adverbial and verb-synonymic rows in this SAC. Consequently, the interpretation of the basic idea of SAC LOCAL — VISITOR is carried out by lexemes of different categorical-grammatical nature with the predominance of nominal representations – nouns and adjectives.

The description of the main antonymous opposition within the SAC is carried out according to a unified scheme: antonymically opposed synonymous rows with lexical meaning of the lexeme-dominant synonymous row: Native Коренной, исконный, разг. кондовый "Living in a given place, primary and permanent (about the inhabitants of a country, area)" — Visitor Приезжий , нездешний, неместный, посторонний, пришлый, чужой, разг. заезжий, разг. наезжий "Not living in a given place (the one who came from somewhere, arrive for a short while or accidentally)"; illustrations of the use of the lexemes-dominants of the synonymous row of indigenous visitor ; examples of shared use of dominant lexemes-antonyms within the same context.

The SAC EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT consists of 8 oppositions: Эмигрант, книжн. экспатриант, разг. невозвращенец «Тот, кто добровольно или вынужденно переселился из своего отечества в другую страну на постоянное жительство (или на длительный срок) по политическим, экономическим, религиозным, нравственным причинам» — Иммигрант «Тот, кто добровольно или вынужденно прибыл в какую-либо страну на постоянное (или временное) жительство»; Эмигрантка, книжн. экспатриантка, разг. невозвращенка «Та, кто переселилась из своего отечества в другую страну на постоянное жительство (или на длительный срок)» — Иммигрантка «Та, кто прибыла в какую-либо страну на постоянное (или временное) жительство»; Эмигрантский «Связанный с эмигрантами; состоящий из эмигрантов» — Иммигрантский «Связанный с иммигрантами; состоящий из эмигрантов»; Эмиграция , разг. эмигрантство «Переселение – вынужденное или добровольное – из своего отечества в другую страну; пребывание за пределами своего отечества вследствие такого переселения» — Иммиграция «Въезд в страну для временного или постоянного проживания граждан другого государства; пребывание в этой стране вследствие этого»; Эмиграционный «Связанный с эмиграцией (переселением из своего отечества в другую страну)» — Иммиграционный «Связанный с иммиграцией (въездом в страну для временного или постоянного проживания граждан другого государства)»; Эмиграция , разг. эмигрантство «Место пребывания эмигранта» — Иммиграция «Место пребывания иммигранта»; разг. Эмиграция , собир., разг. эмигрантство , собир. «То же, что эмигранты» — разг. Иммиграция , собир. «То же, что иммигранты»; несов. и сов. Эмигрировать , несов. и сов. экспатриироваться «Осуществлять/осуществить эмиграцию: переселиться/переселяться вынужденно или добровольно за пределы родины, из своего отечества в другую страну» — несов. и сов. иммигрировать «Осуществить/осуществить иммиграцию: въезжать/въехать в какую-л. страну для временного или постоянного проживания (о гражданах другого государства)».

A similarity in the structure of this SAC with SAC LOCAL — VISITOR is the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one who...": Эмигрант, книжн. экспатриант, разг. невозвращенец «Тот, кто добровольно или вынужденно переселился из своего отечества в другую страну на постоянное жительство (или на длительный срок) по политическим, экономическим, религиозным, нравственным причинам» — Иммигрант «Тот, кто добровольно или вынужденно прибыл в какую-либо страну на постоянное (или временное) жительство»; Эмигрантка, книжн. экспатриантка, разг. невозвращенка «Та, кто переселилась из своего отечества в другую страну на постоянное жительство (или на длительный срок)» — Иммигрантка «Та, кто прибыла в какую-либо страну на постоянное (или временное) жительство»; Эмигрантский «Связанный с эмигрантами; состоящий из эмигрантов» — Иммигрантский «Связанный с иммигрантами; состоящий из эмигрантов».

A similarity in the structure of this SAC with SAC LOCAL — VISITOR is the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one who...": Such representations, apart from opposing synonymous rows, are a) individual opposing words with opposite semantics: Emigrant – "related to emigrants; consisting of emigrants" — Immigrant – "related to immigrants; consisting of immigrants"; b) a synonymical row and a separate word: Эмигрантка, книжн. экспатриантка, разг. невозвращенка «Та, кто переселилась из своего отечества в другую страну на постоянное жительство (или на длительный срок)» — Иммигрантка «Та, кто прибыла в какую-либо страну на постоянное (или временное) жительство».

Secondly, the interpretation of the basic idea of SAC EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT is carried out by lexemes of different categorical-grammatical nature – nouns, adjectives and, in contrast to SAC LOCAL — VISITOR, verbs (namely, of the imperfect and perfect kind "Эмигрировать", of the imperfect and perfect kind "Экспатриироваться" – "to carry out/implement emigration: to move/remove forcibly or voluntarily outside one's homeland, from one's homeland to another country" — of the imperfect and perfect kind " Иммигрировать" – "to carry out/implement immigration: to enter some country for temporary or permanent residence (about citizens of another country)") as well as syntactic derivatives – verb-names with nouns (e.g. Emigration, Эмиграция, разг. эмигрантство – "Resettlement – forced or voluntary – from one's fatherland to another country; residence outside one's fatherland as a result of such resettlement" — Immigration, Иммиграция – "Entry into a country for temporary or permanent residence of nationals of another country; residence in that country as a consequence").

Thirdly, the grammatical specificity of opposition lexemes is connected with marking by members of opposite synonymous series of the grammatical category of gathering in antonymous opposition: разг. Эмиграция , собир., разг. эмигрантство , собир. «То же, что эмигранты» — разг. Иммиграция , собир. «То же, что иммигранты».

Let us consider regular variants of the main antonymous oppositions in the denotative-ideographical subgroup "Location of a settlement", which is SAC, consisting of 2 micro-groups of antonyms: CAPITAL — PROVINCE (1 opposition) and CENTER — REMOTE PLACE (2 opposition). In the national language, these lexemes are not language antonyms, but in our opinion, they can form antonymous opposition based on the opposition of their main components "main city" — "remote area from the centre" – for the capital province ; "large settlement" — "small settlement" – for the centre remote place .

Such a phenomenon is noted by Karaulov (1976) in the structure of the semantic field: "In the national language, the words hand and foot are not antonyms. In the semantic field, they become them, as they are included in the same set bearing the generic name (superordinate). The generic name, in this case, specifies the background, or limits in which the values are compared" (Karaulov, 1976, p. 109).

Micro group of CAPITAL — PROVINCE antonyms includes 1 opposition, consisting of a counterposition of a separate lexeme and a synonymous row: Capital – "the main city, the administrative and political centre of the state; a large settlement (usually a city) of administrative, industrial, cultural significance for a locality, a country" — Province – "a place remote from the central parts of the country, its big cities; a small settlement, deaf, usually remote from cultural centres, a place with no cultural and entertainment centres, modern medical and technical service centres".

Micro group of antonyms CENTER — REMOTE PLACE includes 2 oppositions, also consisting of antonymously opposed single word and synonymous rows: Center – Центр– "a large settlement of administrative, industrial, cultural importance to a place, a country" — Remote place Захолустье , глушь, глухомань, устар., разг. дичь, устар. разг. трущоба, разг., пренебр., неодобр. дыра, разг., ирон. тьмутаракань "A small town, abandoned, usually remote from the cultural centres, from the means of communication"; Central Центральный Захолустный – Remote, глухоманный, трущобный "Located far from the centre (part of the country, locality, place in the locality)".

The specifics of structural and semantic organization of this micro group of antonyms are the substantial volume of synonymous rows with the domination "remote place" (7 lexico-semantic variants) and the presence of various emotional-evaluation and functional-stylistic connotations in the members of this synonymous series, which indicates that the semantic component "a settlement remote from the cultural centres" is represented in the Russian language by various evaluation categories. The neutral lexeme "centre" is opposed to the members of the antonymical synonymous series with the dominance of the "remote place" in the aspect of emotional-evaluation interpretation.

Conclusion

The conducted research of structural and semantic features of SAC in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" allows drawing the following conclusions.

The research prospects are connected with revealing of synonymic-antonymic complexes as a part of other denotative-ideographical spheres; comparison of cognitive features forming their complex oppositional semantics; identification of basic antonymic oppositions and their regular private variants, synonymic-antonymic micro-groups; lexicographical description of SAC by a single model in the ideographical dictionary of synonymic-antonymic complexes.

Acknowledgments

The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the framework of the scientific project No. 19-012-00458 “Relations of Identities and Opposites: Integration of Mental Spaces in Lexicographic, Structural-Semantic and Cognitive-Discursive Presentation”, as well as the work was supported by Act 211 Government of the Russian Federation, contract № 02.A03.21.0006.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

03.08.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.120

Online ISSN

2357-1330