The relevance of the paper is focused on the usage of new approaches to the study of word-forming mechanisms. In this paper the authors propose a cognitive approach for studying and describing the derivational features of prepositions and conjunctions in modern English, resulting from word formation or semantic derivation, elaborate the idea allowing to reveal the specifics of word-formation potential of secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions through the light of cognitive linguistics, present the linguistic and cognitive models, disclose new problematic areas in the study of secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions, identify peculiarities of their formation. The secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions of the English language represent the concept RELATION in the qualitative and procedural (dynamic and static) aspects. In the course of study, a number of cognitive (propositional) models in formation of the derivative English prepositions, reflecting the concept RELATION is revealed. Propositional structures in the form of hybrid or integrated space reflect the specific features of the prototypical situation representation. Depending on the character and type of interaction between the derived unit and the motivating one, various relations (basic predicates) between elements of the prototypical situation reflecting the formation of secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions are presented. The relations of TEMPORALITY, CAUSE, COMPARATIVITY, EXCLUSION, ADDITION, OPPOSITION and CONCESSION are established between the elements of prototypical situation when it is nominated by secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions of the English language because of syntactic and lexical derivation.
Keywords: Secondary nominationderivative prepositionsderivative conjunctionsderivationlinguistic and cognitive models
To combine the achievements of structural linguistics and new, cognitive-oriented direction in the study of the linguistic essence phenomena and units is very important nowadays. Prospective studies of derivation are related to the dynamic principles of describing language phenomena. The emergence of the anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics was predetermined, since the language itself is anthropocentric in nature. Man reflected in the language his physical appearance, emotions, inner states, intelligence, his attitude to the objective world, nature, and other people. Man seeks to understand it through generalization, integration and differentiation. Language is also a system of interrelated elements, where the properties of one element can be defined only in the system of relations with other elements, their properties, which allows us to talk about the existence of different types of interaction between parts of speech (Crystal, 2009; Gvishiani, 2016; Lavrova, 2018; Minaeva, 2018; Prokhorova, 2017).
Prepositions and conjunctions forming functional classes of words are extremely important in language because they build relationships between different words in speech. Thus, prepositions and conjunctions presenting functional words express relations of an objective nature.
The process of secondary nomination appearance in the language is associated with the process of interaction between parts of speech, which indicates the dynamism of the interaction process. The process of secondary nomination suggests the person’s rethinking of a previously known objective reality, the process of figurative meaning formation (Tadzhibova, 2016), discovery of new properties and characteristics of objects. Since the derived word is not a repetition of already existed in the language unit, as it reflects the formed concept.
The secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions in modern English, the language mechanisms of their formation and the underlying cognitive bases within the framework of the linguocognitive approach (using the mechanisms of conceptual hybridization and integration in cognitive modelling) have not been thoroughly studied in the language.
This paper defines the status and distribution of language methods and cognitive mechanisms of secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions, as well as the types and dynamics of secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions correlations in the concept RELATION.
Nowadays scientific interest in word formation as a cognitive process has been growing.. The theoretical tools of cognitive derivation as well as the development of basic cognitive models and conceptual structures, represented by secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions, are further identified. Elements of the research analysis methodology can be effectively used when performing similar works in the field of comparative language research or investigating the relevant material of other languages.
The relevant paper results will be incorporated into the courses on applied lexicology, cognitive derivation, special courses on cognitive linguistics.
The relevance of this paper is determined by the following factors:
- priority of linguistic and cognitive approaches in modern linguistic studies;
- increasing interest in the study of linguistic and creative abilities;
-importance of secondary nominated derived prepositions and conjunctions in the representation of the human cognitive activity processes;
- need to determine the specificity of secondary nominations by derivative prepositions and conjunctions as a cognitive basis for experience representation in the English language.
This paper pertains the application of linguistic experience in the field of cognitive word formation, as well as on the profound deployment of practical material and the presence of a consistent methodological platform (Maslova, 2018; Murugova, 2017). As a starting point of the research, we accept the philosophical definition of INTERACTION as a system-forming factor, and deduce its types of interaction (external and internal), as well as introduce the concepts of degree and depth of interaction (Murugova, 2015). Thus, in any language derived prepositions and conjunctions can interact with variable parts of speech (adverbs, verbs, adjectives, nouns) that belong to another subsystem. This type of interaction is considered external. Derived prepositions and conjunctions can interact with functional classes of words (prepositions, conjunctions, definite article). This interaction is considered internal. Secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions are understood as prepositions and conjunctions that were formed because of word-forming or semantic derivation, and reflect the linguocreative abilities of persons. Interaction is understood as a kind of direct or indirect, external or internal relationship, connection, because the properties of an object are manifested and known only in interaction. At the same time, the relation is understood as one of the forms, the universal relationship of all objects, phenomena, and processes in nature, society and thinking.
The object of the study is secondary nominated prepositions and conjunctions that express the concept RELATION in its secondary function. The concept RELATION is understood as a linguamental formation, which contains a concept that expresses the interaction between objects of reality.
To understand it deeply we use those language methods that are relevant for cognitive processes study.
Thorough analysis of modern lexicographic sources and corpuses with a total number of 1668 units, were identified 137 prepositions and 59 conjunctions of the English language.
The theory is based on a representative theoretical and methodological basis of language, cognitive processes of word-forming categorization (Abrosimova, 2017; Kubryakova, 2004), the features and functions of derived words, the development and replenishment of vocabulary (Antrushina, Aphanasieva, & Morozova, 2018), lexicological categories.
This paper covers various problems in the analysis of linguistic and cognitive processes, which are focused on a conceptual category RELATION in modern English. In the confine of this research, this phenomenon is defined as “the use of available language means (both traditional word building ways and semantic derivation) in a new way of nomination” (Kameneva & Murugova, 2016, p. 271). Cognitive approach is the most significant for this research as analysing linguistic items human cognition is taken into account (Riemer, 2019; Zhanalina & Ordahanova, 2015). The evaluation of the available literature has shown that there are not so many papers focussing on the prepositions and conjunctions' exploration where the cognition of a human being is identified. Due to this fact, it is to admit that a cognitive base of secondary nominations, expressing the category “RELATION” in English, has not been explored totally within the cognitive approach. This fact explains the relevance of this paper.
Purpose of the Study
This research is intended to establish new peculiarities of functional parts of speech under the influence of cognitive processes. The following steps have been put forward:
to investigate word building processes and productive models of secondary-nominated conjunctions and prepositions;
to scrutinize structural and semantic peculiarities of the world building basis of the derived functional words;
to present cognitive models contributing to different concept integration of the derived words.
The anticipated results are likely to be obtained with the qualitative and quantitative methods, deployment of componential analysis, method of cognitive modelling, derivational analysis and elements of statistical counting.
In the course of study, we divided prepositions into two groups. One group represents non-interacting prepositions (f. ex. with, from, of), as well as root loanwords that came to English from Latin and French (f. ex. vice, per, circa, dehors, apropos, a la). Analysis of the research material showed that root bases represent all fixed non-derivative prepositions of English. The word building bases for creation prepositions considered adverbs (Adv), verbs (V), adjectives (Adj), prepositions (Prep) and conjunctions (Conj). It is revealed that derived prepositions in English are characterized by interaction with a different number of parts of speech, from up to four. The interaction of prepositions and conjunctions with different parts of speech is represented in word-forming processes and models. More frequently, prepositions interact with one part of speech. The degree of interaction refers to the number of newly formed words, which determine the nature of internal or external interaction of prepositions, the frequency of this interaction, and allows you to compare the semantic potential of prepositions. The depth of interaction helps to reveal the number of connections and types of semantic and functional relationships between prepositions in the process of their internal or external interaction. In addition, it is revealed in the number of word-forming models. For example, prepositions most often interact with one part of speech. Moreover, this interaction is characterized by the highest degree of interaction in English (74%).
The most productive word-formation model in English is the model of preposition formation from adverbs (Adv). Conversion is a highly productive process. In a similar way, prepositions are formed from verbal (V), adjective (Adj) bases, and conjunctive bases (Conj). In English, with the help of affixation another part of speech is formed: the formation of a derived preposition from the verbal stem is done by attaching the suffix ing (f.ex. considering). In English, there is a small number of prepositions formed by shortening and interchange (f.ex. Prep 1 → Prep 2 (betwixt, mod, gen). It shows that these ways of word formation are not productive for preposition word building. In some cases of word composition prepositions interact with two parts of speech (Prep 1 + N → Prep 2 (alongside) (word structure). Less common are cases of conversion (V → Adv → Prep (overtop). If preposition is formed from conjunction and substantive or adjectival bases, then it is characterized by word-forming activity. If the word-building base for coining prepositions is adverbial base, then the formation of prepositions is the final word-forming step. Prepositions in this case are formed with the help of conversion. English has a small number of similar prepositions (9%).
Adj → N → Adv → Prep (opposite) - conversion,
Conj → Prep → Adv → N (but) – conversion,
N → V → Prep → Conj (save) - conversion,
The anticipated study illustrates that English prepositions can interact with independent parts of speech and functional words. In this paper, the interaction of English prepositions with functional parts of speech is considered internal, with independent parts of speech - external. Internal interaction of prepositions – interaction with functional parts of speech, which are closed classes and updated very slowly in contrast to the external interaction of prepositions. In the English language conversion is a highly productive word-forming process in both external and internal interaction. In internal interaction, prepositions most often interact with prepositions in English (68%).
In this paper, the described structural features of the formation of English prepositions are considered because of dynamic cognitive processes of a person that is reflected in the language using language tools. The derived prepositions of the English language represent the concept RELATION in the qualitative (as a result of interaction with adverbs, adjectives), procedural – dynamic and static (as a result of interaction with verbs), material (as a result of interaction with nouns) aspects. In the course of research, we found that when forming secondary nominated prepositions in English, a native speaker operates with qualitative characteristic, procedural structures in the first place. A number of cognitive (propositional) models in the formation of derivative English prepositions is identified, reflecting the concept RELATION, and which allow us to identify the cognitive equality of many ways of language expression.
Derived prepositions as components of the concept RELATION are elements of a prototypical situation, which includes action, quality, relation, and material separately and in variable combinations. Propositional structures in the form of a hybrid or integrated space reflect specific features of the prototypical situation representation. Depending on the nature and type of interaction between the derived unit and motivating one, various relationships (basic predicates) between elements of the prototypical situation are revealed. So, the relations of locativity, attachment, temporality, exclusion, comparativity, cause, contrast, concession are established between the elements of prototypical situation when it is nominated by a second-nominated preposition formed as a result of syntactic, lexical derivation.
Relations of EXCLUSION and CAUSE are revealed between elements of prototypical situation when a secondarily nominated prepositions of English are formed as a result of semantic derivation of a metaphorical type. Moreover, the relations of EXCLUSION and ATTACHMENT are established between the elements of prototypical situation when they are nominated by derived prepositions of the English language formed as a result of syntactic and semantic derivation integration.
As a result of changing the syntactic environment, the relationships between elements in the same proposition may change. Prepositions formed as a result of interaction with adjectives, depending on their functioning in the sentence, can express concepts LOCATIVITY or TEMPORALITY RELATION.
Various characteristics conveyed by derived prepositions, as components of the concept RELATION, can be characterized by static or dynamic aspects. Prepositions formed as a result of interaction with verbs in the English language express the concept ATTACHMENT in a dynamic aspect. Prepositions formed as a result of interaction with verbs in English express the concept EXCLUSION in both static and dynamic aspects.
Conjunctions can also interact with different parts of speech from one to four) in English. It is found in the research that interaction of conjunctions with one part of speech has the maximum degree of interaction compared with other parts of speech. The most productive process for conjunctions that interact with two parts of speech is combination of adverbial and prepositional bases by means of compounding (Adv + Prep → Conj (whereupon, whereat)). The word building bases for English conjunctions interacting with one part of speech considered to be adverbial (Adv), verbal (V) stems, as well as the stems of prepositions (Prep) and conjunctions (Conj). The word building processes for conjunctions formation are together with word composition shortening and alternation ( Conj 1 → Conj 2 ('cause, tho', cos). Highly productive models in English are:
Prep → Conj
V + - ing/ - ed → Conj
Adv → Conj
The most productive models that reflect interaction of conjunctions with two parts of speech, by word composition are the following models as:
Adv + Prep → Conj
Adv + Conj 1 → Conj 2
In the formation of English conjunctions that interact with two parts of speech conversion, word composition are the most productive word-formation processes. The word building bases for conjunctions that interact with three parts of speech can be a derived substantive stem, and in this case, the formation of conjunction is the final step of word-formation. Derivation bases for the conjunctions can also be a non-derivative stem of preposition ( Prep → Conj → Adv → Adj (after).
The formation of conjunctions that interact with four parts of speech occurs by means of conversion.
By analogy with prepositions, English conjunctions can interact with notional (adverbs, verbs, nouns, adjectives) and formal (prepositions, conjunctions, and a certain article) parts of speech. The interaction of English conjunctions with independent parts of speech is external, and the interaction of English conjunctions with formal parts of speech is internal.
A cognitive model in the form of a simple proposition without any complex semantic transformations was constructed in each group. A main cognitive model may have some variations due to the type of a motivating unit (Kameneva, 2017).
The semantic analysis showed that the formation of the derived conjunctions involved prepositional, adverbial, verbal, adjectival stems. All the mentioned stems have a limited number of conceptual spheres. Concepts “relation of time”, “relation of location” “relation of comparison”, “relation of condition”, “relation of exception”, “relation of cause”, “relation of concession”, and “relation of contrast” are expressed by prepositional stems. Concepts “temporal quality of quality”, “locative quality of quality”, “conditional quality of quality”, “causal quality of quality”, “general quality of quality”, “comparative quality of quality” are expressed by adverbial stems. Verbal stems express concepts “action of supposition”, “action of addition. Adjectival stems express a concept “limited quality”; concepts “relation of time” and “relation of contrast” are expressed by conjunctival stems. Such a change of conceptual spaces involves a process of total categorization of linguistic units.
During the modelling, we managed to establish the following prototypal members (predicates): condition, tense, exclusion, cause, concession, comparison.
Conjunctions derived from prepositional stems express a concept RELATION of diverse types: “Relation of condition, of time, of exception, of cause of concession, of comparison”. Prepositional stems and derived from them conjunctions express a concept RELATION that is why here there are no any transformations. If conjunctional stems derive conjunctions, both the conjunctival stems and the derived conjunctions express a concept RELATION (of cause, concession), that is why here there are no any transformations.
The semantic transformation represented by conjunctions derived from adverbial stems is a concept RELATION of diverse types: that of condition, cause, time, comparison. Here we deal with a transformation of a category “Quality of quality” of diverse types (conditional, causal, temporal, comparative quality) into a category of “Relation” of the mentioned types.
The semantic transformation represented by conjunctions derived from verbal stems is a concept RELATION OF CONDITION. Here we deal with a transformation of a category “Action or Process” into a category of “Relation of condition”.
The semantic transformation represented by conjunctions derived from an adjectival stem is a concept RELATION OF CAUSE. Here we deal with a transformation of a category “Causal quality” into a category of “Relation of cause”.
To sum up, prepositions and conjunctions in English as elements of linguistic system are admitted to interact with one, two, three, four parts of speech. They tend to have the maximum degree and depth of interaction with one part of speech. Interaction is divided into internal (interaction with prepositions, conjunctions) and external (interaction with notional parts of speech) types. The degree and depth of outer interaction exceed the ones of inner interaction of prepositions and conjunctions.
It should be added, that though it seemed controversial that prepositions and conjunctions have been intensely discussed at different times throughout history of parts of speech, they are still in the focal point of many discussions. The existence of prepositions and conjunctions is essential in a language as they have a very important connective function.
The view utilised here bases mainly on the representation of different types of relations between parts of speech illustrating their close ties with the objective reality and it following thence presenting cognitive modelling of secondary nominated words.
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03 August 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Mikheeva, T., Murugova, E., & Kameneva, E. (2020). Secondary Nominated English Prepositions And Conjunctions In The Framework Of Cognitive Approach. In & N. L. Amiryanovna (Ed.), Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects, vol 86. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 976-983). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.114