The article presents the material that reflects the main directions of the relationship between economic processes and the level of development of physical culture and sports in modern society. It is shown that the deterioration of demographic characteristics of the population's health status observed in recent years has a negative impact on the potential for economic growth in Russia. The main factors that negatively affect economic indicators are presented. Statistical data reflecting economic losses from alcoholism and tobacco smoking are presented. It is revealed that socio-economic conditions play a major role in the formation of public health for countries with developed economies are characterized by the best indicators of health of the population. In turn, the health status of the population and its demographic characteristics have an impact on the potential for economic development. The quality of the population (human capital), characterized by indicators of public health and professional development, is the main engine and delimiter of the development of any economy. It is noted in the paper that over the past decades it has been developing at a tremendous paces sports of higher achievements, turning power into an entire industry of sports and spectacular mass events with a highly developed infrastructure. Like mass physical culture, sports intensively influence the economic sphere of life of the state and society. The main directions of the relationship of physical education, sports and the economy are revealed.
Keywords: Economyrelationshipnegative factorseconomic growthdemographic characteristics
The health of the population and the economy of the state have a close relationship and interdependence: not only does the economy affect the health of the population, but also the health of the population affects the economy of the state ( Baranova, 2019). From an economic point of view, physical culture and sports can be considered as a type of socially useful activity for providing various services related to the non-productive sphere and therefore not directly involved in the creation of a material product.
No branch of the national economy can successfully develop without relying on the conscious use of economic laws. Economic laws that exist in social production also apply in the field of physical culture and sports. At the present stage of the country's development, in the conditions of qualitative transformation of all aspects of society, the requirements for the physical fitness of our fellow citizens, necessary for their successful work, are increasing. The restructuring of public education in the country has given higher education the task of radically and comprehensively improving the professional training and physical development of future specialists.
Various studies conducted in our country in different years have convincingly shown that the superiority of workers engaged in physical culture in relation to other workers in labor productivity reaches from 1.5-2 % to 9-12 %, depending on different production and labor conditions. The greatest differences are observed when working in unfavorable sanitary and hygienic conditions and with a significant share of physical labor. In such conditions, the superiority of employees who have a high level of physical fitness as a result of physical exercises is expressed especially clearly and convincingly.
Physical culture is directly related to the productive forces of society. Acting on the main creative force of social production - man, contributing to the development of his natural vitality and General capacity for action, it thus contributes to the multiplication of the most valuable "capital" of society ( Skitnevskiy et al., 2019). With the development of society, physical activity and sport are increasingly penetrating into all areas of people's lives, becoming an increasingly important and integral part of the life of world civilization. Currently, millions of people in all countries of the world lead a healthy lifestyle, an integral part of which is physical exercise and Wellness gymnastics, participation in sports competitions. In recent decades, top-level sports have also been developing at a gigantic pace, gradually turning into an entire industry of sports and entertainment events. Physical culture and sports in modern society are the most important factor in maintaining and strengthening people's health, improving their culture, a way of communication, active leisure activities, and an alternative to bad habits and addictions. At the same time, physical education and sports have an intensive impact on the economic sphere of the state and society.
The economic role of physical education and sports is clearly manifested in several main areas:
Physical activity and health-improving mass sports help to minimize economic losses in almost all spheres of life of the society, act as an alternative to harmful habits, which, as we know, have a powerful destructive impact on economic life;
Physical activity is a significant factor in increasing the life expectancy of the population, has a positive effect on increasing the working age of people;
Physical education and sports are one of the main components of training high-quality labor resources, and, consequently, a factor in ensuring economic growth;
Physical activity, sports and tourism are currently the most important area of extensive business activity, which on the one hand provides employment for many people in the sports industry and the tourist complex: on the other hand, these business sectors supplement state and local budgets with tax revenues, which allows the state to quickly solve social problems of the population.
The study addressed a number of issues:
Determining the main directions of the impact of physical culture and sports on the economic sphere of the state;
Identification of public health factors that have a negative impact on economic processes in the country.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the role of physical culture and sports in the country's economy at the current stage of development of society. It’s important to identify the main directions reflecting the mutual influence of the economy and physical culture and sport. The authors try to determine factors that negatively affect economic indicator and statistics reflecting economic losses.
The research material is based on the study of special literature sources on the research problem. The main research method was chosen as the method of theoretical analysis and generalization of the data presenter in the literature. We studied scientific works related to the economic development of Russia, the current state of physical culture and sports negative factors affecting the health of the population.
In everyday practice, the term "health" is applied primarily to an individual and is interpreted as the absence of an individual, any diseases of mental or somatic origin. In the analysis of socio-economic processes occurring in society, however, in a slightly different sense, as the concept of economic and social, covering almost all spheres of life of individual social groups and economic institutions.
The physical and mental health of the nation is an extremely important element of the economic and political life of society, a significant component of the worldview and ideological positions of the determinant of people's priorities and behavior. Positive health of the nation has a beneficial effect on culture, education, health care, and science; these areas flourish in a healthy society. And, on the contrary, in an unhealthy society, crime, drug addiction, and alcoholism flourish; culture and education are stagnating and disintegrating, self-awareness and pride in their people are blunted, and a peculiar complex of inferiority and inferiority of the nation is developing. The worldview and mentality of a healthy nation is dominated by enthusiasm and optimism, faith in their own importance and favorable prospects. Violations in public health generate pessimism and despair, and have a destructive effect on the spirit of the people.
The state of health of the nation has the most direct and direct impact on the economy: on the one hand, violations in public health lead to enormous economic losses, on the other hand, an inefficient economy gives cumulative impulses to negative phenomena - first, primary signs of degradation develop-drunkenness, crime, drug addiction, and then secondary factors are included in the process-the number of mental and - vascular diseases, suicides, there is an increase in the number of people with disabilities and disabled since childhood, the number of absenteeism is increasing. There are also a number of other negative factors ( Grushichev & Sbrodova, 2016).
Economic losses from drinking and alcoholism
According to statistics, the annual consumption of alcohol by Russians over 15 years of age in the period from 2009 to 2015 decreased from 16.8 to 12.9 liters per capita. However, the numbers are still threatening ( Petuchova & Shalaeva, 2015).
Mass distribution of alcoholism is recognized as one of the main threats to national security. Economic losses in 2016 due to harmful use of alcohol in the world amounted to 99 million years of "healthy" life (DALY). It was revealed that the economic damage due to mortality and disability due to the negative consequences of alcohol in the Russian Federation is three times higher than the global average. In comparison with 1990, the "burden of disease" has increased, as has the death rate for this reason among young people.
In 2009, the economic losses caused by alcohol amounted to about one trillion and seven hundred billion rubles. The income from alcohol was about 66 billion rubles. This is approximately 0.7% of the consolidated budget revenues. In the USSR, when the state monitored the turnover of alcohol, it brought about 15% of income. And in pre-revolutionary Russia there were as much as 30%. However, 20 years later in Russia, after the collapse of the USSR, the income from alcohol has not only decreased significantly, but its consumption by citizens is breaking all records. According to statistics 2013, alcoholism in Russia caused about 82% of diseases, drug addiction. Of these, about 90% are people of working age from 20 to 59 years.
Model analysis of the economic burden of alcoholism and excessive alcohol consumption in Russia, conducted by the laboratory of pharmacoeconomics of the MMA research Institute of Pharmacy. Sechenova, pס showed that the minimum total burden is more than 647.7 billion rubles per year. This amount is equivalent to 2% of the country's GDP. Analysis of the structure of the economic burden of alcoholism shows that the ratio of direct and indirect costs is 1: 3. At the same time, only 4% of all direct costs are directly related to the provision of drug treatment (detoxification, hospitalization in drug treatment departments of hospitals). The remaining 96% of direct costs are related to the elimination of the clinical consequences of alcoholism.
Economic losses from smoking
According to who statistics, on our planet, on average, one person dies every 10 seconds of complications caused by Smoking. And every year, Smoking requires a sacrifice of 5-5. 5 million people. Experts, analyzing the results, give a very disappointing forecast ( Temny, 2015).
Nicotine addiction has long been a global problem. Europeans have been familiar with the deadly habit for almost 600 years, and Slavs smoke about 400. In the 80 - ies of the last century, another massive wave of anti-tobacco propaganda swept across the world, but the number of smokers only increased.
There are separate statistical indicators for the world's leading countries that tell about the number of people who have died due to tobacco dependence. Russia is among the top five favorites in this list. We occupy the "honorable" 4th place, behind the United States, India and China. Indonesia follows us. Statistics on Smoking deaths in Russia are as follows:
As a result of developed problems of the cardiovascular system (heart and heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes): 49% or 165,000 people per year;
Cancer processes: 29% or 85,000 citizens each year;
Respiratory diseases: 14% or 48,000 people per year;
Other causes of death due to Smoking: 12% (or 40,000 citizens each year).
Tobacco Smoking causes huge damage to the economy, which is estimated by astronomical figures ( Palagyi, de Silva, Praveen, & Patel, 2019).
The medical and demographic situation in Russia shows that the low level of health of the population of the country and its regions is one of the most important social and economic problems today. Countries with developed economies are characterized by the best indicators of population health.
However, there is also an inverse relationship – the health of the population, its demographic characteristics have an impact on the potential for economic development. The quality of the population (human capital), characterized by indicators of public health and professional qualifications, is the main engine and limiter of the development of any economy. For the Russian economy, the state of health of the population today should be considered, first of all, as a delimiter. If the specifics of modern medical and demographic processes in Russia, expressed in high rates of morbidity, disability and mortality, remain without proper attention, it may in the near future be a fatal factor that will not allow our country to enter the trajectory of successful socio-economic development.
According to a socio-demographic survey, Russia may lose a third of its population by 2050, and the deterioration of public health will adversely affect the labor market. The results of calculations based on models that take into account the relationship of population size with economic growth for the regions of Russia, show that current trends in the population's wealth lead to a demographic crisis, begin to actually hinder economic growth ( Rosstat, 2018).
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01 April 2020
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Nikolaeva, I. V., Shikhovtsov, Y. V., Nikolaev, P. P., & Paramonova, O. B. (2020). The Role Of Physical Culture And Sports In The Economy. In & V. V. Mantulenko (Ed.), Problems of Enterprise Development: Theory and Practice, vol 82. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 951-956). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.04.122