The Development Of Professional Competence Of Future Preschool Teachers In Bilingual Education
The contradiction between the need for the development of an active bilingual personality of preschool children and the lack of training of scientific and pedagogical staff, solving the problem of development of children in a dialogue of cultures and multilingualism led to the choice of the research topic. The aim of the article is to generalize the scientific, theoretical and technological foundations of the formation of future preschool teachers’ competencies necessary for bilingual development of children, within the context of the dialogue of cultures and multilingualism. Professional training of future teachers for the development of bilingualism in children is realized thanks to a special systemically organized and differentiated technological complex of education, integrating traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies through communication. Pedagogical model of professional training of students for bilingual education of preschool children has to be focused on subjectivity, autonomy and reflexivity of activity at a facilitator role of the teacher and includes the following modules: a) module of theoretical training of students; b) module of practical training of students. Professional training should be aimed at strengthening linguistic, cultural and communicative aspects in the system of bilingual competence of teachers.
Keywords: Professional trainingbilingual competencepre-schoolers
The theoretical analysis of scientific and methodological literature shows that, despite the increased attention to the study of the problems of development of bilingual personality, a number of its aspects remain insufficiently described. It is very important to improve the system of professional training of teachers, ensuring the successful formation of language and communicative competencies in preschool children, taking into account the national and regional characteristics.
In the conditions of active introduction of innovative technologies in the educational process, an important aspect of effective work should be to ensure the use of innovative formats for the implementation of programs and educational projects aimed at improving the professional competence of future preschool teachers. We believe that professional training implies a purposeful, systematic and controlled process, the result of which is the formation of professional readiness as part of professionally significant competencies of teachers in the field of bilingual development of preschool children, which is an integral quality of an individual, combining the target and motivational needs, plus the content-operational and evaluation components (Ivanova, 2018).
The contradiction between the need for the development of active bilingual personality of preschool children and the lack of training of scientific and pedagogical staff, solving the problem of bilingual education of children in a dialogue of cultures and multilingualism led to the choice of research topics. Its problem is formulated as follows: what are the scientific, theoretical and technological bases for the formation of future preschool teachers’ professional competencies necessary for the bilingual development of children in a dialogue of cultures and multilingualism? Long-term traditions of systematic studies of the native language and literature in preschool educational organizations represent the most important potential for a system of training for bilingual preschool education. However, there are a number of unsettled issues. In particular, there are problems of motivational, informative and methodological nature, as well as staff questions.
Motivational problems are manifested in a marked decrease in motivation of students to study their native language and literature. We believe that education fully based on the Russian language is an important factor in reducing the use of the native language.
The problems of informative character are expressed in the fact that many graduates of educational institutions do not have enough skills of oral speech, mastery of the norms of literary language and speech etiquette. This phenomenon is manifested not only in the native language, but also in the non-native. Acquisition of language knowledge in many cases is isolated from the ability to apply this knowledge in practical speaking activity.
In higher education, there is no differentiation of the content of bilingual training, which would take into account the educational needs and interests of students, their level of proficiency in their native language for the sake of organization of its in-depth study (profile training).
The problems of methodological nature are explained by the fact that the unequal level of native and non-native linguistic proficiency of students makes it necessary to create and implement innovative methods and technologies for training of the future teachers of bilingual education of children in their educational activities.
Personnel problems proceed from the fact that the system of training and additional professional education of bilingual preschool teachers (native and Russian), does not fully meet modern requirements in terms of the formation of competencies necessary for teaching in a multilingual environment, provided by the professional standard “Teacher (Pedagogical activity in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary general education)” (Order of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, 2013).
Analysis and generalization of scientific and practical materials on the problem of formation of professional competencies of students necessary for bilingual development of preschool children;
Development of the program of formation of students’ professional competencies necessary for bilingual development of preschool children;
To test experimentally the program of formation of students’ professional competencies necessary for bilingual development of preschool children focused on subjectivity, autonomy and reflexivity of their activity at a facilitator role of a teacher;
Based on the study results, to prepare, test and implement scientific and practical recommendations in the system of professional training of future teachers and retraining of specialists for successful development of pre-school bilinguals.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to develop scientific, theoretical, organizational and methodological foundations for the formation of future preschool teachers’ professional competencies necessary for bilingual development of children in multilingualism.
To solve the tasks in the work, a set of complementary research methods was used: theoretical analysis of legal and scientific literature on the problem of the research, empirical studies (survey, questioning, and conversation), and observations.
The process of professional training provides the formation of future teachers’ basic professional competence (bilingual and bicultural competence) on the basis of the development of specialized disciplines (Ivanova, 2018).
The educational process with students is carried out in a logic of competence and professional graphic approaches and is focused on training professionals for the sphere of bilingual preschool education.
Professional training is built on the basis of a pedagogical model, which includes a set of complementary and interrelated blocks: target, methodological, subjective, informative, instrumental technological and effective, each of which has integration mechanisms (Khodyreva, 2015; Shirin, 2000).
Professional training of future teachers for the development of bilingualism in children is realized through a special systemically organized and differentiated technological complex of training, integrating traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies through communication (Shirin, 2000).
Training of future preschool teachers is carried out in the implementation of the GEF specialization 44.03.05 “Pedagogical education” (with two majors): “Preschool Education, Native (Chuvash) Language and Literature”, “Preschool Education and Foreign (English) Language”. These areas form the main professional competence of future teachers for bilingual education of preschool children.
Pedagogical model of professional training of students for bilingual education of preschool children includes the following modules (Ivanova, 2018; Tolkacheva, 2015): a) module of theoretical training of students; b) module of practical training of students.
The informative characteristic of the graduate’s professional readiness is determined by a set of competencies that are formed in the student as a result of studying the relevant cycles of academic disciplines combined into educational modules that are built on the basis of the subject and activity-oriented approach (Tolkacheva, 2015).
The program “Preschool Education, Native (Chuvash) Language and Literature” is meant to form 9 (42.85%) general cultural competencies in future preschool teachers (OK). The most important of them are: an ability to analyze the main stages and patterns for the development of the historical proficiency in order to be able to teach patriotism and citizen duty; an ability to communicate orally and in writing in Russian and foreign languages to solve the problems of interpersonal and intercultural interaction; an ability to work in a team tolerant of social, cultural and personal differences. Also the five most significant (23.81%) general professional competencies are the willingness to accept the social significance of future profession; be motivated to carry out professional activities; an ability to carry out training, education and development taking into account of the social, age, psychophysical and individual characteristics, including the special educational needs of students; knowledge of the basics of professional ethics and speech culture.
Seven (33.34%) professional competencies: willingness to implement educational programs on the subject in accordance with the requirements of educational standards; an ability to use modern methods and technologies of training and diagnosis; an ability to solve the problems of upbringing and spiritual and moral development in educational and extracurricular activities; an ability to use the possibilities of the educational environment to achieve personal, meta-subjective and subjective learning results and ensure the quality of the educational process by means of the taught subject; an ability to carry out the pedagogical support of socialization and professional self-determination of students; willingness to interact with participants of the educational process; an ability to organize cooperation of students, to maintain activity, enthusiasm, and independence of students, to develop their creative abilities) constitute a competence model of future teachers of preschool education. In total, 21 competencies are formed within the framework of the study of different disciplines combined into modules: basic disciplines, module 1 “Psychological foundations of preschool education”, module 2 “Pedagogical foundations of preschool education”, module 3 “Organizational foundations of preschool education”, module 4 “Theories and methods of preschool education”, module 5 “Mother tongue and literature”. The main professionally significant competencies of future teachers are formed in the study of disciplines of the fifth module. The curriculum also provides for practices: 1) practice to obtain primary professional skills, including primary skills and abilities of research activities; 2) practice to obtain professional skills and experience of professional activity; 3) pedagogical practice; 4) undergraduate practice.
The level of competence formation is assessed by teachers in the process of studying disciplines and practical training. The final level is set at the state final certification, which includes two types of tests, i.e. preparation for the delivery and delivery of the state exam, preparation and protection of the final qualifying work.
The conceptual basis of the pedagogical model of professional training of future teachers for communicative and speech development of bilingual children was formed by the five-component professionally determined structure of personality (Khodyreva, 2015; Khamraeva, 2019).
The monitoring among students at the beginning of the school year showed that most of them did not have the necessary knowledge about the bilingual education of children. This happened despite the fact that 85% of them are themselves bilinguals (mainly Chuvash-Russian, Tatar-Russian). The remaining 15% are monolingual. Initial observations showed that students were poorly oriented in the terminological base of the problem, in the methodological aspects and originality of bilingual education technologies. They had scant ideas about the importance and prospects of bilingual education. Future teachers have never thought about the issues of bilingual education of children.
Previous studies show that the level of bilingual education of children in kindergartens of the Chuvash Republic remains low. This is due, in our opinion, firstly, to the lack of a unified approach to bilingual education of children; secondly, uncoordinated activities of scientific and pedagogical workers and practitioners of preschool education; thirdly, in the absence of a clear structure of vocational training and retraining on bilingual education of children. In preschool workers polyethnic composition causes some difficulties in the organization of educational work with children and in solving the problems of communicative and speech development of bilinguals. Teachers have to take into account the cultural and linguistic specifics of the child’s development and teach a second language, taking into account the comparative and typological characteristics of the contacting languages, the peculiarity of their grammatical system and the interfering influence of the native language on the student. However, as our observations show, most teachers are not ready for this (Boyko & Kuznetsov, 2015; Ivanova, 2018).
Professional requirements for a bilingual kindergarten teacher are higher than for ordinary kindergarten teachers – they should not only know the modern methods of education and training of children, but also have a special attitude to their activities, effectively influence the whole process of kindergarten life, and possess the skills of intercultural communication (Kalkabaeva, 2017; Protasova, 2013; Shirin, 2007). Therefore, the module of practical training of future teachers in addition to practical training in preschool educational facilities assumed their active participation in seminars, scientific conferences and master classes conducted by leading bilingual teachers.
The pedagogical system for the professional training of future teachers for the development of children in bilingualism contained adequate methods of control and evaluation material for the current, midterm, intermediate and final certification.
This made it possible to control the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, general and professional competencies and manage the process of vocational training.
The choice of individual traditional and innovative forms of control was carried out in accordance with the technology of teaching disciplines, teaching styles and the practical possibility of implementing certain forms of control. Thus, we have used the following traditional forms of control, namely oral survey (test, exam, interview, colloquium, etc.), written work (essays, tests, reports, essays, tests, term papers, scientific and educational reports on practices, reports on R&D, etc.). ICT-based monitoring methods have also been widely used. Innovative assessment tools have become very popular: portfolio, presentation, midterm certification tests, practical skill tests (competitions of pedagogical skills), questionnaire surveys and some other tools. These types of control were used both in complex and independently, as special types of control.
In accordance with the objectives of improving the quality of education of future teachers for bilingual development of children as a priority can be divided into four blocks (Kuprina, 2014; Protasova, 2013; Khamraeva, 2019):
language unit (pronunciation, spelling, lexical and grammatical norms of the native language; enrichment of vocabulary and grammatical structure of speech);
linguistic unit (general information about the language; language as a sign system and social phenomenon; development and functioning of the language; methods and techniques of linguistic analysis);
communicative unit (speech and communication; types of speech activity; use of language in various fields and situations of communication);
cultural studies (native language as a form of expression of national culture; national and cultural specificity of the Russian language; a relationship of language and culture).
Each of these blocks correlates with a certain block of tasks and a way of forming the competence of students: linguistic, cultural, and communicative. Therefore, professional training should be aimed at strengthening these aspects in the system of bilingual competence of teachers (Khamraeva, 2019; Khodyreva, 2015).
Thus, we believe that professional training of future teachers for the development of bilingualism in children becomes effective thanks to a special systemically organized and differentiated technological complex of training, integrating traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies through communication. Our research has allowed generalizing scientific-theoretical and organizational-methodological bases for forming the future teachers’ professional competencies necessary for bilingual development of preschool children in the conditions of multilingualism. The analysis and generalization of scientific and practical materials on the problem enabled the author to develop a program for development of students’ professional competencies necessary for bilingual development of preschool children. Experimental approbation of the program proved that the system of professional training has to be focused on subjectivity, autonomy and reflexivity of activity at a facilitator role of teachers. According to the study results, scientific and practical recommendations for successful training of future teachers and retraining of specialists for successful development of bilingual preschoolers have been given.
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