The study is a meta-analysis in a comparative evolution on the importance that Romanian parents give to items/values needed to be develop in the formative socialization years of their children, in the pre-adult phase, like: independence, hard work, feeling of responsibility, imagination, thrift, saving money and things, religious beliefs and altruism. The evaluating indicators that have been used were taken from two waves of the international data base World Values Survey (WVS 2010-2014, WVS 2005-2009), on triple generation groups aged under 30 years, 30 - 49 years, respectively over 50 years.The result of the statistical processing reveals both increasing and decreasing tendencies regarding the importance that parents give to the mentioned above values/items, so-called parental values or child-rearing values. In that conditions, it should be noticed - mostly among the young generation - a tendency towards independence and autonomy values which, over the next years, under the natural intergenerational replacement, could modify the present Romanian society profile. The next phases of the present research will include comparative analyses on new data, with reference to the Romanian population that is under 24 years old, in order to observe the maintenance, emphasis or inversion of the already presented tendencies and their implications over the education and leadership fields.
Keywords: Parental valueschild-rearing valuesintergenerational replacement
The evolution processes at the individual level and on social changes are interconnected and have an impact on the nature of the society as a whole (Alwin & Krosnick, 1991).Social continuity and social changes are related to the process of generational succession (Alwin &McCammon,2003). The generation term implies a cultural area in which generations are distinguished by provisions, attitudes and values (Gilleard, 2004).
Experiencing different social and political circumstances leads to social changes through the natural replacement process of generations,the study of the succession between these being used to understand the phenomenon of social change.Social changes have a slow rhythm toward the specific of young generations (Alwin &McCammon, 2003),significant impact being noticed in the long term (Inglehart, 2008).The gradual nature of the changes comprises a wide range of social values, including those relating to parental values (Alwin & Krosnick, 1991).Because the change of the early socialization of the new generations, we are witnessing changes in values reflected in the process of intergenerational change (Inglehart, 1971).
Studying the social values preferred by parents to be accustomed to children in the family environment is a major concern for specialized literature (Sieben, 2017).Known as the child rearing values or parental values (Sieben,2017), these are the parents' perceptions about what is desirable for their children (Kohn, 1977), being influenced mainly by the conditions experienced by their parents (Alwin &McCammon, 2007).The term child rearing values has seen a tendency of appreciation of the importance granted by researchers compared to the parental values, which may be a result of the desire to move the emphasis on the child from the parent (Voicu, 2013).
Child rearing values are what adults think the children should learn at home, necessary and useful values to be developed in the future generations (Tufiş, 2008),values linked to the importance attributed to religious explanation, independence, responsibility and obedience (Voicu, 2013).
Special attention was paid by literature to study the parental values from a polar perspective which opposes the dimension of autonomy to authority (Voicu, 2010).The same axis is observed as the modern parental values - traditional parental values (Duvall, 1946), autocontrol - conformism (Kohn, 1959), or autonomy-obedient (Alwin &Krosnick, 1991).
The values associated to autonomy show a preference of parents for the child's developing of an internal reference system,while the values associated with conformism show a concern for the assimilation of an external reference set (Tufis, 2008), internal control against the control of an external authority.
From this dual view, the literature associates values such as responsibility, creativity and independence to autonomy, and obedience and religious values to authority/conformism (Voicu, 2013), or independence, perseverance, imagination to autonomy, and obedience, good manners, religious belief, hard work andsavings to conformism (Xiao, 2000), or individualism, imagination, perseverance to autonomy, and hard work, saving and obedient to conformism (Tufiș, 2008).
In order to identify whether the Romanian cultural profile could change over the next years, it is important to analyze if the concept of parental values is stable in time or under the natural intergenerational replacement there can be observe an increasing or decreasing trend regarding the importance that parents give to the mentioned above values/items.
The main research questions of our study regarding the evolution of parental values are:
Are the Romanian parental values stable in time? And if not, in what direction are they moving?Are there intergenerational differences? And if so, in what directions?Are there intragenerational differences? And if so, in what directions?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this paper is to analyze from a quantitative perspective the dynamics of the Romanian child rearing values and to observe whether significant changes have occurred in the past 15 years, based on a comparative intergenerational and intragenerational analyze.
In this respect, we conducted a longitudinal research (trend study) based on analysis of data provided by World Values Survey (2010-2014) – Romania 2012 – Wave 6 and World Values Survey (2005-2009) - Romania 2005 – Wave 5 (abbreviated throughout the paper as WVS 6 and WVS 5). The evaluating indicators that have been used were taken from the two waves above mentioned, on triple generation groups aged under 29 years, between 30 - 49 years, respectively over 50 years.
To achieve our purpose we covered the following stages:
We gathered data from WVS 6 and WVS 5regarding the importance that Romanian parents give to qualities needed to be learnt at home in the formative socialization years of their children, like: independence, hard work, feeling of responsibility, imagination, thrift, saving money and things, religious beliefs and altruism. Charts were made for each of the items mentioned above.
With the purpose of observing if and in which direction are the Romanian child rearing values evolving and if there can be identify certain trends, we calculated the gross differences and analized if those differences are statistically significant between data gathered from Wave 6 and Wave 5.
We conducted intragenerational analyzes (differences between data from two WVS waves) and intergenerationalanalyzes (differences between data from the same WVS wave).
With regard to
Therefore, it can be seen (Table
Finally, it can be asserted that the results of statistical processing reveal a trend in increasing the importance attributed by the parents to the independent value mainly among young generations.
Therefore, it can be noticed that Romanians considered important in 2005 to a significantly statistical higher extent (95%) the hard work compared with 2012 (Table
Concluding, it can be argued that the results of the statistical processing reveal a tendency to decrease the importance assigned by the parents to the hard work item, this trend being observable, both at the intragenerational level within the two successive waves of WVS, as well as at the intergenerational level within the same wave from the older generations to the youngest.
It is therefore noticed that Romanians considered the value of imagination to be important in 2012 to a statistically significant higher degree (95%) than in 2005 (Table
Concluding, the results of the statistical processing reveal the manifestation of increasing tendencies of the importance attributed by parents to the value of imagination, this trend being observable, both at the intragenerational level within the two successive waves of WVS and at intergenerational level within the same wave from the older generations to the youngest.
It is therefore noticed that the Romanians considered important the value of altruism in 2005 in a significantly statistical higher measure (95%) than in 2012 (Table
Concluding, it can be argued that the results of the statistical processing show the manifestation of tendencies in the sense of decreasing the importance attributed by the parents to the altruism value, this trend being observable, both at the intragenerational level within the two successive waves of WVS and at intergenerational level within the same wave as aging trend.
It is therefore noticed that the Romanians considered important in 2005 in a statistically significant higher degree (95%) the obedience value as compared to 2012 (Table
Concluding, it can be argued that the results of the statistical processing reveal a tendency to decrease the importance attributed by the parents to the obedience value, both at the global level and at the individual level of each generation within the two successive waves of WVS.
It is therefore noticed that the Romanians have chosen in 2005 to a statistically significant higher degree (95%) the saving value compared to 2012 (Table
Concluding, it can be argued that the results of the statistical processing reveal a tendency to decrease the importance attributed by the parents to the saving value, both at the global level and at the individual level of each generation, within the two successive waves of WVS.
It is therefore noticed that Romanians have choose in 2005 in a statistically significant higher measure (95%) the religious faith item compared to 2012 (Table
Concluding, it can be argued that the results of the statistical processing reveal a tendency to decrease the importance attributed by parents to religious belief, both at the global level and at the individual level of each generation, within two successive waves of WVS.
The results of the statistical processing reveal the display of some tendencies both in the sense of growth and decrease of the importance attributed by the parents to the items previously analyzed. Thus, regarding the items of
Regarding older generations there is a process of maintaining of some reflexes (Inglehart, 2008) inherited from the communist period. Although the institutional and economic systems have changed in the post-revolutionary Romania, we can still find value reflexes that go towards obedience and authority, typical of the communist period (Voicu, 2001), especially at the generation over 50 years old.
On the other hand, the intergenerational analysis highlights the fact that the importance the parents give to the items of
Following a corroboration of the intergenerational analysis with the longitudinal analysis of the data provided by the measurements of two distinct waves of the World Walues Survey, there is a tendency to shift and maintain the level of importance attributed to the autonomous values from the generation under 29 years of the 2005 wave to the generation 30-49 in the 2012 wave, namely the 30-49 generation to the generation over 50 years, which supports the hypothesis that, over the years, the natural changing of generations can lead to changes in value orientations in the entire society (Inglehart & Abramson, 1995).
Under these circumstances, there is a migrating trend of the young generation towards independence and autonomy, along with a decrease for values related to saving, engagement in work, obedience or religious belief, which could modify the profile of thecurrent Romanian society over the years, taking into consideration the natural intergenerational replacement.
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17 June 2020
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Grama, I. S., & Chiș, V. (2020). The Romanian Parental Values - Comparative Analyze. In & V. Chis (Ed.), Education, Reflection, Development – ERD 2019, vol 85. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 282-293). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.06.28