In the article English linguistic units representing ideas about the middle area expression (NOSE) are described. The author reveals the characteristics of the MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE) concept, which includes the information about the perceptual acquisition of the middle area expression and interpretive characteristics. The characteristics that give the ideas about the perceptual acquisition of the middle area expression (NOSE) are ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘wrinkle formation’, ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘increase of nose size’, ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘air stream movement through the nose’, and the interpretative characteristics are 'emotional state', 'functional (physiological) state'. The author shows that the identified linguistic units tend to represent certain interpretative characteristics that may be considered as dominant ones. Some cognitive mechanisms for secondary conceptualization and interpretation of the middle area expression are considered. They are “conceptual metaphor”, “conceptual metonymy”, “conceptual metaphtonymy”, “conceptual comparison”, “focusing”, ‘refocusing”, ‘re-accentuation”. It is demonstrated that the integrated use of cognitive mechanisms allows us to describe the situation of facial movement colorfully and in an extraordinary way, taking into account human states and emotions. The way of presenting the situation of facial movements is determined by the predisposition of an individual to linguo-creative thinking.
Keywords: Nomination of facial movementssecondary conceptualizationinterpretationconcept of MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE)dominant meaningscognitive mechanisms
The study of non-verbal means of communication, which are a manifestation of a person’s motor activity, has attracted researchers’ attention in various fields of science for a long time ( Camras, Castro, Halberstadt, & Shuster, 2017; Castro, Cheng, Halberstadt, & Grühn, 2016; Castro, Halberstadt, & Garrett-Peters, 2016; Chronaki, Hadwin, Garner, Maurage, & Sonuga-Barke, 2015). This problem also aroused linguists’ interest, since these means of communication, called “kinesic movements,” accompany speech and are reflected in the language.
In studies whose authors consider the linguistic problems of verbalization of kinesic phenomena, the principles of their lexicographical fixation, the systemic relations between nominations of kinesic movements, their functioning in fiction texts, the role of kinesic means in organizing culturally informative communication are investigated. The interpretation of non-verbal signs at a comparative level in various languages and the classification of linguistic units used for the nomination of kinesic movements also become the subject of study. Researchers, in particular Boeva ( 2006), note that kinesic means are informative, since they complement the meaning of the verbal message and give information about the speaker, about his or her national, cultural, social and age features, gender, properties of character. However, the meanings of kinesic units can easily change in one or another communicative situation.
Khlystova ( 2005) emphasizes the role of context for the interpretation of any movement as communicatively significant, reveals standard, contextual and original kinemes. Standard kinemes regularly act as non-verbal means of information and retain their symbolic essence in any communication situation, original kinemes can’t regularly act as non-verbal means of communication, and contextual kinemes that occupy an intermediate position acquire a communicative meaning only if they are included in certain situations. From a structural point of view, the author distinguishes a heterogeneous layer of lexico-syntactic units: single-word lexemes — kinemes expressed by a verb or a verbal noun, free phrases, set phrases with limited compatibility of components, and phraseological units.
The review of works connected with the investigation of kinesic phenomena shows that kinetic units are not sufficiently studied from the standpoint of the cognitive-discursive approach, which considers language as a cognitive process carried out in communicative activities ( Babina & Proskurnich, 2018).
To analyze the conceptualization of facial movements and the interpretation of linguistic units designating kinesic phenomena is the issue that concerns this study. In our study we assume that the concept of FACIAL EXPRESSION may be modeled as a cognitive hypermatrix, the concept of MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE) is a component of this hypermatrix. There are certain cognitive mechanisms that determine the secondary conceptualization and interpretation of linguistic units representing the MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE) concept.
How is it possible to model the concept of FACIAL EXPRESSION?
What conceptual content is revealed by linguistic units designating nose movements?
What cognitive mechanisms determine secondary conceptualization of linguistic units designating nose movements?
What cognitive mechanisms determine the interpretation of linguistic units designating nose movements?
Purpose of the Study
In accordance to the research questions the purpose of the study is to
model the concept of FACIAL EXPRESSION;
study the conceptual content revealed by linguistic units designating nose movements;
identify cognitive mechanisms for secondary conceptualization of linguistic units designating nose movements;
identify cognitive mechanisms for interpretation of linguistic units designating nose movements.
The object of the study is English linguistic units designating nose movements. The studied units are accessed from the dictionaries (http://changingminds.org; http://www.thefreedictionary.com; https://www.merriam-webster.com; http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ru; http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com; https://en.oxforddictionaries.com) and the Lancaster Corps (http://bncweb.lancs.ac.uk). The subject of the study is the analysis of the conceptualization of nose movements and the interpretation of linguistic units designating nose movements.
The following methods of investigating linguistic data are used: methods of definitional, conceptual and contextual analysis, and the method of cognitive modeling.
In English, the phrase
Facial expression: 1) a gesture executed with the facial muscles; 2) the feelings expressed on a person's face; ‘a sad expression’; ‘a look of triumph’; ‘an angry face’ (http://www.thefreedictionary.com).
Mimicry – the act of mimicking; imitative behavior; the act, practice, or art of copying the manner or expression of another (Ibidem).
When analyzing the concept in question, one cannot but refer to the definition of the word
The definition shows that facial movements are caused by movements of different muscles. According to physiologists, facial muscles include epicranial muscles and the epicranial aponeurosis, temporal muscles, the circular muscle of the face, the muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, the cheek muscle, the muscle that lowers the lower lip, the chin muscle, the muscle that lowers the angle of the mouth, the circular muscle of the mouth, the mastication muscle, the nasal muscle and other (http: //face-building.com/obshchee/facial-muscles.html). Taking into account our everyday knowledge, the facial movement is defined as the movement of face organs, that is, the movement of the forehead, eyes, the nose, and cheeks with cheekbones, lips, and the chin. Therefore, it can be said that the FACIAL EXPRESSION concept is integrative in its nature and can be represented as a set of concepts: UPPER AREA EXPRESSION (FOREHEAD, EYEBROWS), MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (EYES, NOSE), LOWER AREA EXPRESSION (MOUTH, CHIN).
Despite the “limited movement”, the nose, located in the epicenter of the three zones, is of particular importance in reading facial expressions, since it serves as a fulcrum for assessing balance ( Ravensky, 2007). In the study of facial expressions the parts of the nose that are able to move, that is, the wings and the tip, are considered.
The analysis of linguistic units representing the MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE) concept revealed the characteristics of this concept, which were divided into two groups: characteristics reflecting information about the perceptual acquisition of nose movements, and interpretive characteristics ‘emotional state ’, ‘functional (physiological) state’.
To the characteristics that reflect information about the perceptual acquisition of nose movements, were attributed:
‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘wrinkle formation’
The characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘wrinkle formation’ are represented by the following phrases: wrinkle (up) one’s nose (nostrils) “tighten the muscles in your nose so that small lines appear in the skin” (http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ru), curl up one’s nose, screw one’s nose, crease one’s nose, wriggle one’s nose, contort one’s nostrils, twitch one’s nostrils, etc.
‘Save it up till then, eh?’ Charlie wrinkled his nose and winked quickly (http://bncweb.lancs.ac.uk).
‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘increase of nose size’
The characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘increase of nose size’ are represented by the phrases
His expression was at once casual and turbulent; his eyes were distant and his mouth was steady, but his nostrils flared slightly with his breathing (https://royallib.com/book/Tartt_Donna/The_Secret_History.html).
‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘air stream movement through the nose’.
These characteristics are represented by the verb
"Well, you can't breathe very well," Garp complained, "so just don't put too much in your mouth. You might inhale it. You can't breathe through your nose, at all - that's perfectly clear." (https://royallib.com/book/Irving_John/The_World_According_to_Garp.html).
Among the characteristics reflecting information about the
In psychology, the emotional state is understood as “a person’s experience of their attitude to the surrounding reality and to themselves at a certain point in time, relatively typical for a given person; conditions that are determined primarily by the emotional sphere and encompass emotional reactions and emotional relationships; relatively stable experiences” (https://psihologiya_cheloveka.academic.ru/505/E
motional_states). That is, the characteristic "emotional state" includes ideas about human feelings and emotions.
The emotional state may be conveyed by the phrase representing the characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘wrinkle formation’
The phrase representing the characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘increase of nose size’ can convey a certain emotion:
The verb and the verbal noun
‘functional (physiological) state’.
It is necessary to consider how the functional state is understood in physiology and psychology in order to give an idea of what is meant by this characteristic. According to Leonova ( 1984), who studies psychology problems, the functional (physiological) state is “a characteristic of the life support processes at the level of individual physiological systems and the organism as a whole for solving behavioral tasks. According to studies, physiological mechanisms ensure the occurrence of metabolic, neurohumoral, cerebral, vegetative and other processes in different conditions and modes of activity. Such types of psychophysiological states, which manifest themselves and are characteristic of different situations, include, for example: 'fatigue', 'drowsiness', 'boredom', 'stress', 'tension', and other conditions” (p. 96). It is indicated that, despite the large variety of functional states, they all have common physiological components. These components include sensory components of activity, which characterize the possibility of receiving and primary processing of incoming information (visual, auditory, etc.), then information components of activity, which ensure the processing of information and decision-making on its basis. This group is represented by indicators of the main cognitive processes - memory and thinking. Based on the above, functional states are understood as states of stress, tension, fatigue, hunger and the like, as well as the implementation of mental activity by a human being.
The following units are able to represent the characteristic ‘functional (physiological) state’:
the phrase representing the characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘wrinkle formation’
the phrase representing the characteristics ‘nose muscle movement’ and ‘increase of nose size’
The study showed that linguistic units designating nose movements do not convey the characteristic ‘sign of communicative intention’ out of contexts.
Blemish is simply about creating a bad atmosphere around a person, for example, ‘What do you think about Jane?’ said by someone
Mechanisms for secondary conceptualization and interpretation of linguistic units designating nose movements
The analysis of linguistic units designating nose movements has shown that they can be created by means of secondary conceptualization with the help of the cognitive mechanisms “conceptual metonymy” and “conceptual metaphtonymy”. The mechanism “conceptual metonymy” means that a mapping occurs within a single conceptual domain. There are such conceptual metonymies as PART-WHOLE, WHOLE-PART, PART1- PART2, etc. The mechanism “conceptual metaphor” is defined as a mapping across two conceptual domains: source domain and target domain. In metaphor, the source domain is mapped onto the target domain. In this process the source allows us to reason about the target ( Kövecses & Radden, 1998; Barcelona, 2003; Dirven, 2003). The mechanism “conceptual metaphtonymy” implies that metonymy and metaphor are located along a continuum. They may be found in combination in actual natural language expressions ( Croft, 2003; Radden, 2003; Goossens, 2003; Fauconnier & Turner, 2008).
The linguistic units giving an idea of not only nose movement but also the human emotional, physiological states are created with the help of the mechanism “conceptual metonymy”. The metonymy PART-WHOLE is used. As a whole we consider a situation in which a person who is in a certain emotional or physiological state consciously or unconsciously performs certain facial movements. It is worth pointing out that the same facial movement can be conceptualized in different ways depending on the situation. The way of conceptualization is indicated by a certain context. We illustrate this with phrases which have the noun
The mechanism “conceptual metaphtonymy” is used to form the meaning of the phrase
And Sonya's We are one, we live as one,’ while it remains authorially bold, has nothing to fear at the hands of readers quick to
In the example, the phrase
The interpretation of situations of nose movements in the text depends on how they are constructed by the author of the text (see about linguistic interpretation (Boldyrev, 2014, 2017)). The way of presenting a situation of facial movements is determined by a person’s predisposition to creative thinking. During the study, a number of mechanisms for interpretation were identified: “conceptual metaphor”, “conceptual metonymy”, “conceptual comparison”, “focusing”, “refocusing”, and “re-accentuation”.
In the example, the noun
As another mechanism for interpretation, you can specify the mechanism
In the example, through the organ that performs the described facial movement, thanks to metonymy PART-WHOLE, reference is made to the person characterized by the adjective
‘No, it's not, stupid’ announces another,
The forlorn figure gave an
The example is interesting because the use of the adjective
The mechanism “
Sniff, as a rule, conveys discontent. In this example, this facial movement reflects the sadness of the character, as the context shows.
The concept of MIDDLE AREA EXPRESSION (NOSE) is represented by a variety of linguistic units: single-word lexemes (verbs and verbal nouns), set phrases and free phrases. It includes characteristics that reflect information about the perceptual acquisition of nose movements, and characteristics that reflect information about the interpretation of nose movements (‘emotional state’, ‘functional (physiological) state’). The characteristic ‘the sign of communicative intention’ can be represented by considered linguistic units only in specific contexts.
The secondary conceptualization of linguistic units designating nose movements is carried out with the help of cognitive mechanisms “conceptual metonymy” and “conceptual metaphtonymy”. When interpreting linguistic units designating nose movements, it is necessary to refer to background knowledge about nose expressions and to use certain cognitive mechanisms: “conceptual metaphor”, “conceptual metonymy”, “conceptual comparison”, “focusing”, “refocusing”, and ‘re-accentuation”. Sometimes interpretation is carried out with the help of several mechanisms. It allows describing a situation of nose movements colorfully and in an extraordinary way, and gives an idea of a person's state, emotions and intentions.
The results allow us to deepen the theoretical knowledge of conceptualization and interpretation in general and the theory of cognitive modeling in particular due to the modeling of knowledge structures about facial movements represented by English single-word lexemes, set phrases and free phrases.
Further research of linguistic units designating facial movements by conducting a psycholinguistic experiment to identify the associations connected with these units is perspective.
The research is financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant (project 18-18-00267) at Derzhavin Tambov State University.
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20 April 2020
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Discourse analysis, translation, linguistics, interpretation, cognition, cognitive psychology
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Babina, L. V. (2020). Nose Movements: Peculiarities Of Conceptualization And Interpretation. In & A. Pavlova (Ed.), Philological Readings, vol 83. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 9-19). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.04.02.2