Socialization Of Inclusion Entities Through Social Cooperation Facilitation


Inclusion of the facilitator observer in inclusive practice and understanding of mechanisms and regularities of facilitation of social interaction creates conditions for self-education, self-development and socialization of subjects in the inclusive practice. For understanding of the facilitation of social interaction classification of the concept "facilitator observer" in the genus and species relations on the different bases is carried out. Mechanisms of the facilitation of social interaction and socialization as the reflection of system of interaction from a metaposition "Me" leading to change of the scenario of social interaction in continuum improvement deterioration, a facilitation-ingibition are theoretically proved. The empirical research was conducted by diagnostics of tendency to perception of fasilitatsionny influence in intense situations on the strategy of behavior. The sample consisted of 200 people of both sexes aged from 19 up to 54 years, including people with disabilities.  These were mostly full-time students from the Inclusive department of Kazan Institute of Management. Diagonal elements of the resulting table of correlation of strategy of behavior and their changes show that presence of the facilitator observer has the stabilizing effect to group norms of behavior strategy in intense situations, and accordingly stimulates socialization of subjects of interaction in inclusive practice. Evidence-based definition of "a facilitation of social interaction" is given. We can point out the possibility of the differentiated research how students with different disabilities are sensitive to facilitate influence whether they are ready to effective communications and the facilitation of social interaction.

Keywords: Socializationfacilitation of social interactioninclusive practicepsychosocial dissonanceobserverfacilitator


In today's rapidly developing world, a world of globalization, a person, whether he is a child or an adult, feels himself smeared, uncertain and lost in time and space. There is a contradiction that always exists. But the faster the development, the sharper this contradiction is felt between the inner and outer world of a person, between "the world in me" and "I in the world" ( Rubenstein, 2003), i.e. the socialization of the subjects of interaction is broken. This is especially acute for "atypical" children and adults, unusual from point of view of "normal" people. Whether they are people with physical or mental disabilities - and disorders in different directions: superior to "normal" (for example, gifted and talented) or not to some "norm" (for example, disabled). What about talented disabled people? The issue of socialization in inclusive education is acute, and the disclosure of psychological mechanisms of social interaction in the educational process becomes urgent. In social interaction, the presence of "other" people who are not directly involved in the most social interaction of communication subjects - an outsider, an observer, a communicator - plays an important role. On each concrete timepoint teachers, profs, administrators, colleagues, schoolmates etc, can possess such functions of the observer-facilitator. Moreover, this influence affects both pupils, students, the working groups, and teachers, educators, chiefs (Vasina, 2015). The study of the facilitation of social interaction (subject of the study) in the aspect of the influence on socialization of interaction subjects (subject of the study) becomes relevant.

Specific facilitation 

When reviewing foreign and Russian literature on the subject, it is found out that "Facilitation" as a derivative of the English verb “facilitate” means in psychological context to promote, to help, to facilitate. The "short psychological dictionary" explains this concept like increasing the productivity or speed of an individual's activity due to the actualization in the individual's mind of the image (perception, representation, etc.) of another person (possibly a group of people) who acts as an observer (or rival) for the actions of an individual (Brief psychological dictionary, n.d.). 

Social facilitation was recorded for the first time in the late 19th century in the experiments of French physiologists. In the American journal “Science” on July 16, 1965, Zayonz 's article "Social Facilitation" appeared, which started a whole direction of social and psychological research ( as cited in Stepanov, 2005). In a number of cases, the imaginary or real presence of other persons who do not interfere in the actions of the individual leads to a deterioration of the results of the activity. This phenomenon has been called social inhibition (suppression). We consider the concept of facilitation in the continuum "improvement-deterioration, facilitation-inhibition" and define the whole continuum with the word “facilitation”, bearing in mind both improvement and deterioration of social interaction. Since the assessment of action itself is relative (for some people something is good, for others it may be bad), so the concept should be considered in some "numerical" continuum "good-bad," and the assessment should be considered as the dominance of values in some interval of this continuum. 

Modern state of research

Dimukhametov  ( 2006) considered the phenomenon of facilitation in the advanced training of teachers. Timonina ( 2002), Sumina  ( 2006) and Smirnova  ( 2008) considered pedagogical conditions of development in the teacher of ability to communicate in the course of its professional activity studied, a social and pedagogical facilitation of educational activity of poor teenage school students, pedagogical interaction as a factor of a facilitation of psychophysical load of children with special needs, the educational environment of school as a condition of a facilitation of professional self-determination of pupils. Development of a facilitation of teachers was studied by Zhizhina  ( 2000), a facilitation of personal adaptation in the period of late maturity means of creative self-expression and Filozop  ( 2005), a facilitation of personal growth of younger teenagers in the work of Kruglikova  ( 2006). The concept of facilitation is used in overcoming difficulties in the study of foreign languages ( Komarov, 2012) and in the mediation of conflicts ( Alekseyev, 2005). The concept of "facilitation" has become popular recently in scientific and practical activities and has a rather blurred nature of the meanings embedded in it. Elements of fasilitationny work for socialization of inclusion meet understanding of emotional conditions of the peers and adults in Akhmetzyanova & Artemyeva  ( 2019), mental states in  Krotova & Akhmetzyanova ( 2019). Zakirova  ( 2016) and Tudor ( 2019) include this concept in model of readiness of the expert. Salyakhova & Valeeva  (2015) talk about pedagogical stimulation of students.

Problem Statement

We have discovered the phenomenon of facilitation in the process of social interaction and defined the concept of "facilitation of social interaction" (Vasina, 2015).

Research Questions

It is important to classify the concept of "facilitation of social interaction" of inclusion subjects on different grounds. 

Research tasks. We have thus set the following objectives: 

  • To carry out a classification of the concept of "facilitation of social interaction." 

  • Theoretically justify the mechanisms of social interaction and socialization on its basis. 

  • Empirically identify patterns of facilitation of social interaction and socialization based on it.

  • To give a scientifically sound definition of "social interaction facilitation."

Purpose of the Study

There is a need for theoretical justification of psychological mechanisms and empirical identification of the regularities of the facilitation of social interaction and socialization on the basis of them of subjects of inclusive practice. 

Research Methods

The study uses ontological, systemic, probabilistic approaches. 

Study Hypothesis 

A competent, well-trained facilitator helps to activate the processes of self-organization - social interaction, in the field of which self-development of the subjects of interaction takes place. Therefore, the improvement of social interaction is key, basic in the development of the actors of interaction themselves. 

Data collection tools, tests 

  • Diagnosis of the sensitivity to the perception of the financial impact (Michelson 's test in Vasina 's modification). 

  • Diagnosis of propensity for perception of the resource impact in conflict situations (Vasina’s modification based on Thomas test "Strategies of behavior in conflict situation"). 

  • Diagnostics of readiness for organizational communication and facilitation of social interaction (Vasina’s modification). 

Study Sample 

The sample consisted of 200 people of both sexes aged from 19 up to 54 years, including persons with disabilities, mostly students of the inclusive education of full-time and correspondence departments of Kazan Institute of Management.


The concept of "facilitation" is now used in quite broad spheres of human activity (management, pedagogy, psychotherapy, etc.), and therefore the definitions are blurred. I would like to clarify how we understand the militarization of social interaction through the classification in the genus and species relations of the concept of "communicator," which participates in the process of "facilitation." 

The very first generic concept is "extraneous, attendant," which does not interfere, is not interested, simply present. Types for it on the activity basis in continuum passivity of ÷ activity are: 1) the observer who has no exchange of signals (field exchange) through the information level of social interaction; 2) a facilitator whose signals are exchanged at the interactive and perceptual levels - physical contact, gesture, mimics, words, etc. Further below on hierarchy "facilitator" is subdivided into the following types on the interaction force basis in a continuum weak ÷ strong exchange of interaction signals: 1) facilitator-observer: the experimenter, the viewer, the supernumerary, etc. can be the facilitator-observer; 2) facilitator-observer-participant: mediator, moderator, coach, tutor, confessor, etc.; 3) The participant-facilitator: it is the head of social interaction (units) (or actions as a phase, part in the interaction cycle) in the activity - so-called non-reactive control through reflexion of interaction subjects. Further, according to the hierarchy, the "facilitator-participant" is divided into (under) types: heads (subdivisions) of social interaction in activity: work (director, head, etc.), study (teacher, head of trainings, teacher, etc.), game (trainer, director, etc.). 

In inclusive practice, mental tension in social interaction, psychosocial dissonance, as a mismatch of perceptions of communication participants, is particularly common ( Khalitov, 2012). We have expanded the concept of facilitation to the interaction of social groups, society, because there are concepts of collective consciousness (noosphere), and accordingly there is an image (representation) of the observer in the corresponding area of the memory matrix. 

In order to fully disclose the mechanisms for the facilitation of social interaction in inclusive practices, it is necessary to consider this phenomenon systematically, in terms of a systemic approach. In Russian psychology, Lomov ( 1996) was one of the first to propose a systemic approach. He was a founder of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences ( Lomov, 1996). At the present stage of development of science and practice there is more and more appeal to synergetrics - science about self-organizing systems ( Budanov, 2009). 

The system of social interaction is the subject of interaction in inclusive practice. They are interconnected (interacting, being in the field of interaction), and the fact that they are in the system determined by the observer-facilitator. The internal, virtual facilitator - the “Me-facilitator” in a set "Me" in mental (semantic) space is necessary for self-organization of a system, in a matrix of memory of subjects of interaction. It is metaposition "Me" ( Leontiev, 2005;  Hermans, 2001) which allocates a system as complete, independent unit, defines its borders (norms, rules, a comfort zone), and opposes to other systems: "Me" - "not Me". External facilitator (through mirror neurons) activates the internal subject, virtual facilitator, Me-facilitator, and thus activates internal processes of self-organization, self-development of systems - subjects of social interaction of different levels: personalities, small and large social groups, by the transition from personal identification to the social one.

This is particularly relevant in inclusive practices where social interaction is "difficult" due to objective factors. The presence of a facilitator - observer real or imaginary affects the social, including educational interaction of communication subjects in inclusive practice, and accordingly the socialization of subjects. The result depends on the personal qualities of the interacting themselves, their social or personal identification in mental reality, and not on the special possibilities or limitations of health in physical reality, which are certainly reflected in mental reality, which is influenced by the observer-communicator. This is the mechanism for facilitating social interaction. 

Thus, the mechanism of social interaction facilitation is based on the reflection of interaction subjects (IS) on the interaction system (IS1 - IS2), i.e. on him (IS1) and his partner (IS2), with metaposition "Me", which takes place in the presence of a facilitator-observer (through mirror neurons). This reflection (an impartial view of the interaction from the outside) leads to a change in the scenario of social interaction in the improvement-deterioration continuum, and the result is recorded, respectively, in the facilitation-inhibition continuum. 

A facilitator-observer in social educational interaction changes the perceptions of interaction and the type of social interaction (behaviour in an inclusive group) that allows the socialization of subjects of inclusive practice. The educational process requires real and virtual facilitators (social background) to change the perceptions of the society on the education and development of the subjects of interaction and socialization. Proceeding from the aforesaid, we gave the following definition of a concept: "the facilitation of social interaction" is a change (increase in efficiency) of social interaction of subjects of social interaction (the individual, social group, society) because of updating in consciousness of images (representations) of a system of social interaction and subjects of interaction in a system in the presence of the observer-facilitator who is a source of activation of metaposition "Me", and start of the mechanism of a reflection. 

Description of results 

On the basis of this understanding, a methodology was developed to identify the role of the facilitator in social interaction. A diagnosis of the tendency to perceive the facilitation impact in conflict situations was carried out according to the strategies of Thomas behavior in the modification of Vasina. 

Correlations between the strategy of behavior (X) and its change (∆Х) in the presence of the facilitator are received. The table 01 shows significant data with validity of 0.01 in bold.

Table 1 -
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All diagonal elements have negative values, and they are quite large: confrontation - "-0.36", cooperation "-0.55". compromise - "-0.48". avoidance "-0.38". concession - "-0.55" (reliability 0.01). It means that at increase in X ∆Х decreases, i.e. tries to keep initial value X (an average for group). At reduction of X ∆Х increases - returns to initial value X. Thus, presence of the facilitator stabilizes initial normal group values of strategy of behavior (accepted standards in group), i.e. at a behavior deviation from group norms presence of the facilitator returns behavior to values of norm, in other words, improves social interaction (behavior) in this group and socializes IS. This is especially true in an inclusive society (in economy, politics, culture and education), when the facilitator “carries out” the socialization of social interaction subjects, improving, leading to interaction to norms of social groups in which interaction takes place. 

Discussion of results 

In inclusive practice, the facilitation of social interaction is achieved by modern technologies of non-positive assistance in achieving self-development and self-improvement. Through technology: open space, brainstorming, "world cafe". interactive conversations, group discussion, etc. an active observer brings together the interests of communicative partners, shows the importance of each participant, helps to speak to everyone in individual rhythm and style. Sometimes students are treated as "robots", who must perform meaningless actions and commands, which affects the image that they create as subjects of social (educational) interaction. And the main task of the educator is to contribute (stimulate and initiate) meaningful teaching and to build effective interpersonal and intergroup interactions and, accordingly, socialization, especially in conditions of inclusive practice. Social interaction facilitation technologies in inclusive practices satisfy communication needs of people with "special needs" and help to socialize subjects of interaction. 

Facilitation techniques may include different practices based on the above points. The simplest, most basic technique - "confession" - gives an opportunity in the presence of a facilitator ("confessor") to interact (express, show, discuss, propose, prove, etc.) in a free unlimited form (except scandal, accusations and transition to insults - which is monitored and monitored by the facilitator). Here, through the communicator, each subject of interaction sees its own and other people's borders, and through this vision he is self-changing, self-developing. When using the strategy of cooperation behavior in a conflict situation, it is possible to change the identification from personal to social and to create the new formation of the social group - "we are united, we are family," i.e. "Me" moves to “We”. It is advisable for the facilitator to have appropriate psychological characteristics: sensitivity, attention, empathy, communicativity (joining, empathy, sensitivity to criticism), internality (responsibility, self-control). 

All other techniques are based on the basic, begin with it, and rely on it: "moderation," pedagogical facilitation, "mediation". There are many other techniques of facilitation, which solve some specific tasks (often in practice these tasks concern economy, management of enterprises): "summit of positive changes", dynamic facilitation, "grave cocktail", idea-log, "international cafe", storytelling, etc. 

Given the objectives of the facilitator in inclusive practice, it must be remembered that:

  • inclusive social interaction should not differ from "normal interaction", except for external physical restrictions in the subjects of interaction, but not psychological ones – without excessive affection , regret, etc.; subjects of interaction should feel themselves normal, forget their physical defects, do not feel them as flaws, but only, as a kind of limitation;  

  • despite shortcomings at the physical level, subjects of inclusive education at the mental level have the same opportunities like other people (for example, Stephen Higgins - wheelchair, Nobel Prize winner in astrophysics); 

  • disadvantages at the physical level can give even some advantages, for example, the so-called "healthy", being tempted, destroys its physical and especially mental health, and the limited opportunities of a person, fortunately, directed the development of the subject of interaction to creativity, eliminating destruction and maintaining health and time for self-development.


  • The concept of social interaction has been classified, allowing for a differentiated understanding of the phenomenon and its actions in different situations of social interaction, including inclusive practices. 

  • The mechanisms of facilitating social interaction and socialization based on it are theoretically substantiated. The basis of the mechanism of social interaction facilitation is the reflection of interaction subjects on the interaction system and on themselves with the metaposition "Me", which is activated by the observer-facilitator, and leads to a change in the scenario of social interaction in the continuum improvement-deterioration, facilitation-inhibition. 

  • Empirical patterns of social interaction facilitation and socialization based on it have been identified. It has been shown that the presence of a facilitator -observer has a stabilizing effect on group norms of strategies of behavior in tense situations, and accordingly stimulates socialization of actors of interaction in inclusive practice. 

  • A scientifically based definition of "social interaction facilitation" has been given, as a change (increase in productivity) of social interaction of subjects due to updating in consciousness images (representation) of the social interaction system and subjects in it in the presence of a resource observer, which is a source of activation of metaposition "Me" and reflection of the social interaction system. 

Different methods (techniques, means) of influence of a real and imaginary observer are necessary for different subjects of social (educational) interaction. As prospective of the study it is possible to indicate the possibility of differentiated study of the extent to which students with different health restrictions are sensitive to facilitative impact, whether they are ready for effective communications and facilitation of social interaction. 


The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.


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23 January 2020

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Cite this article as:

Vasina*, V. V. (2020). Socialization Of Inclusion Entities Through Social Cooperation Facilitation. In R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education- IFTE 2019, vol 78. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 820-828). European Publisher.