Quality Of Life And Relationship With Public Employment Fertility Of Kota Bharu

Abstract

The rising cost of living in urban areas is often a problem for civil servants, especially on their quality of life or social well-being. "Malaysians born first, do not think about quality of life" is a statement that wants Malaysia to neglect the quality of life if they want to have a big family. Although, this statement is considered misidentified, yet to what extent the quality of life has a significant relationship to the level of household fertility, especially among civil servants. In this regard, a study was conducted on civil servants serving in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. A total of 200 respondents among civil servants were involved in the study throughout the year 2018. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data involving two components of the study namely quality of life and fertility perception. The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life of civil servants in Kota Bharu. Secondly, to know the perception of quality of life relationship with the fertility of the household among civil servants and the third to see the impact of fertility on demography in Kota Bharu. The findings show that the perception of the standard of living of civil servants in Kota Bharu is at high and moderate levels. The perception of the public's fertility perceptions suggests that it is not an important issue over a career, where career growth is more important than early marriage.

Keywords: Womenfertilityquality of life

Introduction

Over the past two decades (1999-2019) the Malaysian government has listed 10 key areas for determining Malaysia's quality of life index (IKHM). Among them include income & distribution, work environment, transportation & communication, health, education, housing, environment, family life, social participation and social security. Since the same period many studies have been made by many local researchers on the quality of life of Malaysians. Haryati (2017) has examined the quality of life of the community from various aspects, such as Parit Raja town transformation for the well-being of the community, environmental interaction and community quality of life (2015), the influence of workplace comfort on urban residents (2010) urban community life (2011) (Zaimah, Sarmila, Suhana, Mohd, & Lydon, 2012), from the point of view of satisfaction to the current financial situation of youth working in the public sector. Azahan, Abdul Hadi, and Kadaruddin (2008) examined the meaning of quality of life and its application in the field of environmental management in Malaysia and found that aspects of self-sufficiency are important for people living in the city. The quality of life has a dynamic and non-static meaning (Azahan et al., 2008) and it is also defined as encompassing self-improvement, a healthy lifestyle, access and freedom of acquiring knowledge and living standards beyond the individual's basic needs and fulfilling psychological needs to achieve the level of social well-being that is comparable to the aspirations of the state (Economic Planning Unit, 2004). Various life quality models were also introduced to describe the concept of quality of life in the realm of human reality. These models are seen from a variety of life-based services based on quality of life model, quality of life (Alison, 2017), based on motivational and personality approaches (Maslow, 1987) as well as individuals (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Maslow (1987) fills the domain of quality of life in its model by placing the most important health (psychology) needs followed by emotional domain, Intimacy, interpersonal relationships, community, social inclusion, security, self-determination. In the present model of three features are the ones that are the aspects of self (self), society (society) and place (place). According to Ryan and Deci (2000) life quality models need to take into account intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Must include the choice of choice in the human being. It should take into account the aspects of competence, autonomy and 'relatedness' as the three basic human needs that must exist in the quality of life model. The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life of civil servants in Kota Bharu. Secondly, to know the perception of quality of life relationship with the fertility of household and third to see the impact of quality of life on fertility among civil servants in Kota Bharu.

Problem Statement

In this study, the issue of study namely quality of life and fertility perception. The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life of civil servants in Kota Bharu. Secondly, to know the perception of quality of life relationship with the fertility of the household among civil servants and the third to see the impact of fertility on demography in Kota Bharu.

Research Questions

The extent to which the public is aware of the quality of life and fertility in their lives especially the civil servants in Kota Bharu district and whether the quality of life and fertility rates are related to the lives of the people especially the life of the public. Therefore, this study was conducted to look at the relationship between quality of life and fertility in civilian life.

Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life of civil servants in Kota Bharu and To know the perception of quality of life relationship with the fertility of household and third to see the impact of quality of life on fertility among civil servants in Kota Bharu.

Research Methods

The methodology of this study is a Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data involving two components of the study: quality of life and perception of fertility. For the live quality domain, 10 items have been used. The ten items consist.

Findings

What is the current status of the people of Kelantan? The Living Quality Index or Life Welfare Index of the Kelantan population up to 2016 is 7.32. Malaysia Family Welfare Index report, 2016 for the state of Kelantan states that the domain of family relationships has recorded a score of 7.91, family safety (7.86), family economy (6.76), family fun (6.90), family and social involvement (8.17) spirituality (8.63), housing and environment (6.26) and family and industrial technology (6.04). This status shows that IKHK is at a moderate level (maximum score is 10). Revenue is a proxy to reflect the standard of living that allows individuals to cover their personal and family expenses. Hence, it is desirable to be a key indicator of the quality of life of a person or of a household. The survey on civil servants in Kota Bharu consists of three groups namely professional (21.5%), support 1 (50%) and 2 support (28.5%). Their salaries of 1.5% are in the T20, 50% M40 and the rest are B40. They consist of 38% male and the rest of the women aged 21-30 years (12%), 31-40 years (47.5%) and 51 years and above (13.5%) where 97.5% are Malays and the rest are Chinese. In addition, 0.5% had PhDs, 1.5% had Bachelors, 28% had a first degree, 43% had a diploma / STPM and the remaining SPM. Some 5% are unmarried, 90% are married and the rest are status (5 respondents). The work environment is important as employment is a source of income that contributes to the quality and quality of life. This study selected the civil service work environment in Kota Bharu, Kelantan as a case study. There were three occupational status identified in this study i.e professional (21.5%), support I (28.5%) and II (50%) support. Based on grade rating, 35% graduated 1-19, 15% graduated between 22-28, 28.9% between 29-40, 21% between 41-52 and the remaining graduated 54 and above. Each status and grade of income earns in accordance with the existing space and working environment. These include workloads determined according to their respective scope of work. Transport and communication are an important factor in evaluating progress and development as it enables the movement of goods and services. The distance and type of respondent's transport from home to workplace and others can guide their quality of life. In terms of vehicle ownership, 6% had motorcycles, 39% had trains and the rest (55%) had motorcycles and trains. For respondents who own the train, 43.6% have only one, 42% have two and 14.4% have three cars. Owning own vehicle is important to facilitate their commute between home and work. Health encompasses physical and mental well-being to enable humans to work and actively engage in social and economic life of society. Health is an important feature of determining household fertility. The study found that 75% of the respondents think that family health is good. Physical and mental health has a relationship with the level of fertility. However, the level of self-health and the spouse has a different picture. A total of 44% of respondents agreed on their own health status and the couple was at a disadvantage. The health level of the poor is most of the respondents being among the causes of lack of motivation or stimulation to be shared with each other. Housing is a basic social need for a perfect life, providing security and protection to families. The villa house is an option for 23.5% of respondents among civil servants in Kota Bharu, choosing flat, 9% choosing a semi-D house, 19.5% choosing a terrace house and the balance choosing bungalow house. Based on that pattern, 152 people or 76% have their own home and do not rent and 61 people or 30.5% have no home loans. The environment has a direct impact on the well-being of the population. Air pollution, water and natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts are indicators of environmental quality. Social environments such as security and neighbourhoods are also an important aspect of the people's well-being. The results show that their living environment is satisfactory, with 75% agreeing that their living environment is safe compared with 22% of respondents say otherwise.

Family life represents the major institutions in social structure and serves to meet the social, economic and psychological needs of individuals. The family life pattern shows that 51% of respondents have been married for more than 10 years, 29% between 5 to 10 years, 14% between 1 to 5 years and the remainder per year. Based on the marriage duration 13% had more than 5 children, 48% had between 3 and 4 people, 32.5% had between 1-2 while the remainder had no children.

The findings also found that the quality status or well-being of civil servants in Kota Bharu, Kelantan was high. Seven of the 10 items of respondents' perceptions of their quality of life showed a high score while the balance was on a simple score. The question is how much quality of life or well-being can affect fertility among civil servants in Kota Bharu. The study found that the correlation between the two variables was significant (0.003). If more specifically examined, there are 11.6% of the professionals among civil servants in Kota Bharu still have no children and 23.3% are in TFR below the level of replacement. In addition, those with grades 41 and above earn more than RM 3,000 a month to choose not to have more than 2 children, even some who have not been given a child either after marriage or unmarried. For this group, posts and salaries are not issues to determine the number of children. Determining the number of children is likely to be an issue to civil servants from support groups, especially those earning below RM 3,000 per month. Based on the survey statistics, there were 43.3% of them choosing to have less than two children. In view of the wider scope, this figure represents 26.8% of all support staff in Kota Bharu. Once again the majority of these groups did not resign and salary as a determinant to the number of children they must have. What exactly determines their TFR rates? The findings of the study showed that 50% thought the time factor was important in determining the intimate relationship and examining civil servants in Kota Bharu. Some 20% think the working environment is one of the factors while 10% of the other each linked it to the health fund economic factor. Other aspects (2% each) are also called household science, small children, partner romance, technology and age.

Conclusion

The pattern of population fertility can impact the future of social, economic and political planning and development both in Kelantan and in Malaysia. Therefore, a good health intervention plan in the form of psychology as well as fertility treatments is important to increase the level of fertility of the population. The number of live births for the Kota Bharu population is much higher than in other districts in Kelantan, which is 10,477 persons (2008) rising to 12, 147 persons (2016). However, the increase of 16.27% in the eight years was second place compared to the Tanah Merah district of 16.9% for the same period of 2008-2016. Gua Musang and Kuala Krai districts recorded less than two per cent growth while Jeli experienced a deficit of -0.1 per cent. In general, the areas of Tanah Merah, Kota Bharu and Machang have higher fertility rates than in other parts of Kelantan. The total fertility rate (TFR) categorizes the number of children for each family as low for couples who have less than three children, simple for the number of children between 3 and 5 and higher for families of over five children. The number of children is categorized as the level of replacement of the population, meaning the number of children who can only replace the place of the parents. Except for the Jeli area, the average average size of household members for the district in Kelantan is 5.1 people (2015-2017). The Kota Bharu district has an average household size of 5.1 people smaller than Bachok (5.4) and Tumpat (5.2). This shows that areas in Kelantan generally have high fertility rates (FTRs).

References

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Publication Date

30 March 2020

eBook ISBN

978-1-80296-080-8

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European Publisher

Volume

81

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Edition Number

1st Edition

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Business, innovation, sustainability, development studies

Cite this article as:

Mat Ripin, N. H., Md Nor, N. N. F., & Hassan, F. (2020). Quality Of Life And Relationship With Public Employment Fertility Of Kota Bharu. In & N. Baba Rahim (Ed.), Multidisciplinary Research as Agent of Change for Industrial Revolution 4.0, vol 81. (pp. 177-181). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.03.22