The novelty of the study is determined by the identification of lexical units forming the denotative sphere "Settlement", which are in the Russian language in relations of the opposite in the synonymic-antonymic complexes LOCAL — VISITOR, EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT, CAPITAL — PROVINCE, CENTER — REMOTE PLACE. It is revealed that the interpretation of the general notions of the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" in the aspect of antonymy is carried out by lexemes of different categorical-grammatical nature with the prevalence of nominal representations. Antonymous relations in synonymic-antonymic complexes include lexemes with the semantics of the opposite; synonymous rows and one-word antonyms; antonymous synonymous rows of different volume, including both neutral and stylistically and functionally marked words. All antonymically opposed synonymous series, united by semantics related to the settlement, can be considered a macrosynonymic-antonymic complex formed by macrosynonymic-antonymic complexes in its structure. The conducted ideographic analysis has shown that in the denotative-ideographical sphere "Settlement" two denotative-ideographical groups are distinguished, and antonymically opposed synonymous series are united into synonymic-antonymic complexes "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement". It indicates that it is the cognitive characteristics of "location" and "characteristic of a person in relation to the settlement" that are salient to the Russian national consciousness in terms of their representation as synonyms and antonyms in the language picture of the world.
Keywords: Synonymsantonymssynonymic-antonymic complexdenotative-ideographic grouptypical semanticsideographic dictionary
Antonymy is regarded by many researchers as one of the most widespread and effective ways of presenting the semantic space of language in the lexicon Babenko (2018), Novikov (2001), Shmelev (2003), and others, as "for the semantic space of language both relations of opposition closely related to the category of the world, with the horizontal hypostasis of the space, and relations of differentiation and identity related to the depth of the semantic space and its vertical hypostasis are equally important" (Babenko, 2016a, p. 15).
The lexical category of antonymy is the object of description in classical works on lexicology (Babenko, 2018; Karaulov, 1976, and others) and is placed in the focus of attention in the articles of modern Russian (Muhin, 2016; Muhin, 2017; Plotnikova, 2019, etc.) and foreign researchers concerning, for example, the study of antonymy using corpus analysis (Jones, 2002). In modern studies, scientists study the specificity of lexicographic representation of synonyms (Slovar'-tezaurus sinonimov russkoj rechi, 2017; Slovar' sinonimov sibirskogo govora, 2016); antonimia in the cognitive aspect – based on the manifestation in antonimes of cognitive relations, cognitive mechanisms (Plotnikova, 2018, etc.), the problems of categorization (Babenko, 2016b) and in the comparative aspect (Maskaliūnienė, 2016).
An ideographic approach to synonymy and antonymy categories, based on the study of the semantics of lexemes united through the identification of conceptual categories in the minds of native speakers, is productive for determining the semantic laws of lexical organization in opposition synonymous rows. The direct connection between the lexical categories of synonymy and antonymy is mentioned by Karaulov (1976) in his work "General and Russian ideography": "Words, expressing their meanings, within one lexico-semantic group at the same time appear to be connected by relations between themselves, not -indifferent to their meanings. These are relations of synonymy, antonymy, any kind of specification, differentiation and -generalization of close or contiguous values" (Karaulov, 1976, p. 49).
Firstly, the problem of this research is caused by the innovative ideographic approach to the interpretation of antonyms, and secondly, it is related to the description of synonymic-antonymic complexes in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" in the lexicographical parameters of the dictionary of synonymic-antonymic complexes of the Russian language.
The novelty of this study is determined by the identification of lexical units that are in the Russian language in the opposite relations in the structure of synonymic-antonymic complexes (hereinafter – SAC), which are part of the denotative sphere "Settlement". The definition of opposing lexical-semantic sets in its composition, the study of their structural-semantic features is relevant.
Specific tasks of the study at its different stages included a lexicographical description of individual SAC within the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement", determination of specificity of modelling typical opposition semantics of each SAC, identification of basic antonymous oppositions and their regular specific variants forming SAC and synonymic- antonymic micro-groups within them.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to identify SAC in the denotation-ideographic sphere "Settlement", formulate their complex integrative semantics and model their special structural organization.
The main methods used in the study were the following: ideographic analysis of antonymical oppositions; semantic analysis; method of formulation of complex integrative type semantics of each SAC and method of description of SAC in lexicographical parameters, developed by L. G. Babenko; quantitative method of interpretation of the results of the ideographic analysis.
Definition of "synonymic-antonymic complex"
Let us consider what synonymic-antonymic complexes as new lexical sets can be distinguished in this denotative-ideographic sphere. The notion of "synonymic-antonymic complex" was introduced by Ludmila G. Babenko (see fundamental work on this topic – Babenko, 2019). Generalizing the theoretical statements of Babenko (2019), we can form the following definition: The synonymic-antonymic complex is a unified hierarchically organized system consisting of a complex of synonyms and antonyms considered within the framework of the ideological dictionary (they participate in the representation of integration of identity and opposite relations in the Russian language by lexical means and are united into semantically correlated word groupings connected by paradigmatic relations), having a specifically organized complex integrative semantics and a special structural organization, which determines the peculiarities of the lexicographical representation of typical SAC semantics, the presence of variants of its modelling, the principles of identification of basic antonymous oppositions and their regular private variants, forming SAC and synonymic-antonymic micro-groups in their structure.
Features of lexicographical representation of typical SAC semantics
All antonymically opposed synonymous series, united by semantics related to the settlement, can be considered a macrosynonymic-antonymic complex formed by macrosynonymic-antonymic complexes in its structure.
The conducted ideographic analysis has shown that in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" two denotative-ideographic groups are distinguished, therefore, the antonymically opposed synonymous rows are united into two SAC: "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement", which indicates that it is the cognitive characteristics of "location" and "characteristic of a person in relation to the settlement" that are salient to the Russian national consciousness in terms of their representation as synonyms and antonyms in the language picture of the world. These semantic components are basic for SAC and form both their typical semantics and the semantics of the first basic antonymic opposition in their structure.
The typical oppositional semantics of SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" was formulated under the concept of the dictionary of synonymic-antonymic complexes of the Russian language by Babenko (2019) in the form of "a detailed definition that interprets very briefly the semantics of the whole complex and accumulates both identical and opposite essential semantic features, as well as their lexical representations in the form of private oppositions" (Babenko, 2019, p. 49): the one who was born in a country, region or is a permanent resident, a representative of a local population — the one who was not born in a country, region, arrived from somewhere else, not a representative of a native population (local — stranger); the one who has voluntarily or involuntarily moved from his/her home country to another country for permanent residence — the one who has voluntarily or involuntarily arrived in a country for permanent (or temporary) residence (emigrant — immigrant).
In the semantics of the SAC lexemes "Person in relation to the settlement", the following semantic attributes are opposed: "the one who was born somewhere" — "the one who was not born somewhere"; "the one who is native" — "the one who is not native"; "the one who has moved to somewhere" — "the one who has arrived somewhere". Identical semantic components of private antonymic oppositions are "living in a country or region", "belonging to a native population", "voluntary or forced relocation from somewhere to somewhere", "permanent or temporary residence in a settlement".
The typical oppositional semantics of the SAC "Location of a settlement" is summarized as follows: Main city, administrative political centre of the state — area, remote from the central parts of the country and big cities (capital — province); large settlement, having administrative, industrial, cultural significance for a particular area, country — small settlement, remote place, usually distant from cultural centres and transport routes (centre — remote place).
As the opposition semantic components for the bearers of the Russian national consciousness are the "administrative political centre of the state" — "remote place"; "large settlement" — "small settlement"; "administrative, industrial, cultural significance" — "remoteness from administrative, industrial, cultural centres". A similar semantic attribute of antonymous oppositions is the only categorical semantic component "settlement".
SAC's oppositional structure
The oppositive structure of the paradigm of the opposing synonymous rows of SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" is formed by the following hierarchically organized SAC: LOCAL — VISITOR (8 oppositions), EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT (8 oppositions).
As for lexical representatives of the relations of the opposite in SAC "Person in relation to the settlement" and "Location of the settlement", among them, there are no groups of words from paradigmatic rows connected with the relations of the opposite – oppositional SAC.
As we can see, whole lexical paradigms – synonymous rows, for example, synonymous rows with dominating adjectives
The variation in the typical semantics of SAC is derivative and consists in the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one, who...", grammatically represented by synonymous rows of feminine nouns and adjectives, varying the basic idea of the synonymous rows represented by masculine nouns. For example:
The description of the main antonymous opposition within the SAC is carried out according to a unified scheme: antonymically opposed synonymous rows with lexical meaning of the lexeme-dominant synonymous row:
A similarity in the structure of this SAC with SAC LOCAL — VISITOR is the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one who...":
A similarity in the structure of this SAC with SAC LOCAL — VISITOR is the regular appearance of feminine lexical representations and "the one who...": Such representations, apart from opposing synonymous rows, are a) individual opposing words with opposite semantics:
Secondly, the interpretation of the basic idea of SAC EMIGRANT — IMMIGRANT is carried out by lexemes of different categorical-grammatical nature – nouns, adjectives and, in contrast to SAC LOCAL — VISITOR, verbs (namely, of the imperfect and perfect kind "Эмигрировать", of the imperfect and perfect kind "Экспатриироваться" – "to carry out/implement emigration: to move/remove forcibly or voluntarily outside one's homeland, from one's homeland to another country" — of the imperfect and perfect kind " Иммигрировать" – "to carry out/implement immigration: to enter some country for temporary or permanent residence (about citizens of another country)") as well as syntactic derivatives – verb-names with nouns (e.g. Emigration, Эмиграция, разг. эмигрантство – "Resettlement – forced or voluntary – from one's fatherland to another country; residence outside one's fatherland as a result of such resettlement" — Immigration, Иммиграция – "Entry into a country for temporary or permanent residence of nationals of another country; residence in that country as a consequence").
Thirdly, the grammatical specificity of opposition lexemes is connected with marking by members of opposite synonymous series of the grammatical category of gathering in antonymous opposition:
Let us consider regular variants of the main antonymous oppositions in the denotative-ideographical subgroup "Location of a settlement", which is SAC, consisting of 2 micro-groups of antonyms: CAPITAL — PROVINCE (1 opposition) and CENTER — REMOTE PLACE (2 opposition). In the national language, these lexemes are not language antonyms, but in our opinion, they can form antonymous opposition based on the opposition of their main components "main city" — "remote area from the centre" – for the
Such a phenomenon is noted by Karaulov (1976) in the structure of the semantic field: "In the national language, the words hand and foot are not antonyms. In the semantic field, they become them, as they are included in the same set bearing the generic name (superordinate). The generic name, in this case, specifies the background, or limits in which the values are compared" (Karaulov, 1976, p. 109).
Micro group of
Micro group of antonyms
The specifics of structural and semantic organization of this micro group of antonyms are the substantial volume of synonymous rows with the domination
The conducted research of structural and semantic features of SAC in the denotative-ideographic sphere "Settlement" allows drawing the following conclusions.
The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the framework of the scientific project No. 19-012-00458 “Relations of Identities and Opposites: Integration of Mental Spaces in Lexicographic, Structural-Semantic and Cognitive-Discursive Presentation”, as well as the work was supported by Act 211 Government of the Russian Federation, contract № 02.A03.21.0006.
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03 August 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Mukhina, I. (2020). Synonymic-Antonymic Complexes In The Denotative Sphere "Settlement". In & N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1028-1037). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.120