Training Of Civil Servants In The Conditions Of Development Of Digital Economy
The system of public administration directly determines the degree of well-being and opportunities for a happy life for the inhabitants of the country. Public administration contributes to the satisfaction of the material, social, cultural needs of different groups of the population, which is achieved by using specific actions. Improving the effectiveness of government bodies is a problem whose solutions can be found by scientists from all over the world. Today, this mechanism in the Russian Federation is supported by law and has a great influence on the activities of public authorities. Performance is measured by the introduction of professional standards, norms and job regulations, which reflect the indicators of the efficiency and effectiveness of professional performance of both individual public servants and the government bodies in which they serve. Currently, legislative consolidation of the main aspects of assessing the effectiveness of public service seems to be the most significant. The social orientation of public service should be a priority in organizing the activities of government agencies. The article considers theoretical bases of training of public administrators employees in the conditions of digital economy formation, and also reveals and develops innovative aspects and questions of application of modern technologies, means of ICT in professional training of personnel for the public and municipal service.
Keywords: Public and municipal servicetraining of public administratorstraining of municipal employeespersonnel policyinnovative aspectdigital economy
The relevance of the research topic is due to the rapid demand and increasing the competitiveness of the human intellectual potential in the managerial labor-market ( Tsyganov, 2018). Against the backdrop of such a turbulent flow of international economic and political processes, our country faces new challenges related to the strong positioning of the state as one of the world leaders. In this situation, it is necessary to correctly set the internal vector of development, which allows us to actively implement all the national priorities of Russia, which require an innovative look in the context of the formation and lightning evolution of information and communication technologies, the digital economy.
The main resource for solving this problem is highly qualified civil service personnel, whose potential will allow us to continue the transformation of our country in the era of the information society. In this regard, the introduction of a modern concept for the development of an optimal legal field and the creation of infrastructure projects for the preparation of highly qualified managerial staff of the state municipal service, as well as the formation of strategies and programs, will play a significant role.
Russia's innovative development for the coming decades ( Ahmerova, Fatykhova, Sulemanova, Russu, & Kokhanovskaya, 2018). In the 2016 annual Address to the Federal Assembly, Russian President Vladimir Putin correctly emphasized that «…it is necessary to launch a large-scale system program for the development of the economy of a new technological generation, the so-called digital economy» ( Vedomosti, 2017, p. 3). At the same time, in July 2017, at the meeting of the Council for Strategic Development and Priority Projects, the President noted that «The digital economy is not a separate industry, in fact it is a way of life, a new basis for the development of public administration, economy, business, social sphere of the whole society» of statistical, tax and other reporting; will provide decision-making based on analysis of the real situation ( The President’s address to the Federal Assembly on December 1, 2016, p. 7). Thus, the study of innovative areas of training civil servants in the context of the digital economy is one of the relevant and advanced topics of scientific research, since modern technology in the near future will create an environment of high-tech digital government platform that will minimize the impact of the subjective human factor associated with negative manifestations: corruption, mistakes, etc.; will automate the collection of statistical, tax and other reporting; will provide decision-making based on analysis of the real situation ( The President’s address to the Federal Assembly on December 1, 2016).
Prepared for modern conditions, the staff in the state (including municipal) service is a key factor in production in the digital economy. The purpose of our study is to determine the theoretical, methodological and practical approaches to studying the features of training civil servants in the current state and the further development of the digital economy in Russia.
To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks ( Kokoreva, 2016):
Clarify the nature and characteristics of the state training process in modern conditions in the Russian Federation;
Analyze the legal regulation of these issues;
Identify the features and directions of improving the process of training civil servants in Russia using the informatization of the personnel policy system of the Russian Federation ( Vasilieva, Pulyaeva, & Yudina, 2018).
The object of the study is the preparation of government and in the formation of the digital economy of the Russian Federation ( Vovenda, 2019). The subject of the study is the implementation of personnel policies in the public service ( Ignatova, 2019). The research methodology consists of regulatory and legal acts of the Russian Federation, educational literature, as well as scientific publications of domestic and foreign researchers of the problems of this area. The scientific novelty of the work lies in a comprehensive assessment of the nature, features and legislative regulation of the training of civil servants in the context of the digital economy ( Kokhanovskaya, Fatykhova, Khachaturyan, & Khachaturyan, 2019).
Modern realities of training civil servants in digital economy
The revolutionary dissemination and implementation of information technology in all areas of the life of society and the state challenged the prevailing stereotypes of everyday life in society. The digital economy is rapidly transforming all sectors of the national economy, without exception. Public administration, today, is influenced by many factors, but it is the emerging information society as a new type of post-industrial knowledge society that becomes dominant.
We believe Talapina ( 2015), he completely notes that the information society offers new ways of organizing public administration, taking into account the increasing multiplicity of its subjects. State development requires the use of technologies and procedures that contribute to the adoption of informed political, economic and social decisions and the achievement of the intended end results.
Modern information technologies are a kind of key to using the potential of public administration in the interests of sustainable socio-economic development of our country and the prevention of crisis situations. This implies the need to bring the staffing component of public municipal services in line with the requirements of a developing digital economy. Today in the world there is no single understanding of such a phenomenon as the «Digital Economy», but in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated May 9, 2017 №. 203 «On the Strategy for the Development of the Information Society in the Russian Federation for 2017-2030» contains the official state definition of this phenomenon: Digital economy - an economic activity in which the key factor in production is digital data, the processing of large volumes and the use of analysis results which are compared with traditional forms of business I can significantly increase the effectiveness of different types of production, technology, equipment, storage, sale, delivery of goods and services. In our opinion, the definition is quite correct and is the starting point of further research.
At the same time, Keshelava et al. ( 2017) complements the definition with the following: it is an economy whose characteristic feature is the maximum satisfaction of the needs of all its participants through the use of information, including personal information.
The peculiarity of the digital economy is that for full interaction all subjects and objects of the economy must acquire a significant digital component. Thus, in the near future, the effectiveness of public administration will be determined by the level of its digitalization. Understanding this, the state authorities of our country are actively beginning to introduce the newborn digital economy in various sectors of the national economy, the state, municipal service and its personnel policy is no exception.
The Strategy for the Development of the Information Society in the Russian Federation for 2017–2030 (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation On the Strategy for the development of the information society in the Russian Federation for 2017-2030 from 09.05.2017 № 203), adopted in the Russian Federation, is designed to help ensure the following national interests ( Eurasian Economic Commission, 2017):
Ensuring the safety of citizens and the state;
Increasing the role of Russia in the global humanitarian and cultural space;
The development of free, sustainable and safe interaction of citizens and organizations, state authorities of the Russian Federation, local authorities;
Improving the efficiency of public administration, the development of the economy and social sphere;
The formation of a digital economy.
In order to develop digitalization, the state creates conditions for the formation of a knowledge space and providing access to it, improvement of the mechanisms for the dissemination of knowledge, their application in practice in the interests of the individual, society and the state ( Klyuchischev, 2005).
Analyzing the provisions of the above Strategy related to the development of the intellectual potential of personnel for the future, we can determine the following criteria by which all further relevant areas of training for civil servants are built:
Providing conditions for scientific and technical creativity, including the creation of platforms for self-realization of representatives of educational and scientific organizations;
Providing and improving additional education in order to engage in scientific research and creativity, developing the ability to solve non-standard problems;
The use and development of various educational technologies, including distance learning, such as e-learning, in the implementation of educational programs;
Implementation and implementation of partnership programs of educational institutions of higher education and Russian high-tech organizations, including on the issue of improving educational programs;
The use of new technologies in government bodies of the Russian Federation, which ensure the improvement of the quality of public administration;
Ensuring a phased transition of state bodies and local governments to the use of e-government infrastructure, which is part of the information infrastructure of the Russian Federation;
Training of qualified personnel in the field of information and communication technologies;
Introducing amendments to the legislation of the Russian Federation aimed at ensuring compliance of legal regulation with the pace of development of the digital economy and the removal of administrative barriers.
Based on the mentioned criteria, it can be concluded that the training of personnel for public service in the context of the digital economy is developing, in addition to primary education, the acquisition of experience in the course of professional activity, and the development of education - digital, based on a flexible, but complex and individually -oriented approach in the application of ICT skills, as well as various types and forms of general education (professional, postgraduate, short-term, distance, etc.). We believe that such an approach to the development of personnel potential will make it possible to improve the quality of services provided by authorities to the population and organizations; reducing the manifestations of the corruption component, reducing red tape, strengthening the prestige of public service. In our opinion, this will make it possible to formulate such a model for the development of personnel policy in the public service, which, on the one hand, will protect this industry from non-professionals, and on the other hand, will attract new specialists with an appropriate level of so-called digital literacy.
The Government of the Russian Federation approved the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program (July 28, 2017), which provides for measures aimed at stimulating the development of human resources for public service in the context of the digital economy ( Chikhanchin, Ovchinnikov, & Ivanova, 2018).
The main objectives of this program, regarding personnel and education, are:
Creating key conditions for training the digital economy;
Improving the education system, which should provide the digital economy with competent personnel;
The labor market, which should be based on the requirements of the digital economy;
Creation of a motivation system for the development of the necessary competencies and the participation of personnel in the development of the digital economy of Russia.
Given the need for normative and legal regulation of most of the activities that are planned to be implemented in order to achieve the goals in the framework of the basic and applied areas of the digital economy, a subcommittee was created in 2017 under the Government Commission on the use of information technology to improve the quality of life and the conditions for doing business digital economy as a tool managing the implementation of the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program. At the first meeting of this subcommission, guidelines were developed for developing action plans for the implementation of the program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation»ю
According to the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 28, 2017 «On the system for managing the implementation of the program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation» , the creation of a Project Office is regulated, which evaluates the action plan for compliance with the Program parameters and guidelines and generates an appropriate conclusion. The project office sends for consideration at a meeting of the subcommission a draft action plan and a prepared opinion. In addition to the above, the project office ( The Moscow Times. Jobs, 2016):
Ensures the creation and functioning of the information system;
Provides organizational and methodological support for the implementation of the Program, including the preparation of guidelines for the development of action plans and reports on their implementation, as well as the rules of information interaction in the information system;
Provides information and analytical support for the activities of the subcommission;
Monitors the implementation of action plans and prepares information and analytical materials on the progress of their implementation;
Prepares a summary report on the progress of the implementation of action plans;
Monitors publications in the media on the implementation of the Program;
Ensures the submission to the subcommittee of draft action plans and proposals for amending action plans;
Assesses draft action plans and proposals for amending action plans for compliance with the goals, key milestones and objectives of the Program, as well as methodological recommendations;
Provides information and communication support and promotion of the implementation of the Program in the media;
Ensures the holding of conferences, meetings, round tables and other forms of expert discussions within the framework of the Program.
The program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation» of one of the fundamental tasks determines the formation of a personnel reserve, as well as the creation and establishment of the so-called «Competence Centers», due to which new specialists are trained and attracted. Thus, technological progress and globalization accelerate its regulatory regulation and lead to the emergence of new knowledge. Education is transforming into a mobile and open system, where the role of the formal education is declining, and the influence of informal and informal education - which goes beyond the standard educational environment - is increasing.
Features of the training of civil servants in the development of the digital economy
Given that the education system should focus on the current needs of the economy related to the introduction of digital technologies in the state apparatus, we will begin to consider personnel problems with the role of human resources in the digital economy. The effectiveness of the functioning of public service in a digital society directly depends on the quality of its staffing. According to Eregina ( 2013) in this regard, an important role is given to the additional professional education of public civil servants as a factor in their professional development.
Latyshev and Illarionova ( 2017) note that the professional training of state civil servants, as well as other social groups of «state employees», is non-local in nature: not only representatives of this social group are interested in it, but also the whole of Russian society. The need for a professional organization of public administration arose with the development of the information society. Professional retraining and advanced training of civil servants can be carried out with and without interruption (evening groups or weekend groups) from official activities. In addition, e-learning and the use of distance learning technologies are allowed. Distance learning is an innovative form of education that has recently begun to spread in Russia. The term «distance education», or more broadly – «distance education», is very ambiguous and has not yet been established in science. Distance education is currently largely associated with correspondence and postgraduate studies, which are widely practiced in different countries. Indeed, distance learning is to a certain extent a modern form of distance learning.
In addition, the informatization of education has led to the emergence of innovative forms of distance learning, significantly expanding its educational opportunities, in particular, through interactive learning through the use of computers, tele-video conferencing, etc.
However, the idea of distance learning is much deeper, because it goes beyond the scope of traditional training with its focus on obtaining the amount of knowledge and the formation of skills. The use of innovative tools and methods, in our opinion, will reduce the training time for public servants, as well as ensure their educational process on the job. In addition the development of e-government – «e-government», in the international terminology E-Government, E-Governance in Russia is considered as one of the strategic objectives of the ongoing administrative reform in the digital economy.
As a result of the implementation of the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program, it is expected that the volume of public services provided in electronic form will increase by 70%. This is the basis for the development of new management technologies, the transformation of already known technologies and methods that may be applicable in Russia. The structures that will provide the staff for digital technologies of public administration will include: scientific organizations; government bodies with certain resources and capabilities; business structures and business schools; universities and public administration schools.
Significant scientific potential is concentrated in modern universities and competence centers: in terms of the number of doctors and candidates of sciences, the university system has long overtaken the system of scientific institutions. Universities and faculties of managerial profile have strong ties with the real practice of public administration, including through their graduates, which is a condition for creating innovative management technologies.
Purpose of the Study
In order to facilitate the formation and development of the digital economy in the Russian Federation, state authorities, various organizations and companies engaged in research and development, educational, training, expert, innovative and other practical activities that contribute to the development of the digital economy in Russia.
At the Moscow State University named after Lomonosov in 2017 created a scientific and educational center of competencies in the field of digital economy. Speaking at a meeting of the Board of Trustees of Moscow State University on January 25, 2017, the rector of the university is Academician Sadovnichy ( 2017) noted «…that the strategy of scientific and technological development approved in 2017 is aimed at overcoming large, that is, global challenges. And such challenges include the use of information technology and the development of the digital economy ...» (p. 2).
In the field of training civil servants in conditions the development of the digital economy, the center of competence is also the IGSU RANEPA: the institute is a scientific and educational center created in order to train highly qualified personnel through the implementation of basic educational programs of higher education and additional professional programs…The subject of the institute is the implementation of educational, research and consulting projects in various areas of state and municipal government, economics, financial control and statehood audit, law, human resource management. It should be noted that in the framework of the training direction 38.03.04. «State and Municipal Administration», an educational program in the Digital State profile has been introduced at the Institute of Public Administration of the RANEPA. The aim of the bachelor's educational program is to train managers of a new generation: - capable of realizing the tasks of modernizing the public administration system through the introduction of effective managerial decisions and institutional changes that take into account the capabilities and vulnerabilities of modern information and analytical tools for processing information and making decisions; - owning the basic methods, tools and techniques of system management as public authorities, and their structural divisions, and budget, public and commercial organizations; - possessing developed strategic thinking and a set of modern competencies in the field of economics, society and law, information and communication and digital technologies.
The scope of knowledge gained in the learning process is wide enough, because they are focused on the implementation of intersectoral and interdisciplinary approaches to the development potential of the ecosystem of the digital economy and public administration:
Related to the ability to build mechanisms for the efficient and effective use of information resources and from these positions to modernize business processes in both the corporate and public sectors;
Allow to simulate strategies and competitiveness at various levels of management on the basis of information systems, analysis and interpretation of data in digital form, their integration and understanding of the development features of the infrastructure of the digital economy;
The ability to apply knowledge and skills to develop areas and the necessary mechanisms for improvement and development in general and applied aspects of the functioning of the digital infrastructure of public administration, ensuring the effectiveness of professional activities;
The ability to apply knowledge and skills to develop organizational, managerial and economic mechanisms to stimulate the development of information and communication technologies (ICT) and use them in various areas of state and municipal government;
Ensuring the safe and effective development of the infrastructure of the digital state;
Tools for improving the efficiency of management activities related to the use of ICT;
The ability to show flexibility, mobility and activity in modern changing conditions for areas of activity related to the economy, digital technologies, state-municipal administration and business;
The ability to apply knowledge and skills in the development and application of specialized software (software) - automated and automatic application tools based on the latest advances in software development, including the use of knowledge engineering methods and artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality based on the needs of the developing digital state infrastructure;
The ability to acquire new knowledge and form needs for personal development, as well as be psychologically prepared for a change in the look, the nature of one's professional activity and for continuing education. These transformations in the field of training state and municipal employees of the new generation directly determine the changing requirements for their professional qualifications, the formation of new professions that take into account not only the socio-economic needs of society, but also technological ones.
Thus, it is important to know that modern global digitalization of society, automation and the introduction of modern technologies are a natural and natural process, and therefore inevitable. At the same time, today no one has a holistic picture of the future, either near or far, which means that the result of the changes ahead of us is not predetermined. The most important stage of the upcoming struggle for world leadership in the development of the digital economy will not be economic or technological rivalry at all, but the formation of a new, innovative public administration system, on which the development of living standards in the state will fundamentally depend.
Russia can and should become that country that will offer all of humanity a future where there is a place for everyone. Historically unique culture and thinking can allow us to formulate the laws of the new world, in which the real and virtual spheres of activity will be combined, in which innovative models of state and municipal government will be effectively applied, network and hierarchical principles will successfully coexist, and much more. Such an integrated vision will allow us to form a coalition of like-minded countries around us and lead the process of transition to a common digital future. But the formation of such a future is truly impossible without the competent specialists who own them the capital of the new digital generation
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