Ethnocultural Education In The Design Of An Educational Program 44.03.01 Psycho-Pedagogical Education

Abstract

The relevance of the problem under study is determined by the need for formation of the future teachers’ ethnocultural competence as a condition for the transfer of ethnocultural content in the upbringing, development and teaching of preschool children in the region (Komi Republic). In this connection, this article is aimed at developing the effective organizational and pedagogical conditions for designing the ethnocultural content in the main professional educational program of higher education for preschool teachers training. The main method for studying this problem was the method of questioning and modeling, which allow considering the stated problem as a targeted systemically organized process of the formation of students’ ethnocultural competence in the process of mastering historical, ethnographic, psychological, pedagogical and methodological materials. The article describes the developed module with a major “Pedagogical Activity in the Ethnocultural Education of Preschool Children” of the main professional educational program of higher education. The peculiarity of the proposed module was the consideration of its content as the ethno-pedagogical component within the framework of historical and cultural traditions of the Komi people. The materials presented in the article make it possible to use the developed module content in order to form the ethnocultural competence of students as the basis for effective ethnocultural education for children of preschool age.

Keywords: Ethnic cultureethnocultural educationethnocultural competence

Introduction

One of the main principles of state policy and legal regulation of relations in the field of education stipulated in the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” No. 273-FZ is the principle of “the unity of the educational space in the territory of the Russian Federation, protection and development of ethnic and cultural characteristics and traditions of the peoples of Russian Federation in a multinational state” (The State Duma of the Russian Federation, 2012, p. 120).

The priority goal of the National Project “Education” (Presidential Decree, 2018) is the “upbringing of a harmoniously developed and socially responsible person based on the spiritual and moral values of peoples of the Russian Federation, historical and national-cultural traditions” (p. 3), which also sets the goals for the development of a system of vocational training of specialists in the field of education (Presidential Decree, 2018).

In the Russian Federation, conditions for the formation of a professional perspective of future teachers should be created, laying the foundations of an ethnocultural educational strategy in relation to education, development and training of the younger generation, taking into account the regional component.

The concept of the development of ethnocultural education in the Komi Republic for 2016-2020s (The Ministry of Education of the Komi Republic, 2015) considers the formation of a modern regional educational space, providing general cultural, personal and cognitive development of students through the use of the pedagogical potential of ethnocultural education as the goal of developing ethnocultural education in the Republic of Komi. Ethnocultural education in this concept is considered not only as a mechanism for the transfer of knowledge, but also as a cultural-forming institution of society with the functions of preserving and developing national identity (The Ministry of Education of the Komi Republic, 2015).

The implementation of strategic documents at the federal and regional levels can result in the development of future teachers’ professional competence in the design and implementation of ethnocultural content in the work with children of preschool age, taking into account the historical and cultural identity of the region (Komi Republic).

The ethnocultural education of preschoolers, in the opinion of teachers and psychologists, is the result of teachers’ and parents’ ethnocultural educational strategy. As noted by Babunova (2015), a teacher by the right of his or her socially significant activity should be a translator and creator of ethnocultural experience. This position is supported by Afanasyeva (2005), who notes that “the possession of ethnocultural competence and the problems of its formation are of particular importance for teachers, since they carry out the process of cultural transmission in society with their professional activities”.

The teachers’ ethnocultural competence is included in the structure of general professional competence as a subsystem in the whole system. Ethnocultural competence as an objectively subjective phenomenon includes the students’ readiness to study various cultures with the aim of comfortable existence in a multi-ethnic environment, overcoming the narrow horizons, and understanding the mutual influence of peoples. The formation of ethnocultural competence presupposes the initial introduction with the native culture, and then with others (Poshtareva, 2019).

The questions of an ethnocultural component in the training of specialists in the field of education, the formation of their ethnocultural competence were considered by Afanasyeva (2009), Babunova (2015), Volkov (1990), Gershunsky (1998), Kuzmina (2000), Serikov (1999), Kharitonov (1999).

Problem Statement

Despite the fairly close attention of researchers to the problem of future teachers’ ethnocultural education, many questions continue to remain insufficiently studied. The problems of designing and implementing the basics of future teachers’ ethnocultural education as a condition for the transfer of ethnocultural content in the upbringing, development and education of preschool children in the region (Komi Republic) do not receive sufficient reflection. The importance of introducing ethnocultural content into the pedagogical process of a higher education institution, as well as the objective need of the practice of preschool educational organizations, determined a deeper study of this problem and the resolution of contradiction between the need of modern society for a person capable of a dialogue of cultures in a multicultural educational space of any level and the possibilities of designing professional content training in the main vocational educational program of higher education including an ethnocultural orientation module.

Research Questions

The main research questions are:

  • The significance of the ethnocultural content introduction in the pedagogical process at university.

  • The need of pre-school educational organizations in teachers capable of a dialogue of cultures in a multicultural educational space.

  • The design and implementation of an ethnocultural orientation module as the basis for future teachers’ ethnocultural education, and as a condition for the translation of ethnocultural content in the upbringing, development and training of preschool children in the region (Komi Republic).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to find effective organizational and pedagogical conditions for designing a module of ethnocultural content in the main professional educational program of higher education for preschool teacher training.

Research Methods

The revealed contradiction allowed us to identify the purpose of the research, which is to find effective organizational and pedagogical conditions for designing a module of ethnocultural content in the main professional educational program of higher education for the preparation of preschool teachers.

In the process of the research, the following methods were used: theoretical (analysis; synthesis; specification; generalization; modeling); diagnostic (questioning; testing); empirical (studying the work experience of educational organizations; normative and educational documentation, pedagogical experiment).

The experimental base of the research was Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University.

The research was conducted in four stages:

At the first stage, the relevance of the research problem was justified, the topic and formulation of the methodological apparatus of the research were determined.

At the second stage, a theoretical analysis of the existing methodological approaches in the psychological-pedagogical, ethnographic, scientific literature and dissertation works on the problem, as well as the theory and methodology of educational research was carried out.

At the third stage, experimental work was carried out, including diagnostic and design (transforming) stages of a pedagogical experiment.

At the fourth stage, the analysis of the experimental work and the formulation of conclusions were carried out.

Findings

On the basis of the criteria and indicators of ethnocultural competence of preschool teachers, proposed by Babunova (2009) we conducted a survey of students (future teachers of preschool education). The purpose of the survey was to identify the ethnocultural competence of students in the upbringing, training and development of preschool children, taking into account the historical and cultural identity of the region (Komi Republic). The questionnaire questions were grouped according to three criteria: informational, cognitive, emotional-value, effective-practical. In total, 93 respondents were covered.

The questionnaire analysis showed the following results on the information and cognitive criterion: 27% of respondents possess knowledge of the culture specifics and traditions of the Komi people, 10% of respondents are interested in the culture of their region and want to learn more about the specificity and originality of the culture of the Komi people. According to the emotional value criterion, the results were quite average, so 47% of respondents consider ethno-culture as a value necessary for use in professional activities and are convinced of the need to preserve and transfer the ethnocultural heritage to children. The results according to the effective-practical criterion were demonstrated as low (that is, below a sufficient level) - only 8% of respondents are ready to participate in ethnocultural events with children.

Thus, the majority of respondents (82%) find it difficult to determine the essential characteristics of ethnocultural education, the means, methods and techniques of upbringing children in a multicultural environment, modeling the system of ethnocultural education of preschoolers and organizing interaction with parents on ethnocultural education, but expressed readiness to integrate ethnocultural traditions in the educational process of a preschool educational organization.

The need to form ethnocultural competence of future teachers demanded the design of a main professional educational program of higher education 44.03.02 Psychology and Pedagogical Education (specializing in Pedagogy and Psychology of Preschool Education) with the inclusion of ethnocultural components aimed at studying and practical mastering the values of folk culture, educating an individual in ethnocultural traditions.

Within the framework of the main professional educational program of higher education, the module “Pedagogical Activity in the Ethnocultural Education of Preschool Children” was developed. The peculiarity of the proposed module was the consideration of its content as an ethno-pedagogical component within the framework of historical and cultural traditions of the Komi people.

The target direction of this module was the formation of ethnocultural competence of students as the basis for effective ethnocultural education of preschool children.

Theoretical and methodological approaches to the module design were:

  • system-activity approach

  • cultural approach

  • ethnocultural approach

The main results of mastering the module were:

  • students’ interest in informational and cognitive materials on the ethno-culture of the Komi people;

  • orientation in ethnographic and regional features of Komi ethno-culture, mastering the holistic ideas about the folk culture of the Komi as a single ethnocultural complex;

  • formation (presence) of tolerant and international consciousness;

  • formation of cognitive and creative activity of students through their inclusion in the research and development, design, artistic and creative ethno-oriented activities;

  • a set of knowledge and skills in the organization of the educational process in preschool institutions, taking into account the ethnocultural content.

The results of mastering the module were aimed at the formation and enrichment of the three components of ethnocultural competence: information-cognitive, emotional-axiological, and effective-practical.

The principles of the module design and implementation were:

  • scientific character: correspondence of the ethnocultural content to the level of modern psychology and pedagogical science development;

  • systematic character: consistent step-by-step study of the ethnocultural content, from the peculiarities of material and spiritual culture to the ways of obtaining information and transmitting it from generation to generation;

  • integrity: the interpenetration and unity of goals, objectives, content and methods of ethnocultural education.

  • block character: the ethnocultural content of each training course is presented holistically and completed logically in the form of blocks;

  • transferability: practical orientation and an ability to transfer the ethnocultural content in the process of future teacher professional and educational activities;

  • variability: interchangeability and mobility of blocks and themes within each elective course;

  • flexibility: change, addition and inclusion of new training courses with the ethnocultural content, taking into account the interests and needs of the society;

  • culture creation: preservation, creation of value relations in society and the formation of a cultural personality.

The characteristic feature of the development of discipline programs that are part of the ethnocultural orientation module is block content planning, in which theoretical-ethnographic and methodological-ethnographic blocks are distinguished.

The theoretical and ethnographic block of the module is represented by the following disciplines: Historical and Cultural Regional Studies; Ethnography of the Komi People.

Within the framework of the historical and cultural regional studies, questions of the Finno-Ugric world, the culture peculiarities of a given linguistic and cultural group, their territorial settlement, and the ties of many peoples with the Komi people are studied. Students study the historical information about the peculiarities of the Komi region development in the Russian state, the Soviet period; get acquainted with outstanding Komi people in the field of culture, science and art.

Taking into account the ethnoculture content, which is based on the world of material and spiritual culture; features of behavior, character, ethnos mentality; relationship and interaction of the ethnos with nature and other ethnic groups; ways of obtaining information and passing it down through generations, the content and structure of the discipline ethnography of the Komi people are determined.

The aspects of the relationship and interaction of the ethnos with nature were presented in the themes: “Nature management and economic activity of the people”; “Traditional crafts”.

The world of material and spiritual culture, as the most developed sphere in which the main distinctive features of the ethnos are concentrated, was considered in the implementation of such themes as “The traditional residential and economic complex of the people”; “Traditional life”; “Folk clothing as a national symbol of the people”; “Holidays and entertainment of the people, Komi folk toy”; “Folk Art”; “Folklore”. For example, in the content of the theme “Folk clothes as a national symbol of the people”, the features of men’s and women’s clothes were considered as the theoretical and ethnographic material, their types, significance, functional and amulet orientation, interrelation with life activity, climatic conditions (clothes of nomadic reindeer herders), as well as information about the features of children’s clothing.

The content of the topic “Traditional residential and economic complex of the people” considered the current issue of the disappearance of wooden architecture traditional objects in the Komi Republic due to the growth of different, modern and acceptable city’s architecture. The dwelling is one of the most essential elements of culture, it serves to satisfy the most necessary human needs, bears a symbolic content, occupies the most important place in the culture system of any ethnic community. The acquaintance with the residential and business complex formed the students’ ideas not only about the structural and functional features, but also about the ceremonies, traditions, the world outlook and world perception of the ancient Komi.

The questions revealing the characteristics of behavior, character and mentality of the ethnos, obtaining information and social experience, passing it down through generations were implemented in the content of topics: “The behavioral culture of the ethnos”; “Traditions and customs of the people”; “Ethnopedagogy”.

The topic “Ethnopedagogy” revealed the means of folk pedagogy and the factors of national education. Riddles, proverbs and folk tales, which have such common cultural values and qualities of characters as courage, love for the Motherland, respect for the elderly, family values, which are paramount in many nations, were considered.

This structure of the block content has contributed to a consistent and systematic formation among future teachers of a holistic view of the Komi people as an ethnic group that has a deep, distinctive and unique traditional culture. This made it possible to apply the learned ethnocultural material in cognitive and practical activities with children of preschool age.

The possibilities of applying and directly using ethnographic materials in the educational process of a preschool educational organization were implemented in the methodological and ethnographic block of the module. The following disciplines were included in the unit: theory and practice of ethnocultural education of preschoolers; formation of the foundations of preschoolers’ ethnocultural education. These disciplines assumed students’ practical work aimed at organizing educational activities with children of preschool age in the implementation of the ethnocultural content in various types of children’s activities.

The ethnocultural component of education passed through all the educational areas realized in kindergarten with preschoolers. Therefore, the planning of topics in this block reflected all the educational areas of the main educational program in the preschool educational organization and the possibility of including the ethnocultural component in each of them.

The ethnocultural content in the educational field “Cognitive development” was aimed at teaching students how to use local history and ethnocultural cognitive materials when working with children of different preschool age. Future teachers learned through gaming technology to acquaint children with the emblem, anthem, flag, map of the Komi Republic, cities of the Republic, climate, geography, and nature of the Komi region. In the technology of “immersion into the world of culture”, the development of cultural traditions and social values, some socio-cultural and historical information took place (“How did Komi people live?”, “How to build a house in the north?”, “Mysteries and secrets of grandma’s costume”).

The ethnocultural content in the educational field “Artistic and Aesthetic Development” was focused on students mastering the knowledge and practical skills for introducing preschoolers with the Komi children literature and folklore; with Komi musical instruments, musical folklore, folk and decorative arts of Komi. This topic was revealed through the immersion of students into their own practical artistic and creative activities based on the material of ethnocultural components. On the basis of the activity approach, students mastered the technology of working with preschoolers on the material of traditional ornament, murals, costumes, toys, features of the northern dwelling, etc.

The ethnocultural content in the educational field “Speech Development” assumed that students mastered the basics of the Komi language. They learned the names of things and objects of ethno-culture in their native language. The translation of individual language units in their native language contributed to the development of a passive dictionary of preschoolers. For example, on the subject “Clothing”, children learn such concepts as pants “gach”, sarafan “sarapan”, fur coat “pas’”, shirt “döröm”, and others. As a result of working with the different folk genres, students made mini-dictionaries for children of different preschool age according to Komi proverbs and sayings about life, work, and moral ideas of the Komi people. The Komi language is integrated into the content of all educational areas.

The ethnocultural content in the educational field “Socio-communicative development” included an introduction to the peculiarities of the Komi people culture, namely, national holidays, traditions and customs. In the course of practical training, students demonstrated skills in working with preschoolers in forming their ideas about ethnicity and nurturing a friendly attitude towards people of different nationalities. In the aspect of spiritual and moral education, students, using modern technologies, prepared projects aimed at developing a sense of pride in the achievements of natives of the Komi Republic, who contributed to the development of culture, education, art, sports, and heroic deeds of their countrymen.

The ethnocultural content in the educational field “Physical Development” assumed the construction of work in subgroups. Each subgroup of students selected traditional Komi outdoor games for a certain age of children, prepared attributes and presented the content and methods of their use in one or another kindergarten age group. This work included outdoor games of Komi people in the kindergarten’s educational process in order to develop the physical qualities of preschoolers.

The methodological support of the ethnocultural orientation module included such forms of activities as: lectures, presentations, workshops, “master classes” of folk craftsmen and masters of decorative and applied art, a visit to the ethnographic museum of the Komi Republic, “master classes” given by teachers of preschool educational organizations during student internships. The main task was to help students carry out the transfer of theoretical knowledge of ethnocultural and methodological focus on the design and organization of practical activities with children. Therefore, the project method was the main method of teaching. The project activity contributed to: generalization and systematization of ethnocultural knowledge on selected issues; selection and adaptation of ethnocultural material taking into account the age possibilities of preschoolers; mastering the design of educational activities of ethnocultural orientation in various types of children’s activities; planning the interaction of teachers with parents on the children’s ethnocultural education; selection and development of visual-didactic materials; design of technological charts and samples for the productive activities of children; modeling and design of ethnocultural environment projects of the group in the form of Komi culture corners, logos; the design of groups and bedrooms in the ethnocultural style.

Such structures of the module content allowed consistently and systematically form a holistic view of the traditional culture of the Komi people and its possibilities in the introducing a preschool child to the ethno-culture of society among future preschool education teachers.

During the implementation of the ethnocultural module of the main professional educational programs of higher education, it was important for us to see and analyze the dynamics of the formation of the students’ ethnocultural competence in determining the organizational and pedagogical conditions. In the process of the design (transformative) stage, changes were analyzed according to three generalized criteria and their indicators (by analogy with the diagnostic stage of the pedagogical experiment).

The analysis of data on changes in the level of ethnocultural competence of students showed that by the information and cognitive criterion: 67% of respondents know the specifics of the Komi people culture and traditions, the essential characteristics of ethnocultural education, means and methods of raising children in a multicultural environment. 63% of respondents are interested in the culture of their region, aware of the need to integrate folk traditions in the educational process of the kindergarten. 70% of respondents know the specifics of pedagogical work in a multicultural educational environment, the means, methods and techniques for integrating ethnocultural traditions into the educational process of a pre-school educational establishment.

According to the emotional value criterion, the results also increased: 87% of respondents consider ethno-culture as a value necessary for use in professional activities and are convinced of the need to preserve and transmit the ethnocultural heritage to children, realize the importance of educating children in the spirit of ethnocultural traditions of the region.

The results of the effective-practical criterion also increased: 69% of respondents showed the ability to model the system of ethnocultural education for preschoolers, demonstrated skills in selecting and developing didactic materials on the region’s ethnic culture for preschool children, the use of various forms, means and methods of children ethnocultural education. 73% of respondents are able to organize interaction with the parents on ethnocultural education.

Thus, the significant positive dynamics of the three generalized criteria and their indicators of the formation of students’ ethnocultural competence indicate the effectiveness of the implemented organizational and pedagogical conditions.

The study of psychological and pedagogical literature and the analysis of the practice of the educational organizations allowed determining the need to find answers to the unsolved questions on the design and implementation of the foundations of the future preschool teachers’ ethnocultural competence formation and use of ethnocultural content when working with preschool children in the Komi Republic. However, the formation of ethnocultural competence in the field of education is discussed in detail in the works of Afanasyeva (2009), Babunova (2015), Volkov (1990), Gershunsky (1998), Kuzmina (2000), Serikov (1999), Kharitonov (1999) and others.

Conclusion

Considering the results of studies by art historians and ethnographers on the Komi ethnic culture, it can be stated that the elements of ethno-culture are invaluable for the formation and development of a person in the pedagogical process of Komi Republic educational institutions, because they reflect the world perception of people, their values and ideals, the ideas of beauty and perfection of forms.

On the basis of this, it becomes important to prepare the human resources of the Republic of Komi that is good-informed, knowledgeable, taking an interest in everything, and having experience in the field of ethnocultural education.

The content of ethnocultural education aimed at the formation of ethnocultural competence of students in the pedagogy and psychology of preschool education in the framework of the main higher educational programs’ design can be the module “Pedagogical activity” in the ethnocultural education of preschool children.

The formation of ethnocultural competence of future preschool teachers will be successful in creating a number of organizational and pedagogical conditions:

1. Theoretical substantiation, design and approbation of the module of ethnocultural content in the main professional higher educational program, including the goal and objectives, principles, content, forms, methods, and teaching methods.

2. Block design of the module content, including theoretical-ethnographic and methodological-ethnographic blocks, providing a step-by-step and system-activity study of the regional historical and ethnographic material, psychological, pedagogical and methodological aspects of the development of ethno-culture elements.

3. Methodological support of the competence formation and activity components of the ethnocultural education of the future teacher personality.

Thus, it has been established that the formation of students’ ethnocultural competence will be carried out successfully if the development of the professional activity of future preschool teachers is organized as a process of purposeful and conscious mastering the system of knowledge about the specifics of the Komi people culture and traditions, the essential characteristics of children’s ethnocultural education, means, techniques and methods of raising and educating children in a multicultural environment; a complex of skills in modelling educational activities with an ethnocultural component in a kindergarten. The manifestation of the value attitude to the students’ ethnic culture, their conviction in the necessity of preserving and transferring the ethnocultural heritage to the younger generation, requires further support of future teachers in the conditions of a personalized approach.

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

23.01.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.01.35

Online ISSN

2357-1330