Educational Communication Strategies In Primary School
The article presents strategies of organizing educational communication in the process of teaching younger students. It is substantiated that the possibility of including this content of the subject’s material as a “subjective text” in the process of communication and the process of cognition of a younger student is fundamentally important. The article presents the results of a stating experiment to identify difficulties in organizing educational communication of younger students in their first year of study. Difficulties were identified with the help of special tasks reflecting the essence of the following communication strategies: generation of speech expression, discourse generation strategy, dialogue/polylogue generation strategy. Diagnostic results showed that when performing tasks aimed at including students in communication strategies, younger students showed the ability to create spontaneous monologue speeches in accordance with characteristics of the communicative situation. The experience of organizing educational communication strategies in primary school when working with educational content at the subject and sub-subject levels is presented, as well as younger students’ new knowledge generating process. It is concluded that the structure of the texts generated by the younger schoolchild allows us to understand individual characteristics of the native speaker, development level of his/her communicative skills. It is revealed that the individual style is reflected better and more clearly in oral, and not in written discourse.
Keywords: Primary school studentlearning processcommunicative situationscommunicative strategies
Communication has always been an integral part of the learning process. Particular attention to the relationship between communication and learning first arose in German communicative didactics (Munch, 1995). This area is now actively developing around the world, exploring possibilities of communication as a didactic resource. In Russian pedagogics, the problem of building up communication as a separate subjectivity and as a reality related to the assimilation of the content of education has been solved, in particular, in the theory and practice of developing education.
Educational communication implies a special type of communication in which communication takes place, focused on a single meaning, idea, concept. The goal of interacting people is not to exchange material objects, but to communicate to each other meanings that have an ideal nature. Bearers of meanings are signs, symbols, texts that have an external, sensual perceived form, and an internal, comprehensible speculative content. Therefore, productive communication can be called the interaction in which mutual understanding, the process of development, improvement of the personality take place (Chiș & Grec, 2016).
Educational communication in primary school provides an opportunity for a younger student to enter a specific educational situation of the lesson. The teacher and students carry out probability prediction of each other's intentions, interfering with their implementation, non-linear assessment of the course of communication and, if necessary, change tactics (select other words, other language structures), and sometimes educational communication organization strategies (Lyle, 2008).
In the learning process, a younger student explains and applies skills and abilities, correlates new material with already acquired knowledge and uses it when performing other tasks. Educational communication contributes to the educational task acquiring the status of a life event. Obtaining knowledge becomes a significant issue for the student, which does not have an unequivocal solution, but requires involvement of knowledge from various academic disciplines, from one’s own life experience or their acquisition as a result of one’s own research (Jaslovska & Pisonova, 2018) Subjectivity in this case means such authorship in life, which is based on a responsible and constructive relationship with the world (with the Other). Consequently, the process and result of managing the educational communication of a younger student in a lesson represents conditions created by the teacher in which younger students have the opportunity to show and realize an interest in cognition, master individual and joint forms of educational activity, acquire new skills in cognition and communication (Edunova, 2017; Leinonen & Venninen, 2012).
Primary school is a stage of mastering methods of structuring a detailed coherent statement in the arbitrary construction of a monologue. This is the age period when the ability to conduct dialogue with peers and adults is mastered (Galabova, 2016), and the training in monologic speech begins. But any oral and written statement appears in a certain communicative situation, where each participant has his/her own position.
We proposed a classification of communicative situations, each of which is used in different strategies of educational communication at different stages of the lesson: situation-prompting, situation-dialogue, situation-communicative event, situation-discourse (Arhipova, 2019). Based on communicative situations, we classify the strategies for organizing educational communication of a younger student: the strategy for generating speech pronunciation, the strategy for generating discourse, and the strategy for generating dialogue/polylogue. A communicative strategy can be defined as a correlation of the position type (the nature of interaction) in communication and the corresponding way of expressing this position using a word (or other sign) that is significant for speech behavior (Maksimova, 2005).
We believe that the organization of educational communication in primary school involves various strategies aimed at including students in communicative activities characterized by a different level of complexity from individual speech experience to dialogic joint experience.
What difficulties do students experience in the first year of schooling?
How are communicative strategies implemented in a lesson in primary school?
Purpose of the Study
Studying specifics of educational communication made it possible to formulate the strategies used in the learning process in primaryschool.
The article presents the results of a stating experiment to identify difficulties in the organization of educational communication of primary school children and an example of strategies implementation in the lesson to overcome these difficulties. Educational communication strategies can serve as a methodological framework for designing the learning process in the lesson. Communicative strategies involve the use of various communicative situations, which allows teachers to organize the learning process at different levels of complexity.
The results of the study can be useful to teachers, methodologists for organizing educational communication at school, and can also become the basis for the development of new courses for students of pedagogical universities and in the system of advanced training for primary school teachers.
To identify difficulties in the communicative actions of first year students, a modified K.F.
Sedov’s methodology was used to study the formation of oral discourse (Sedov, 1999). For each communicative strategy, its own group of tasks was determined with the subsequent characteristics of each level and the number of points of speech material obtained during this experiment. Each student from the experimental and control groups during this study was offered eight tasks. Tasks aimed at identifying the levels of the following abilities of a primary school student: ability to speak, work with text and ability to conduct a dialogue. Thus, each student (in some assignments it was proposed to carry out two versions of the text material) was able to create 13 speech works. All student responses were recorded, followed by a written transcript of the recordings. In each class, 299 speech works were received. The recording was carried out in conditions of direct spontaneous communication. The presence of the experimenter (teacher) introduced into the speech situation an element of official communication.
Each task was performed by students of the 1st “B” grade (Experimental) (23 people) and 1 “C” grade (Control) (23 people). Some tasks, such as
The overt observation for studying the management of educational communication of a younger student in the lesson was used during the organization of educational communication in the process of teaching younger students in the first grades of Gymnasium No. 63 of the Kalinin District of St. Petersburg (Russia).
Difficulties in implementing educational strategies in the first year of study
In the pedagogical experiment, communicative strategies were tested in the first grades of primary school (1 “B” experimental, 1 “C” control).
The results of the tasks of each communicative strategy are presented below.
So, when highlighting keywords from Leo Tolstoy’s fable “Ant and Dove” and Vitaly Bianki’s story “Murka and Hedgehog”, many younger schoolchildren composed a statement in the form of text retelling. But in the experimental class, where the average execution result for the first and second texts was 2.9, the students were able to convey the content of the text as a group of keywords indicating central characters and some objects, actions described in the story (“
When highlighting the meaning of these texts, younger students showed the result above. The average value in 1 “B” class was 3.0, in 1 “C” - 2.8, respectively.
The task, which caused great difficulty, consisted in listening to a group of suggested keywords and in formulating in one sentence the main content of the text that these words represent. The average value of the results in the experimental class was 1.8, in the control it was 1.3.
The content of
By the level of complexity,
One of the difficulties in fulfilling the task
The average value of junior schoolchildren completing the tasks of this strategy in the control group turned out to be higher than in the experimental class (2.1 versus 2.3).
Based on the results of a stating study, we can conclude that the students experience the following difficulties: the ability to highlight the main meaning of the text (Leo Tolstoy's “Ant and Dove”), to highlight the key words of the text (V. Bianki “Murka and Hedgehog”), as well as the ability to retell a text without both the beginning and the ending (G. Snegirev “Wild Beast”). Moreover, by the number and quality of difficulties, we can conclude that the difficulties are identical in the experimental and control classes. This is due to the fact that the generation and understanding of discourse is associated with the transformation of internal subjective meanings into a system of external expanded speech works. The younger students build their discourse as if they and the listener are watching the described events together.
Implementation of strategies by educational communication of a primary school student in a lesson
The proposed communication strategies are aimed at involving students in communication activities. They are characterized by a different level of complexity from individual speech experience to dialogic joint experience. A pedagogical experiment showed that their various sequences are possible during the lesson. First of all, it is advisable to use them sequentially at the stages of the lesson, thus providing a solution to the problems of each stage.
The first stage of the lesson is aimed at introducing into the problem, the actualization of knowledge. This stage encourages students to actualize their thinking for work with a new educational content (situation-incentive). Creating problem situations at the beginning of the lesson, attracting entertaining material, using unexpected conflicting information helps to develop the ability to create a speech utterance. It should be borne in mind that planning
The second stage is a joint cognitive activity on planning
The third stage is to check the understanding of the performed experiments. The stage of constructing statements, judgments, additions, explanations, conclusions; the interpretation of actions in accordance with the situations of a dialogue and a communicative event is built in the logic of the
The analysis of the implementation of communicative strategies in the lesson shows that using replica actions (words, sentences, questions, interrogations, comments, judgments), the primary school teacher determines not only the direction of the communicative process, but also the activity of each student in the conversation; builds the subject and logic of speech utilization, arouses students' interest in the lesson, topic, their need for communication, creates that specific objective atmosphere in which all participants in communication interact on equal terms.
At present, primaryschool education is acquiring an increasingly clear communicative orientation. The student learns to express his/her thoughts, judgments, opinions, and not just repeat the words read from the book - it means he/she learns to think, and think in the form of speech. The communicative space of a lesson can be a complex picture of various communicative situations. The definition of the communicative situation as a unit of educational communication and its developing abilities in training, allows everyone to go to the organization of educational communication based on strategies organization.
A communication building strategy is a strategy for achieving a goal based on substantive content framed in a communicative situation, which is implemented using guiding procedures.
A stating experiment to identify difficulties ofstudents in primary school showed that in a speech reflection of reality, younger students cannot yet abstract themselves from the depicted situation during the generation and comprehension of a speech work. Among the possible options for using communicative strategies in a lesson in primaryschool, the simplest option is when any communicative strategy is used at each stage of the lesson. It was revealed that the organization of educational communication is not limited to the selection of tasks, but also involves a different organization of the lesson. It is important that the task, which determines the course of joint work, was correctly accepted by all the participants in the communicative situation. In this case, students of primary schools realize tactically and strategically their part in the educational process, which makes them equal learning subjects.
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