“Cultural Open-Mindedness” In Linguistic Consciousness Of Russian Native Speakers In Multilingual Kazakhstan


The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of the “Cultural open-mindedness” ideologeme in the linguistic consciousness of Russian-speaking Kazakhstanis. Ideologemes are the key units of political discourse in the formation of public consciousness of citizens and its modernization. In his works, the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - N.A. Nazarbayev- actualizes ideologically filled tokens in order to unite the Kazakhstanis, to preserve national identity and culture, and to modernize public consciousness. The “Cultural open-mindedness” ideologeme is presented in the policy article by N.A. Nazarbayev “A look into the future: the modernization of public consciousness ( dated April 12, 2017 ), where the First President shares “his vision of the way we take a step together towards the future, change public consciousness in order to become a united Nation of strong and responsible people”. As a result, the paper describes approaches to the study of the concept of the “ideologeme”, taking into account the developed definitions. Also, based on the research material, the dynamics of the formation of associative centers among Russian-speaking people of the multinational state is described. The respondents were representatives of the indigenous ethnicity - Kazakhs, as well as representatives of other nationalities living in Kazakhstan: Russians, Germans, Tatars, Ingush, Koreans, Chuvash, etc.

Keywords: Ideologememodernizationpublic consciousnesspolitical discoursenational culturepresidential discourse


The tendency to study the communicative side of the language in connection with related disciplines is a characteristic feature of the scientific researches of the last decade. This is associated with a revival of interest in linguistics together with psychology, pedagogy, cultural studies, political science, etc.

Currently, the analysis and main characteristics of presidential discourse in the framework of political linguistics is of great interest for linguists. As Nakhimova (2007) emphasized, there are two approaches to study presidential discourse in modern political linguistics. In the first case (a narrow approach), the subject of the speech is the president’s actual speech activity, i.e. the manifestation of various aspects of the linguistic personality in the genres of presidential discourse. In the second case (a broad approach), not only the president’s speech is studied, but also the ways of creating the image of the president in the communicative activities of other political figures and journalists are considered. The study of such materials allows us to determine the way the country's leader is perceived in the national consciousness.

Problem Statement

One of the understudied aspects of the political discourse in modern Kazakhstan is the study of the corpus of ideologemes, their semantic and functional features. Ideology is a form of social cognition. Due to the discourse nature of the reproduction of ideologies, the linguistic approach becomes one of the most important components of multidisciplinary research of the ideological phenomenon, since language actively influences the formation of political views and worldview positions. This direction is becoming relevant in connection with the processes taking place in Kazakhstani society and the analysis of these processes.

Research Questions

There are two approaches to define the subject of political linguistics. According to the first approach, the subject of political linguistics is political discourse as a set of discursive practices that identify participants in political discourse as such, or develop a specific subject of political communication (Baranov, 2013, p. 263). Proponents of the second approach consider political communication as a speech activity focused on “propaganda of certain ideas, emotional impact on citizens of the country and their incitement to political actions, the development of public consent, adoption and substantiation of socio-political decisions in the face of multiple points of view in society” (Chudinov, 2007, p. 8).

Approaches to study the concept of the “ideologeme” taking into account the developed definitions.

Ideologemes were the subject of the studies carried out by such linguists as Kupina (2005), Radbil (1998), Guseinov (2004), Zhuravlyov (2004), Chudinov (2007), Kameneva (2007), Klushina (2008), Kuteneva (2008), Malysheva (2009), Nakhimova (2011), Piontek (2012), Bezrodnaya (2013), Karamova (2015).

The definition of the term "ideologeme" is differently interpreted by researchers. Researcher

Radbil (1998) defines the ideologeme as “any verbal designation of spiritual values ​​significant for a person, in which the direct, objective meaning of the word is blurred, and purely evaluative, emotionally expressive connotations that have no support in the immediate content of the word come to the fore” (p. 27).

Kupina (2005) believes that an ideologeme is a verbal unit, a word directly related to ideological denotation (p. 91). “An ideologeme is a linguistic unit loaded with ideological (political) meanings that define (model and regulate) extralinguistic reality” - this definition is found in the research of (Kuteneva, 2008, p. 5).

Taking into consideration various points of view of the definition of the term ideologeme, we come

to the conclusion that the ideologeme is a mental phenomenon, a concept that, with the help of linguistic means, implements the most important social functions and forms a common ideological space.

Thus, ideologemes contain the worldview of people which are a determining component for their

consciousness and behavior. It is the ideologically loaded units of the language that reflect the set of values ​​actualized in a particular period.

In his works, the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Nazarbayev [2017]- actualizes

ideologically filled tokens in order to unite the Kazakhstanis, to preserve national identity and culture, and to modernize public consciousness;

Formation of the value-based paradigm of public consciousness of Kazakhstanis.

In the Address to the people of Kazakhstan in 2017, the First President Nazarbayev [2017] announced the start of the Third Modernization of Kazakhstan - the Modernization of public consciousness, which will not just complement political and economic modernization but will become their core. The purpose of this modernization is “to change public consciousness in order to become a united Nation of strong and responsible people”.

To implement the modernization, the following programs were adopted and carried out: “Madeni Mura” aimed at restoring historical and cultural monuments and objects on the territory of Kazakhstan; “Khalyk tarikh tolkynynda” allowed to collect and study documents on the history of Kazakhstan borrowed from the world's leading archives; “Tugan zher” that is the basis of national patriotism.

In these programs, the main vehicles for the modernization of consciousness are the principles associated with the cultural heritage, which is manifested in a special attitude towards the motherland, culture, customs and traditions. The presented components make up the basis of the cultural genetic code, thus, developing cultural open-mindedness.

In his work Nazarbayev (2017) points that cultural open-mindedness, computer literacy and knowledge of foreign languages ​​are a set of qualities worthy of the 21st century which any Kazakhstani person, as well as the nation as a whole should have. In this regard, it is necessary to strive to make the priority foundations of modern society.

Any modernized society includes "codes of culture whose origins are a thing of the past". The first condition for modernization of a new type, according to the Leader of the Nation, "is the preservation of our culture, our own national code”, therefore we must take into account “historical experience and national traditions” - “a platform that connects the horizons of the past, present and future of the people” (Nazarbayev, 2017, para. 19). Nazarbayev (2017) distinguished several areas of “modernization of consciousness both of society as a whole and each Kazakhstani person” (para. 21). There is “a special attitude towards the motherland, culture, customs and traditions” among these areas that is the most important feature of patriotism, “the basis of the cultural and genetic code that makes any people a nation, not a group of individuals” (Nazarbayev, 2017, para. 119).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this article is to analyze the content of the "Cultural open-mindedness" ideologeme in the linguistic consciousness of Russian-speaking Kazakhstanis. Ideologemes are the key units of political discourse in the formation of public consciousness of citizens and its modernization.

Research Methods

A free association experiment, that was carried out in order to identify the integral and differential components in the “cultural open-mindedness” ideologeme and to reflect sociolinguistic monitoring, made it possible to obtain information related to the dynamics of the formation of linguistic consciousness of the representatives of a multilingual society.


Results of a free association experiment.

The respondents were representatives of the indigenous ethnicity - Kazakhs, as well as representatives of other nationalities living in Kazakhstan. The total number of respondents was 100 people aged from 18 to 70. The survey was conducted among representatives of different professions with different levels of training. Questionnaires were filled in in Russian. The data obtained were analyzed. The questions asked in the questionnaire were specified modules providing information on the field of activity, age of respondents, nationality, gender ratio, as well as questions related to respondent associations.

Table 1 -
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The results of the survey “Field of activity” in table 1 demonstrate the fact that the majority of respondents are representatives of education. 37 respondents were interviewed, where the Kazakhs were 26 people, other nationalities - 11 people.

25% of respondents were public officials, including 20 people of indigenous ethnicity, 5% of a different nationality. The total number of respondents was 25.

Retired citizens and representatives of non-governmental organizations and other professions were also interviewed during the association experiment. 16 respondents were asked questions, where the Kazakhs - 10, others - 6. Representatives of mass media amounted to 12%, including 9 Kazakhs, 3 representatives of a different nationality. 10 respondents were representatives of health care, i.e. 10%, where the Kazakhs - 8, others - 2. Thus, the data presented show that the survey covered a wide range of representatives of various directions who agreed to take part in the questionnaire. This fact demonstrates the interest in the socio-political life of the country and the modernization of public consciousness of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The participants of the experiment made age groups, which can be represented in table 2 .

Table 2 -
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The data presented in the table indicate that the dominant age categories are groups of people aged from 26 to 45, also from 18 to 25 and from 46 to 60. Education - age of respondents: 18-25 years old -17 people; 26-45 years old - 10; 46-60 years old - 7; older than 60 - 3. Mass media - age of respondents: 18-25 years old - 4; 26-45 years old - 4; 46-60 years old - 2; older than 60 - 2. Medicine - age of respondents: 18-25 years old - 3; 26-45 years old - 7; 46-60 years old - 0; older than 60 - 0. Public service - age of respondents: 18-25 years old - 10; 26-45 years old - 14; 46-60 years - 1; older than 60 - 0. In other field of activity, the age category is presented as follows: 18-25 years old - 1; 26-45 years old - 5; 46-60 years old - 7; older than 60 - 3. It is well known that Kazakhstan is a multinational state where the population is over sixteen million. The development of tolerant relationships, respect for ethnic groups living in the country, peacefulness and cultural open-mindedness are the predominant factors in the strategic mission of Kazakhstan. The majority of the population is made up of representatives of the indigenous nationality, and therefore their percentage ratio exceeds the number of representatives of other nationalities. The number of the respondents and the data prove this fact. The percentage is presented in table 3 .

Table 3 -
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The experimental data confirm the multinationality of our state, thereby demonstrating the unity of ethnic groups in a Nation of strong and responsible people.

Table 4 -
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The data presented in table 4 show that the majority of respondents in all fields of activity are female. The percentage ratio by gender demonstrates the employment of men and women in these areas of activity. This distribution also affects the formation, function and development of cultural open-mindedness among the young generation of the country. The active participation of men is very important and necessary in the formation of a new model of public consciousness in order to educate, disseminate and preserve the cultural dominants and values of the new generation.

The results of sociolinguistic monitoring showed that during the experiment representatives of the fields of activity gave various associations. They are visualized in the context of the areas of activity: education: Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan, study of the international culture, study of the culture of the region, being tolerant, art, tolerant attitude, tolerance, preservation of one's own national code, positive and friendly perception of different cultures, freedom, emancipation, naivety, consciousness, amiability, hospitality, friendliness, mentality/mindset, linguoculturology, Rukhani zhangyru, confidence, language, literacy, knowledge of languages, mutual understanding, pragmatism, culture of consciousness, show the culture of the country, acceptance of other culture, traditions;

mass media: rapport, only with one nation, open-mindedness;

medicine: friendliness, honesty, knowledge, willingness to understand others, tolerance;

public service: open-mindedness, tolerance, transparency in culture, stage, free will;

other: respect, amiability, theatre, performance, visiting the theatre, being a member of a community, talent, interest, cinema, amateur art festivals, creativity, sociability, free will.

The presented examples show an associative series of the “cultural open-mindedness” ideologeme and reflect the public consciousness of the respondents. The linguistic core of the considered unit of the language includes the associations related to open-mindedness, preservation of traditions and cultural code. The most frequent examples can be presented in the following table 05 :

Table 5 -
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The data in table 5 confirm the fact that respondents perceive cultural open-mindedness as a factor

of openness, transparency of the culture, preservation of the cultural code, the intention to improve and

develop public consciousness of a modernized state.


Having considered the data obtained during the survey, it was found out that most of the responses coincide with the lexical representations in the text of the Policy article of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Reactions to the stimulus word in the category of citizens aged 18-25 and 26-45 years entirely reflect the opinion of the author of the article under study. It is quite justified, since respondents of this age are students, young specialists, who are interested and concerned in the reforms that are taking place in the education system, medicine and the state.

The quantitative prevalence of respondents from the above-mentioned fields also proves that Kazakhstanis are ready to adapt "to changing conditions to take the best of what the new era carries", based on historical experience and traditions. Kazakhstanis are characterized by tolerance, hospitality, friendliness, amiability, mutual understanding and adequate perception of the cultures of all nations living on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Associations of citizens are connected with the study of languages, literacy, leisure, etc.

Responses to the stimulus word were received in the form of separate word forms and phrases during the survey. The analysis of the results of the experiment shows that the most common types of reactions to the ideologeme cultural open-mindedness are tolerance , open-mindedness, transparency in culture, art, and preservation of traditions . These units were presented by respondents of different age groups and social status. The characteristic use of the units demonstrates common values, mental peculiarities, due to which the preservation of peace, the stability of the state, the development and prosperity of society are important factors in the political activities of the Leader of the Nation.


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03 August 2020

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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation

Cite this article as:

Mukasheva, A. O. (2020). “Cultural Open-Mindedness” In Linguistic Consciousness Of Russian Native Speakers In Multilingual Kazakhstan. In N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1020-1027). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.119