The article deals with modern challenges of personal security. The purpose of the article is to reveal the potential of youth self-government in educational institutions of higher education. The author identifies a complex task of educational organizations, which includes not only educational functions, but also educational aspects of the entire process of preparing young people for adulthood, in particular the task of forming a culture of safety for employees and students of educational organizations, based on spiritual and moral positions. The role and place of complex security of educational organizations are shown, the points of view on its organization are analyzed. The essence of social security of the educational environment, which determines the conditions for the development of safety culture of higher education students, is revealed. Thus, the article shows that student self-government can be a key factor in the involvement of students in the social life of the higher education institution, which will contribute to the formation of barriers to the development and spread of destructive ideologies. To implement these measures, it is necessary to create a unified educational, scientific, spiritual, moral and cultural-leisure environment where each student can prove himself in various spheres of life and realize his best personal qualities.
Keywords: Securityrisks and threatscomprehensive security of educational organizationssocial securitystudent self-government
The issue of ensuring security in educational institutions of higher education in our country, which is extremely relevant in modern conditions, is rather broad and multifaceted. Today, the state and society are faced with new unprecedented in their scope challenges, threats and dangers of terrorism, ideological sabotages, and the spread of various kinds of destructive extremist ideologies and ideas, including those calling for specific acts of violence, deviant behavior, and self-destruction, including suicides. The main object of these threats is our youth, in view of the high instability, hesitation, youth nihilism and protest activity. In addition, with the development of technological progress and technologies, the risks of technological and environmental disasters and emergencies affecting the entire population of the country also expand, that is, both social and technical risks appear (Muravyova, Sibgatova, & Khismatova, 2017).
All this requires higher education workers to create a multi-purpose and multi-level integrated security system for universities, which would cover all the necessary issues in this area - from comprehensive provision of physical protection, fire safety, preparedness of employees and students for emergency situations to a set of measures to prevent destructive ideologies and addictions among young people, the creation of an effective system to counter them and other modern challenges (Muravyeva et al., 2015). It is obvious that ensuring the physical and “spiritual” security of an individual is the realization of the social responsibility of the education system as a whole, implying the “responsibility of participants in educational relations (educational organizations, educators, students) for providing and implementing measures to protect educational organizations and the educational environment from various types of external and internal threats” (Levina, Khusainova, & Prokofieva, 2017, p. 28).
From the point of view of forming an answer to security challenges and threats, the author considers integrated security in higher educational institutions as a set of measures and events intensified in conjunction with the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, local authorities, law enforcement agencies, other services and public organizations to ensure comprehensive safe functioning, as well as the formation of a safety culture for employees and students s organizations, their readiness for rational actions in emergency situations.
Recently, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russia, together with other authorized departments, has been carrying out global work to create a system and ensure the functioning of the integrated security of higher educational and scientific institutions. Studying the issues of ensuring comprehensive security of universities from various positions, a range of current problems that requires solving and involving all participants in educational relations has clearly been formed (Prokofieva, 2016; Samorodova, 2017).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to reveal the potential of youth self-government in educational institutions of higher education. The education system can provide significant assistance to society in improving the level of life safety. The involvement of students will allow them to form a sense of ownership and responsibility for their lives and the lives of others, where the level of efficiency of the entire system of integrated security significantly increases.
Practice shows that this activity requires the development of common approaches, requirements and constant coordination with interested ministries, departments and services both at the level of the federal center and at the local level. In this regard, some universities have made suggestions about the need to create a single center for integrated security at the level of the Ministry, focusing all security issues under a single leadership in the universities themselves. They reasonably point out that this will avoid confusion, double, and sometimes triple work, significantly reduce some financial costs. Indeed, for example, related and similar measures on fire safety, anti-terrorism security and physical protection of subordinate organizations can be carried out under the supervision of various departments of the Ministry, according to various methodological and practical directions, with different funding. This seriously affects the real mobilization readiness of the facilities for emergency situations. A similar situation is with the implementation of anti-criminal, anti-terrorism and anti-extremist projects, including ideological ones (Knyazkina et al., 2016; Muravyeva et al., 2017).
All these proposals and ways to implement them have yet to be discussed. Some experts, in general, agreeing with the above opinion, object to the proposals for the consolidation under a single leadership, especially at the level of universities, relatively speaking, a “power unit” for physical protection of objects and a “content unit” for informational and ideological, and educational work requiring , often, a particularly subtle and even, sometimes, individual approach. Recently, experts have noted the emergence of information technology security problems, so we can talk about the emergence of the third - "information technology" unit. In any case, all of these units in their significance are fundamental in the entire security system of universities. Thus, realizing a joint view, researchers of integrated security, based on the results of monitoring the integrated security of Russian universities (Mukhametzyanova, Prokofieva, Levina, & Abdrakovnov, 2016), propose a single social project of prolonged action "Ensuring the integrated security of an educational organization" (Gilmeeva & Levina, 2017). According to its authors, this project should consist in the development of a safe trajectory of "life activity" of an educational organization in order to adapt to modern conditions and be implemented through the creation of "safety contours" aimed at ensuring the security of the individual: infrastructure, social, psycho-didactic (Levina et al., 2019; Levina et al., 2016).
Any type of security implies:
Understanding of security as a value (axiological component);
Knowledge of risks, threats and their sources, ways to confront them (cognitive component);
Availability of skills and abilities, willingness to act in case of security threats (activity component).
Based on the definition of social security of the educational environment of the university as the degree of " participants’ protection of educational relations from destructive personal and physical threats, which allows to reduce the risks of destructive processes and personal addictions, thereby preventing the occurrence of social problems and conflicts" (Levina, Khusainova, & Prokofieva, 2017, p. 29), we would like to emphasize that all work to ensure the safety of universities cannot be effectively built without the wide involvement of "permanent" and" variable " composition-teachers and students. At the same time, it is necessary not just formally, on paper, to create some, relatively speaking, "fire brigades". It is necessary to form a system of mutual understanding, interaction and multilateral responsibility of all parties, the priority of security (provision, formation, readiness) as a prerequisite for educational activities.
Obviously, this context is very complex, as the composition of the trainees is constantly changing. But practice shows that in those universities where it was (real, and not for reporting to higher authorities) possible to create an atmosphere of involving young people in matters of ensuring their own security, to form a sense of ownership and responsibility for their own lives and the lives of others, the level of effectiveness of the entire integrated security system increases considerably, significantly (Prokofieva, Erdyneeva, Efremova, Avilova, & Savina, 2016; Prokofieva et al., 2017). Inspections conducted by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and other interested departments show that in recent years many universities have achieved significant success in this area. But what is especially encouraging, they were able to find forms of attracting student groups even to a seemingly very boring, largely technical work. The experience of creating, in collaboration with the relevant services of student operational units for civil defense, voluntary fire brigades and squads for ensuring traffic safety in areas of mass crowded students, freelance student law enforcement structures that work in close cooperation with student self-government bodies is very interesting.
There are even more opportunities to engage students in "content" information-ideological and information-technical projects. This unit not only leads to the strengthening of internal security, but also has a significant preventive and educational effect. As one of the goals of the development of education set by decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 7, 2018 No. 204 “On national goals and strategic objectives of the development of the Russian Federation for the period until 2024”, the upbringing of a harmoniously developed and socially responsible person on the basis of spiritual moral values of the peoples of the Russian Federation, historical and national cultural traditions is enshrined. The effectiveness of the work carried out to achieve this goal is a determining factor in countering the spread of radical, antisocial and other destructive ideologies in educational institutions.
The successful practice of some educational institutions of higher education shows that student self-government bodies, with the support of interested leaders and teachers of the university, are able to provide continuous effective monitoring of many problem areas of the educational institution and make operational decisions to prevent all kinds of negative phenomena. We all can see the barbaric ideological aggression that young people's minds are subjected to from different sides. They are trying to decompose young people with well-thought-out and organized ideological sabotage, spread moral distrust, sow distrust and disregard for their own state, hatred of the achievements of our people, their history and culture, and incite to specific anti-social actions of an extremist nature, antisocial behavior, up to the tendency to suicide. It must be clearly understood that if this ideological aggression is not urgently resisted, it can ultimately have extremely negative long-term consequences for our entire society. It is necessary to create a kind of barrier - “spiritual and moral immunity” (Zagrebina et al., 2015; Knyazkina et al., 2016), that is, the formation and strengthening, primarily in the educational environment, of civil resistance to manifestations of extremism, ethnic, religious, social or other intolerance, the spread of hateful ideas and ideologies. This position will allow not only to develop a whole person, but will also contribute to a change in society after the young man’s training, spreading through his professional activities, family, and social connections.
Well-organized student self-government is a key factor in involving students in the social life of the University. The formation of a sense of belonging of each student to everything that is happening in their educational institution creates a basis for the psychological rejection of all student staff of any violations of the established rules. The student begins to love and protect his University as he protects his home. It is the self-government bodies that ensure the maximum numerical involvement of students in public life, such students are as loaded as possible and content, that is, content. Therefore, at the present stage, the educational institutions and organizations of our country are faced with a complex task that includes not only exclusively educational functions, but also spiritual and moral educational aspects of the whole process of preparing young people for adult life. It is necessary not only to invest in them knowledge and skills, but to form in them a personality, civil, ethno-cultural and, if necessary, religious identity on the basis of patriotism and love for the Motherland. It will allow creating in each of them an insurmountable internal barrier to immunity to destructive propaganda.
Many people underestimate the importance of shaping a person's civic identity. It is no coincidence that recruiters of destructive sects and terrorist organizations that parasitize some world religions ask their potential victims a test question on this topic. They ask young people to choose for themselves what is more important for them: faith or patriotism and love for their homeland, deliberately sharing them and deliberately creating doubts about value orientations (religion, ethnic group, homeland). Statistics show that the formation of civic identity, involvement in the socio-political processes of the state, region, city, in the public life of the university staff, course, group, can significantly reduce the risk of youth suicides, giving an understanding of the significance for the group, university and society as a whole of every action of young people person.
The most important aspect of the formation of the social security of the educational environment is the problem of justice. This concept includes social, legal, and everyday justice. In this regard, it is necessary to eliminate the manifestations of social and material superiority in student groups, as much as possible to exclude injustice on the part of the administrative and teaching staff. In this case, it is impossible not to mention the corruption, insidiously affect young man. Those young people who have received any preferences from corruption have a distorted idea of morality and a desire to solve all pressing issues in this way. And, on the contrary, the rest of the youth has a corrupting negative attitude towards our entire society and state.
Thus, the issues of ensuring the social security of the educational environment are closely intertwined with the educational tasks of the university and become an integral part of the entire educational process. Through student organizations and University student self-government and on their basis it is possible to provide a wide range of advocacy and educational work in the relevant areas of social security, to ensure justice in solving the most complex issues, including in the relationship between students, students with teachers and University administration, to organize an effective fight against corruption. We can say that in the broad sense of the word, we must create a safety culture among our youth, which will include a whole range of knowledge and skills, abilities and actions in one or another dangerous (physical, social, psychological) situation. It will allow the young man to clearly identify the degree of social or personal (for him) danger of a particular negative phenomenon and find the right action algorithms to neutralize it. The main directions of prevention of antisocial and other negative phenomena in the university, including those associated with the spread of destructive ideologies, should be: organizing the maximum employment of students, striving to distract them from the influence of negative factors, forming their attitude towards a healthy lifestyle, developing in their minds and behavior of stable immunity and intolerance to terrorism, extremism and destructive religious cults, which pose a special danger to the security of the individual. To implement these tasks in each university, based on its capabilities and material base, a system of measures can be developed which purpose is to create a unified educational, scientific, spiritual, moral, cultural and leisure environment where each student can prove himself in different spheres of life and realize his best personal qualities.
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01 April 2020
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Samorodova, V. V., Muravyeva, E. V., & Shakirova, A. I. (2020). Improving The Level Of Life Safety In The University. In & V. V. Mantulenko (Ed.), Problems of Enterprise Development: Theory and Practice, vol 82. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 391-397). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.04.50