The article reveals the content of the training method of the first-year students of chemical-biological, electric power and architectural faculties to recognize and understand homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures (hereinafter HGS) in the process of reading a foreign text. This technique is carried out on the basis of a specially developed academic and methodical complex that meets the following basic requirements: taking into account the needs of professional activity of students, the adequateness of training materials for the specially identified grammatical skills and abilities, aspect orientation of teaching in combination with the activity and motivation of students; increasing the independence of students while working with academic and methodological complex. Organizational teaching model includes five stages: familiarizing - preparative, standardizing, ranging, improving, system-synthesizing. Components of AMC (academic and methodological complex) are: educational and methodical manual for teaching grammar in the process of reading a foreign text, the electronic version of the educational and methodical manual for teaching grammar in the process of reading a foreign text, methodical recommendations to the educational and methodical manual for the teacher of German. The complex of grammatical exercises in the educational and methodical manual is developed in accordance with the group of grammatical skills to recognize and understand the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text. Organizational teaching model is developed in accordance with the above mentioned methodology.
Keywords: Homonymous grammatical structuresreadingtraining model
The grammar of the German language at the present stage is consistently developing with the help of works written by Jung (2013), Abramov (2016), and Zavyalov (2013). Understanding information in written form is provided by mastering the grammatical structure of the language in an amount sufficient for a specific purpose set in the process of teaching. Teaching grammar in the process of reading is still a long-debated topic in language teaching: the formation of grammatical mechanisms of the text recognition and understanding; teaching pupils of different levels of proficiency (Bayrak, 2015; (Hochstadt, Kraft, & Olsen, 2013; Pohl & Steinhoff, 2010).
The paper is structured as follows. In introduction sections
Stages and techniques used in the process of recognizing the HGS
Teaching students to recognize HGS in the process of reading a foreign text includes 4 stages represented in the theory of gradual formation of mental actions pointed out by Galperin (1998).
On the first stage the motivational basis of action is formed.
On the second stage the scheme of the indicative basis of activity is drawn up.
On the third stage the action is carried out and practiced in a materialized form.
On the fourth stage the action is transferred to the work plan for the new text for reading.
Koryakovtseva (2001) notes that an experienced student who is learning a foreign language should be able to work independently with language tools (language material) in order to accumulate these funds and he should be able to work with the text at the same time. This work is a training on language tools, as well as speech practice. A number of foreign scientists have the same opinion (Safranj, 2013; Sadi & Uyar, 2013; Popescu & Cohen-Vida, 2014; Mahmoodi, Kalantari, & Ghaslani, 2014; Khoofs & Khosravani, 2014).
Passov (1989) distinguishes three levels which the student passes on the way to mastering techniques or the series of techniques:
Clearly and intelligibly imagines all the «planned» steps in the activity (enumerates the sequence of steps, the application of techniques, but does not perform this activity).
«Knows – manages» begins with the fact that the student guided by the memo carries out many times the reception (a series of techniques) of educational activities, and is able to perform the appropriate reception but he does it distracting his arbitrary attention to the technical side of the case therefore spending more time on the reception than he should.
The level of proficiency: the student «automatically» performs a reception or a series of receptions at the skill level (Passov, 1989).
The requirements for building the AMC
According to Beloglazova (2006), AMC should be built taking into account the requirements of consciousness and activity of students. The problem of consciousness and activity of the person is considered in the works of modern scientists (Berdnikova, 2016; Zhdanko, 2018; Schüpbach, 2013).
Taking into account the above said information, the following requirements can be identified for the AMC in teach the HGS in the process of reading a foreign language text: orientation to the needs of a modern specialist who speaks a foreign language; reliance on students' school knowledge, skills and abilities to read a foreign language text; a) gradual formation of a group of receptive grammatical skills to recognize and understand the UGS in the process of reading a foreign language text; b) the adequacy of exercises and tasks to the formed skills; c) the consciousness and activity of students.
So, to test the hypothesis, the experimental learning was conducted on the basis of the developed AMC of grammar teaching in the process of reading of students of non-linguistic faculties. At the same time we relied on the theoretical description of the experimental technique presented by Serova (1988). In accordance with the theory of teaching students of non-linguistic faculties to recognize the HGS in the process of reading includes five stages: familiarization-preparatory, standardizing, varying, developing-improving, system-synthesizing. Let’s consider the content of these steps.
The stages of recognizing the HGS in the process of reading
At the introductory and preparatory stage, an experimental group is formed on the basis of a series of pre-experimental sections on the grammatical themes of the school course and the first semester, as well as the definition of variable and non-variable experimental conditions. At this stage of learning how to recognize and understand the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text the basic level of skills is formed and activated. Receptive grammatical skills of the basic level are the identification and understanding of the same grammatical structure in the sentence absorbing the knowledge in the language grammar exercises.
At this stage the comparison of two grammatical structures with the same grammatical component is already assumed. The conditions for the formation of receptive grammatical skills of the basic level include: 1) preliminary testing to find out the knowledge of the grammatical structure or two structures; 2) explanation of a new grammatical theme and at the same time the repetition of the already passed grammatical theme based on the test results; 3) the fulfillment of the first group of language exercises with the focus on learning how to recognize and understand one grammatical component of the grammatical structure or two grammatical structures in a language model or sentence; 4) reliance on the mechanism of analogy in the performance of this group of exercises; 5) the error-free performance of this group of exercises provided by the prevention of errors; 6) the formation of a receptive grammatical skill of the basic level on a sufficient number of language grammatical exercises; 7) here the teacher explains the grammatical theme from the point of view of its inclusion in the group of topics with HGS.
At the standardizing stage, training is carried out with the help of the AMC, a group of grammatical skills is formed and developed in order to teach how to recognize and understand the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text; it also includes the conduction of intermediate experimental sections on the named research topic. At this stage of learning the receptive and grammar skills of the first level are formed and activated in the process of reading a foreign text. Receptive grammatical skills of the first level lie in the knowledge and understanding of two HGS in the educational text.
At this stage, basic level skills are developed; receptive grammar skills of the first level are also formed and developed.
The conditions of the formation of receptive grammatical skills of the first level include: 1) consolidation of the grammatical theme and at the same time the repetition of the already passed grammatical theme on the material of grammatical exercises of the second group; 2) the implementation of the second group of language exercises focused on teaching how to recognize and understand two homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures in the educational text; 3) reliance on the mechanism of analogy in the performance of this group of exercises; 4) the infallibility of this group of exercises, provided by the prevention of errors; 5) formation of a receptive grammatical skill of the first level on a sufficient number of linguistic grammatical exercises; 6) at this stage, the work with an artificially modified educational text is activated, in which it is necessary to recognize the desired grammatical structure in the presence of a partially homonymous grammatical structure; 7) understanding of the grammatical information of the educational text with two HGS.
At a varying stage, the formation and development of grammatical skills of recognition and understanding of the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text continues. It also includes conducting intermediate experimental sections on the topic of the study. At this stage, the development of the basic receptive grammatical skill, the grammatical skill of the first level continues. The receptive grammatical skill of the second level is formed and developed. Its purpose is the recognition and understanding of more than two homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures in the educational text.
Accordingly, the third group of grammar exercises is aimed at the recognition and understanding of more than two grammatical structures in the educational text. This stage differs from the previous one because the recognition and understanding of the HGS is carried out on the text material of educational nature. In other words, the variation of educational texts in which there are these grammatical structures is assumed. Language grammar exercises of the third group activate this skill to prevent possible errors in the interpretation of grammatical information of the text. The task of this stage, therefore, is to carry out a targeted search for two homonymous and/or partially homonymous grammatical structures in the context, the allocation and specification of peripheral grammatical and lexical means that clarify the understanding of the grammatical information of the text.
At the developing and improving stage, the development of the basic receptive grammatical skill, the skills of the first and second levels continues; the receptive grammatical skill of the third level is formed and developed. The fourth group of exercises which activates this skill is focused on how to recognize and understand more than two grammatical structures in educational and authentic texts. Thus, at this stage there is a process of «debugging» the mechanism of recognition and understanding of the whole group of HGS with the same grammatical component haben/sein/werden. Educational texts at this point of learning are essentially conditional speech exercises the purpose of which is to prepare for reading authentic texts with a correct understanding of their grammatical information. These training texts contain the whole group of the HGS, so it is not about artificially modified training texts. Authentic text solves the problem of introducing higher-level texts into reading. This stage, as well as system-synthesizing includes a post-experimental section on learning how to recognize and understand the HGS in the process of reading a foreign-language text. There is further training in the format of educational and methodical complex at a higher level: teaching grammar in the educational and authentic texts of the AMC.
The system-synthesizing stage sets the task of independent work with authentic texts of both academic methodical complex and other educational methodical manuals and educational materials. It includes generalization and systematization of grammatical material of academic methodical complex, carrying out the final testing. At this stage, the grammatical skill of recognition and understanding of the HGS in the authentic text is activated, as well as the speech receptive skill of identification and understanding of the HGS in the process of reading an authentic text. At this stage the delayed test is also carried out. Its purpose is to determine the residual skills and abilities acquired by students during the period of experimental training (Samples of P. I. Methodology, methods and techniques of pedagogical research: the manual, 2016).
The forms of students’ preparation in the process of recognizing the HGS
Preparation of students for the training of recognizing the HGS in the process of foreign language reading can occur:
In the form of practical grammar exercises in the first semester based on the AMC (grammatical knowledge is stated, grammatical phenomena is consolidated in exercises, their comparing and ordering takes place, the entire set of exercises in educational and methodical manual is implemented). This training is designed for one semester of the first year and involves a fairly deep mastery of the grammatical minimum for reading.
In the form of a block of classes (systematization and generalization of the learned grammatical material). Typically, these classes are organized after the study of any grammatical structure with the aim of repeating and comparing the already studied grammatical structures. Such practical classes are also actively used as an additional means of learning. Systematization and generalization of grammatical material can occur throughout the first year of study or cover two years of study, depending on the readiness of the group.
In the form of a special integrated unit on certain grammatical topics of training causing potential difficulties for the first-year students. Such grammatical phenomenon the assimilation of which is associated with possible difficulties in its recognition and understanding in the text for foreign language reading should be studied on the basis of educational and methodical manual, the purpose of which is to teach a certain grammatical structure in the context (environment) of homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures.
In the form of an optional course for those wishing to learn more deeply and effectively how to read foreign texts. Educational and methodical manual for teaching grammar in the process of reading as an additional means of learning can be used by the teacher in additional classes. The teacher can use the grammar sections of the manual in any order taking into account the degree of preparedness of the group.
It should be noted that the choice of one or another organizational form of teaching students to master the HGS in the process of foreign language reading does not affect the content of the core training which remains a set of exercises aimed at the recognition and understanding of these structures.
In the course of this study, we have implemented the first version of the organization of training which allowed us to fully test the developed AMC consisting of educational and methodical manual as the core of AMC, electronic version of AMC, guidelines for the teacher.
Requirements for the AMC are its focus on the needs of a modern specialist who speaks a foreign language, reliance on the students' school knowledge, skills and abilities of reading a foreign text, stages of formation of a group of receptive grammatical skills for recognition and understanding of the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text, adequacy of exercises and tasks to the formed skills, consciousness and activity of students.
Foreign-language texts for reading were chosen as the object of training.
The choice of this object is explained by the objective difficulties of the first-year students in the process of reading: as the results of a survey conducted in 2017 showed most recipients have difficulties when it is necessary to identify the following grammatical phenomena: the structure of the active and passive voice, a certain temporal form of the verb, coinciding or partially coinciding with the form of grammatical structures.
In the same year before the start of the experimental training we had a conversation with students if we need to organize such form of training during the first year the purpose of which was to find out the attitude of students to the idea of developing of such block of practical classes: «how to learn to read with understanding? » and in order to clarify possible adjustments in the creation of academic and methodical complex. Students were asked to assess the relevance / irrelevance for such practical training.
The survey involved 36 first-year students of chemical and biological, electric power, architecture faculties of Orenburg State University. The results of the survey showed the following: 3 students (8%) believe that «ordinary» practical classes are enough because the students themselves are prepared by the school program of teaching a foreign language text reading; 2 students (5%) are not sure about the necessity of such classes as they believe that «German classes are already overloaded with grammar and oral topics». The vast majority of students (86% - 31 students) spoke in favour of practical training with the help of AMC developed by us.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to theoretically prove and develop an organizational teaching model of receptive grammar for students of non-linguistic university and an academic and methodological complex for teaching students of non-linguistic university to recognize and understand homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures with the same component haben/sein/werden in the process of reading a foreign text.
The methods of research are:
As a result of work on the problem of the study we obtained the following: 1. Description and characteristics of homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures of the text for reading with the same grammatical component haben/sein/werden and identification of their functional interaction in a foreign language text 2. Description and characteristics of the group of receptive grammatical skills for recognition and understanding of homonymous and partially homonymous grammatical structures in the process of reading a foreign text. 3. The creation of a complex of exercises on the basis of the group of receptive grammatical skills. 4. Organizational model of training. 5. Academic and methodical complex.
Thus the content of the method of teaching how to recognize and understand the HGS includes: AMC which includes an educational and methodical manual for teaching grammar in the process of foreign language reading, an electronic version of the educational and methodical manual for teaching grammar in the process of foreign language reading, guidelines for educational and methodical manual for teachers of the German language Department of foreign languages. The complex of grammatical exercises in the training manual is developed in accordance with the group of grammatical skills to recognize and understand the HGS in the process of reading a foreign text, an organizational model of training in accordance with the above mentioned methodology.
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20 April 2020
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Discourse analysis, translation, linguistics, interpretation, cognition, cognitive psychology
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Strenadyuk, G. S., & Snigireva, O. M. (2020). Organizational Model Of Teaching Grammar. In A. Pavlova (Ed.), Philological Readings, vol 83. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 672-679). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.04.02.78