Formation Of A Culture Of Life Safety Among Students
The article presents the problem of formation of a culture of social security among students of a pedagogical university as an important component of the organization of an individual’s activity, considered in a system of social norms, beliefs, and values that ensure the preservation of one’s health, life, and the integrity of the surrounding world. The essential characteristics of the concept of "culture" and "social security" are analyzed; the stages and directions of formation of students’ social security culture are distinguished. The paper presents the results of a survey among first-year bachelor students of the Department of Life Safety of Pedagogical University. Their ideas about the level of social security in society, the main threats of a social nature and the regularity of dangerous situations of a social nature are analyzed in the article. The authors define knowledge groups (knowledge on the basics of protecting society from various threats, on safe behavior in society, organizing and conducting preventive work with students, organizing a safe and healthy environment in an educational institution, etc.), didactic units in the content of educational disciplines that are formed in the minds of bachelors of the Department of Life Safety during the training at the university and which are at the heart of the formation of a culture of social security. The article identifies the conditions affecting the effectiveness of the formation and development of a culture of social security among students, as well as the specifics of a culture of social security formation.
Keywords: Culturesocial securitylife safetypedagogical university
At present, issues of social security in our society are gaining the highest relevance in connection with the decline of the general culture, increasing access to information resources, which in most cases contribute not only to a significant improvement in the lives of citizens, but also can cause moral and psychological damage; there is a development of communication systems that perform not only the functions of transmitting information and human interaction, but also the possibility of manipulative influence. In such conditions, it becomes necessary to establish standards of safe behavior that contribute to minimizing the possibility of dangerous situations of a social nature and provide the easiest way out of them. Accordingly, a person needs to develop skills in safe behavior that will help to overcome dangers and to form the skills to protect against various threats of a social nature. Proceeding from this, it follows that the key task of education in the field of social security should be the formation of a social security culture among students.
In an effort to ensure their safety in an emergency, a person comes to the understanding that, first of all, it is necessary to ensure safety among people. One of the most effective strategies for achieving this goal is to foster a culture of social security.
The scientific literature includes a large number of formulations of the term "culture". The most appropriate, in our opinion, are terms that define culture as a socially progressive creative activity of mankind in all spheres of being and consciousness, which is the dialectical unity of the processes of creating values, norms, semiotic systems, and the development of cultural heritage (Frolov, 1986). Sorokin (1947) defined culture as a combination of material and spiritual achievements created or changed by people in the process of their joint activity, as a result of any interaction between people. A group of scientists (Mikhaylov, Gubanov, & Solomin, 2012) formulates the concept of social security as a state of protection of the vital interests of society (individuals, society, state) in the social environment.
The International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (Smelser & Baltes, 2001) reflects the interdisciplinary aspect of the problem. The extreme degree of neglect of already established norms (including violation of the measure in disrespectful attitude to common sense, to the ideal that defines it) is inherent in extremism. The implementation of the theoretical and methodological foundations of bachelor's education in the field of extremism prevention, protection and preservation of cultural heritage is aimed at developing systemic knowledge on the problem of extremism (Byrylova & Spitsyna, 2018). The formation of a safety culture in society in the process of professional training of a bachelor student in a pedagogical university is reflected in the works of Stankevich, Abramova, and Boyarov (2017). The psychological factors of learning social security were investigated by Shmeleva Kislyakov, Maltseva, and Luneva (2015), German scientists (Perels, Gürtler, & Schmitz, 2005). Noxological competence is becoming increasingly important in teacher training (Stankevich, Abramova, & Boyarov, 2016).
Formation of a culture of social security is a long and continuous process. It is a part of the safety culture of a person as a whole; it begins to form from birth and continues to form throughout the person's life. In connection with the above, the formation and development of a culture of social security among students of pedagogical universities is relevant.
It seems important to dwell in detail on the specifics of the formation of a culture of social security among students of the Department of Life Safety at the Pedagogical University.
What are the perceptions of students about social security in our society, about the main threats of social nature and the regularity of dangerous situations of social nature?
What is the specificity of the formation of a culture of social security among students of a Department of Life Safety at a Pedagogical University?
What are the main directions of the formation of a culture of social security among students of a Department of Life Safety at a Pedagogical University?
Purpose of the Study
The study of the culture of social security allows us to identify the essential characteristics, as well as the pedagogical capabilities of the state of development of an individual, social group, characterized by an attitude to ensuring a safe life, and activities to reduce the level of danger.
The article presents an attempt to prove the need for the formation of a culture of social security among future teachers on the basis of an analysis of psychological, pedagogical, methodological and specialized literature on life safety issues, the formation of a safe behavioral personality, as well as on the basis of a survey of first-year students of the Life Safety Department of Pedagogical University.
The results of the study can be further used to organize pedagogical work with schoolchildren and students, as well as to form a culture of social security and a personality of a safe type of behavior in various population groups.
In order to study the essence of the problem of the culture of social security, its characteristics, the features of its formation among students of the Pedagogical University, special literature on life safety, pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem of the formation of knowledge, culture of social security, as well as research on the need to form a personality of a safe type of behavior, were studied.
To identify students' perceptions of safety, ways and possibilities of solving social security problems, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen) a survey was conducted, in which 40 freshmen of the Life Safety Department took part. The questionnaire was offered to first-year students, since they had not yet studied special academic disciplines in various areas of life safety. The questionnaire method was used for first-year students of the Faculty of Life Safety to identify the main threats of a social nature, as well as to determine the regularity of manifestations of dangerous situations of a social nature.
The students' idea of social security in our society and the ways and possibilities of solving social security problems
In order to study the students' perception of social security in our society, of ways and possibilities of solving social security problems, we conducted a survey among first-year bachelor students of the Department of Life Safety of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. 40 students were involved in the study. As a basis, we used the questionnaires compiled by Kislyakov (2011) and adapted them to our study. An analysis of the answers showed that only 25% of respondents rated the level of social security in society as "well", while 60% rated it "satisfactory". It should be noted that 15% of bachelor students rated the level of security in society as "unsatisfactory."
Most first-year students (85%) believe that human security in their surrounding social environment is largely dependent on an individual; 10% answered “on the work of law enforcement agencies” and 5% noted “the surrounding social environment” as the main answer. The next question from the questionnaire led to the conclusion that many bachelor students pay attention to the problem of ensuring personal safety (72.5%), and 27.5% gave the opposite answer. As the main manifestation of concern for their own safety, almost all survey participants identified “vigilance with what is happening around” (97.5%). At the same time, 95% of the students who took part in the survey follow the rules of personal safety, and 87.4% of the respondents only study these rules.
The results of the answers of bachelor students to the question “What are the main threats of a social nature” were distributed as follows: students consider drug addiction (100%), HIV/AIDS (100%), armed conflict (92.5%), terrorism (85%) as the most dangerous social threats, low standard of living, including due to adverse environmental conditions (82.5%). Among other threats to social security, bachelor students named unemployment (75%); loss of identity, cultural values (52.5%); alcoholism (45%); nationalism (25%) and other.
The next question of the questionnaire was aimed at determining the regularity of dangerous situations in everyday life. From the results of the survey, it can be stated that most often (more than once a week) students got into the following dangerous situations of a social nature: hooliganism (47%), the appearance of a drunken, untidy person, a beggar (80%), domestic conflicts (62.5% ) Quite rarely (once or twice a year), students had drunk alcohol excessively (17.5%), had been robbed or extorted (10%), had entered into conflicts with teachers in an educational institution (30%), and had faced aggressive actions by representatives of informal youth groups (30%) and some respondents or their friends had been offered drugs (22.5%).
The specifics of the formation of a culture of social security among students of the Department of Life Safety at a pedagogical university
In the process of forming a social safety culture among students, we relied on the following provisions:
society can be a source of various social problems in connection with the heterogeneity of the people in it (according to cultural and mental characteristics, a system of views, principles, attitudes, etc.);
first-year students are usually a category of young people who are at the stage of an active knowledge of the world and the society around them, and their desire to assert themselves in society quite often leads to negative consequences, and they can be manipulated by antisocial and criminal organizations;
one of the main causes of threats and dangers of a social nature is the aggressive type of consciousness of a modern person, which can manifest itself in attempts to informally influence the ideals alien to our mentality and the views of extremist ideology on youth in order to change their consciousness and the true picture of the world.
As part of the curriculum of bachelor students of teacher education in the field of life safety at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, at the department of the methods of teaching life safety and social security, the department of life safety, various disciplines have been developed and are being implemented, the content of the teaching material of which allows bachelors to acquire knowledge that is the basis for the formation of a social safety culture (Table
We have identified conditions that affect the effectiveness of the formation of a culture of social security among students:
definition of groups of interdisciplinary knowledge in various subject-specific disciplines;
continuity of knowledge groups in the process of studying various disciplines of subject-specific training;
the use of practice-oriented tasks in organizing the culture-oriented activities of students.
In order to achieve the optimal result of the formation of a culture of social security, it is necessary to highlight the methodological peculiarities of this process. First of all, we have identified the stages of a culture of social security formation:
analytical stage, including motivation of students to gain theoretical knowledge on subject-specific disciplines; familiarization of students with the educational material of subject-specific disciplines; identification of problematic issues presented in the content of the educational material;
the procedural stage, including the reproduction of existing interdisciplinary knowledge to solve practice-oriented tasks in organizing culturally oriented activities; design and justification of solutions for practice-oriented tasks;
the search stage, including the independent implementation of practice-oriented tasks; generalization and systematization of interdisciplinary knowledge; formulation of conclusions.
The main directions of the formation of a culture of social security among students of the Department of Life Safety at a pedagogical university
Formation of a culture of social security should be systemic and interdisciplinary in the following areas:
systematization of educational material in subject-specific disciplines and its distribution for classroom and extracurricular activities;
designing tasks for independent work of students taking into account the integration of subject-specific disciplines;
organization of culture-oriented research activity of students aimed at studying, understanding and preserving culture as a phenomenon, including one of its directions — the culture of social security;
defining integrative knowledge, skills, universal educational activities, formed in the process of various types of culture-oriented activities.
A special role is played by the activities for development and implementation of state policy in the field of life safety, training of different age groups of the theoretical principles of life safety and the development of skills that contribute to the formation of a social security culture.
The study proved the need to identify and implement in practice the training of students of the Department of Life Safety of the content of subject-specific disciplines aimed at creating a culture of social security.
For the effective implementation of the process of creating a culture of social security among bachelor students of the Department of Life Safety, it is important to highlight the knowledge groups that underlie the basic scientific provisions on social threats, precautions, protection rules and behavior in case of emergencies and social hazards. The results of the study allow us to state that the purposeful and systematic formation of knowledge that is the basis of the culture of social security is an important direction in the development of the theory and practice of preparing bachelors of education in the field of life safety.
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