The purpose of the study is to analyze the social aspects in
Keywords: Social aspectssocial structureculturesocial institutionsocial stratification
Social action is dealing with social problems. The social problems arise as a result of the relationships with other human beings. This social problem is different between communities because of the culturedifferences.
Genresuch as novelisthe representations of social phenomenon which is reappointed as a new discourse through the creative process of the author in the form of literary works. The position of the novel is the same as other sciences isimportant for the progress of the society. This paper explains the social aspects in
The notion of culture is something that are used as human property by learning that covers the whole system of ideas, actions, and human works in the framework of people's lives. Culture is the result of human material and spiritual abilities in the form of objects, knowledge, and rules of belief, morality, politeness, law, and beauty.
Social institutions are a set of norms from various levels that revolve around a basic need in people's lives. Commonly,social institution consists of a group of people who have come together for a common purpose. These institutions are a part of the social order of society and they govern behaviour and expectations of individuals.
Social stratification is the differentiation of population or society into classes in stages or hierarchically (Sorokin, as cited in Soekanto, 2005). It means that social stratification can categorize the society based on the classes. It can be based on some sectors such as profession, education, income.
Sunarto (1993) explains that a number of social scientists distinguish social classes into three classes,namely:
The upper class, this class is characterized by the amount of wealth, good influence in the sectors of individual or public society, high income, high education level, and stability of family life.
Middle class, this class is characterized by a high level of education, income and has a high appreciation for hard work, education, saving needs and future planning, and they are involved in community activities.
The lower class, this class usually consists of unskilled workers, their income is relatively lower so that they are unable to save, trying to fulfill the immediate needs rather than future needs, have low education, and the recipients of welfare funds from the government.
This study is focussed on social aspects occur in Ketumbi village,Belitung islandin the novel. There are several social aspects can be analysed in the novel. Therefore, this study is designed to answer some problems which deals with social aspects in the novel, such as social structure, culture, social institutions, and social stratification.
Does social aspects found in the novel?
What are the basic elements of social aspects found in the novel?
Purpose of the Study
The purposes of this study are as follows:
to describe the social life found in the novel which covers the social aspects in Belitung Island.
to give more understanding about the term of social structure, culture, social institutions and the social stratification which found in the novel.
to describe about the social life of the people in Ketumbi village, Belitung Island.
This study uses the literary sociology approach (Ratna, as cited in Endraswara, 2011). The literary work of the novel
The researchers analyse social aspects in Hirata's (2017) novel
Indigenous people (Malay Society)
The indigenous people (Malay communities) who inhabit the island of Belitung consist of Malays who are the majority community groups who live in Belitung Island.
Aih, his village name is Ketumbi, an ancient Malay word which means 'missed the last', 'the backmost'. In the past, Malay people who were smart in their minds might have been able to see the fate of our village in accordance with the fold of fate. (Hirata, 2017, p. 204)
From the quotation above, it can be seen that the naming of the village name 'Ketumbi ’comes from the ancient Malay language which indicates that the native inhabitants of the village were Malay people.
Migrant communities in
From the the quotations above, it can be seen that some circus players went around Blasia, come from outside of Ketumbi village, Tanjung Lantai, Pulau Belitung. As immigrants, they interacted well with the local community.
From the quotation above, it can be seen that Malay women in Belitung Island use their daily water baths as clothes deodorizers which are ironic and use water baths of cananga flowers as clothes fragrances used for special occasions such as weddings. In the above quotation, Tara and her mother used clothes that smelled of cananga flowers for a divorce event at a religious court.
Malay girls in Ketumbi village also have a habit that has become a culture for their people that they like to do handicrafts that require skills as quoted below.
The habits of the girls in Belitung are learning to sew, embroidering, making snacks, making flowers, braiding, tapping tambourines and taking part in learning typing courses. The word 'like' in the sentence illustrates that activities such as sewing, embroidering, making snacks, making flowers, braiding, tapping tambourines, taking typing courses, are activities that they have been doing for generations.
Naminga child is very important for the Malays in Belitung Island because it relates to their identity.
The sentence above illustrates that Malays, especially the parents, gave their children names with names that are almost the same as their names, for example Pak Sobrinudin gave his son's name: Sobirinudin. Attaching the word 'din' behind their son's name is believed to be glory and which indicates that they are Muslim.
In addition to bragging and dancing habits, Malays in the interior of Belitung also have a unique habit, namely dubbing someone with bad names. Malays are very associative and metaphoric, full of symbols and parables. It is reflected in their hobbies of singing and dubbing. People, even though Islam clearly prohibits bad calls. These strange titles are generally intended to insult.
“Call-calling” is an activity carried out by humans as social beings. Giving nicknames or low-pitched calls is often with jokes. There are also those who do it as a form of closeness. This eventually becomes a habit. This is what happens in Ketumbi village, Belitung. Andrea Hirata describes the activity of giving this nickname as a joke and a form of familiarity.
Customary applications and marriage
Malay communities in Belitung Island have marriage consent customs.
The Malay community in Belitung appoint a male representative in family to proposebride to be. By bringing the cake, it can be regarded as a sign that those who come will propose to the girl in the house.
Andrea Hirata in
Family institutions are the smallest institutions in society, generally consisting of father, mother and child. In a family, relationships between family members are arranged so that respective roles and functions must be owned by each family member. The formation of a family comes from a marriage that is legal according to religion, customs, and government. Family institutions have several functions, including reproductive function, protection, economy, socialization, affection, social supervision, and determining status. In
The above quote describes the character of Sobri’s father who acts as the head of the family. The role of the father as the head of the family who is always actively seeking a living, from the results of his sweat, whatever the type of work, becomes a sample for his children.
In the Sikdiknaslaw number 20 of 2003, it was explained that Indonesia had three educational channels, namely formal, non-formal and informal. Sagala in Nofijantie (2014) stated that formal education is an institution called school which is part of a tiered and continuous education.
The above quotation explains that Tegar pursued a tiered and continuous path of formal education, going up to grade 3 in junior high school, then proceeding to grade 1 high school. In
The quotation below is a political activity in the election of village heads in Ketumbi village.
Pilkades is an instrument in the formation of a modern and democratic government. In his novel,
In the novel,
The above quotation occurred when Sobri, who was blind to the law, damaged the campaign poster from a political party. The poster was affixed to the pomegranate tree in Sobri’s house yard without his permission. Eventually law enforcement officials took a peaceful path or reconciled the two sides.
Health institutions in the novel
From the quote above, the community uses health institutions in the form of health centers to provide assistance in the health sector.
Cultural institutions are public institutions that play a rolein thedevelopment of culture, science, art, and education. Cultural parks are the place for art performers to practice or display their artwork. In the novel, Sirkus Pohon, it is existing cultural parks as the cultural institutions.
Tara uses a cultural park to prepare for her first solo exhibition. He opened the face paintings from a large picture book, and then framed them.
In the novel,
Thus, from the description above, the social institutions can be found in the novel
In the SirkusPohon novel by Andrea Hirata, classified as upper class is Adjunct Inspector SyaifulBuchori, the local police chief, who tries arrange police and busy people to look for Dinda's whereabouts.
Other professions in the upper class are the paramedics and doctors who examine the condition of Dinda's health found after more than 24 hours have disappeared.
Furthermore, the profession in the upper class is a dukun. In the novel SirkusPohon, the services of a dukun are also mobilized after there are no results obtained from medical treatment to doctors and doctors, to treat Dinda's memory loss.
The middle class can be called the most stable layer in the community, including the clerics, clusters of employees, and traders. They are belong to the middle class in the
This layer consists of the laboures. In the
Sobri, the main character, who only graduated from elementary school, in the SirkusPohonnovel also belonged to the lower class because after graduating he becomes circus clown.
Belitung community in Ketumbi village consisted of Malays and migrant communities who come from East Java such as Blitar, Mojokerto, TulungAgung, Jember, Banyuwangi, and Lampung. Social institutions as mentioned in Sirkus Pohon novel are family, education, politics, law, health, culture, and religioninstitutions. The Belitung community is classified into three class groups, they are: upper, middle and lower class groups. Upper class stratification is a group of officials and professional groups such as police, doctors, and bosses while the middle class includes religious groups, clerks, and traders. The peasants are the Lower class.
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30 March 2020
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Hariani, S., Asnani, A., Pardi, P., & Wulan, S. (2020). Social Aspects In Andrea Hirata’S Novel Sirkus Pohon. In & N. Baba Rahim (Ed.), Multidisciplinary Research as Agent of Change for Industrial Revolution 4.0, vol 81. (pp. 528-536). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.03.61