Cultural And Educational Environment As A Factor Of Personal Self-Identification Of Learners
Research problem: improving the efficiency of personal determination of students of secondary schools. Purpose: to identify opportunities and pedagogical conditions to improve the effectiveness of personal (value-semantic and professional) self-determination of students by means of cultural and aesthetic environment of secondary school. Methods: comparative analysis of the experience of schools in Cheboksary on personal self-determination of students by means of cultural and educational environment. Results: In domestic pedagogy, the environmental approach proclaims the role of environment in solving the problems of education. Cultural and educational environment of the school is considered as an important source of intellectual, spiritual, moral and creative development, personal self-determination of students in accordance with individual characteristics. However, the realization of this potential depends on the professional competence of teachers in the field of organization of the educational space of the school. A survey of secondary schools teachers showed that everyone recognizes the important role of the cultural and educational environment of the school in the value-semantic and professional self-determination of students, but a significant part of the teachers could not name the structural components of such environment. There were difficulties in the creation of cultural and educational space and the realization of its potential for personal self-determination of students. Analysis of the experience of these schools showed that the cultural and educational environment in them has differences that reflect the direction of the educational process.
Keywords: Culturaleducational environmentpersonal self-determinationstudents
Various aspects of personal self-determination, the role of internal and external conditions in the formation of personality and its self-determination are revealed in the works of Vartanova (2016), Ginzburg (1994), Erikson (2006) and others. Technologies of pedagogical support of professional self-determination of the younger generation are considered in the works of Mitina (2014), Shamionov (2008) and others, psychological, pedagogical, axiological, professionally-oriented technologies of personal self-determination are developed by Hoover (2018), Roberts (2018), Hang, Kaur, and Abdul (2017). The Concept of educational environment and its impact on the formation of personality was developed by Yasvin (2001), Teniukova and Khrisanova (2013), etc.
The analysis of research on the problem shows that there is a contradiction between the possibilities and resources of the cultural and educational environment and the insufficient use of its potential, which actualizes the problem of developing technology of personal self-determination of students in the cultural and educational environment of the school.
Relevance of the problem. The modern system of General education is faced with the need to solve the problem of personal self-determination of students. Innovative development of society, state, economy and production requires the individual's readiness for an adequate socially significant choice of life strategies, principles and forms of life.
Reducing the institutional impact on students while expanding alternative opportunities for their development puts the younger generation in front of the need for independent choice of life guidelines and ways of their implementation. In these conditions the importance of formation in their minds the value-normative orientations, creative, cognitive qualities, and the formation of the active component in the personality structure increase. The effectiveness of the formation and development of these qualities largely depends on the direction of personal self-determination.
Agents, creating conditions for positive and creative personal self-determination, are the family, school, institutional associations. Self-determination of schoolchildren takes place in various areas of life, but the social, cultural and educational environment is the most priority and attractive for them. However, in modern educational practice the pedagogical potential of the cultural and educational environment as a means of personal self-determination of students is not fully used.
Analysis of psychological and pedagogical works allows us to conclude that there is no special research in the field of comparative analysis of the potential of cultural and educational environments of secondary schools of different directions and their impact on the character of personal self-determination of students. It should be noted that the phenomenon of personal self-determination, the role of internal and external factors in the self-determination of the individual are considered in the works of Vartanova (2016), Ginzburg (1994), Erikson (2006) and others.
Technologies of pedagogical support of professional self-determination of the younger generation were developed by Mitina (2014), Shamionov (2008), technologies of personal self-determination are justified in the works of Hoover (2018), Roberts (2018), Hang, Kaur, and Abdul (2017). The concept of cultural-educational environment as a factor in the education and development of personality was developed by Yasvin (2001). At the same time, the problems of ensuring mutual influence of personal and professional self-determination of schoolchildren in the cultural and educational environment of the school, the development of criteria for assessing the educational and developmental potential of the environment remain unresolved.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study – to reveal the pedagogical potential of the cultural and educational environment, to develop theoretically and experimentally pedagogical conditions of personal self-determination of adolescents in the cultural and educational environment of the school.
The following methods were used: analysis of pedagogical, psychological literature; pedagogical observation, survey, experimental work, including ascertaining and forming stages.
The experimental base of the research: the secondary schools № 20, 24, 9 of Cheboksary.
The study was conducted in three stages: the first stage - the analysis of pedagogical approaches to solving the problem of personal self-determination of schoolchildren, scientific works on the problem of creating a cultural and educational environment and realizing its potential. The second stage consisted in the pedagogical diagnostics of the level of personal self-determination of schoolchildren. At the third stage, the developed conditions were tested in the cultural and educational environment of the schools. The results of the study were summarized and conclusions were formulated.
Experimental work was carried out from 2016 to 2018 on the basis of municipal budget educational institutions "school № 20", "school № 24" "school № 9" Cheboksary. Research was attended by 85 students and 12 teachers. The diagnostic study was aimed at identifying the components of personal development of schoolchildren. The participants of the experimental group were homogeneous: students of 13-14 years were selected.
Pedagogical experiment was aimed at identifying the level of individual aspirations of adolescents to personal development and self-development. Diagnosis was conducted using methods "Orientation of personality" by Bass and Rokeach uestionnaire "Terminal and instrumental values" (as cited in Rokeach, 1973).
The results led us to conclusion about the lack of expressed desire of schoolchildren to self-regulation, lack of needs for self-analysis and self-assessment of their actions and deeds, low desire to master social roles that do not affect individual life interests and are not associated with the desire to occupy leadership positions (65% of respondents).
The method of "personality Orientation" (Rokeach, 1973) allowed to obtain the following data: focus on themselves, focus on approval, the desire for reward and praise, egocentrism were revealed in 67% of respondents.
Thus, in the experimental group of schoolchildren there was a low level of self-esteem and self-analysis of the direction of personal development associated with personal achievements and social orientation. The surveyed schoolchildren were characterized by such values as the presence of good and faithful friends; pleasant, easy pastime; independence from adults in judgments and actions. It should be noted that the value of "education" in schoolchildren is associated with obtaining "higher education". The most attractive for the surveyed are the professions of lawyer, economist (from 20% to 40 % of all answers), civil servant (18.2%), specialist in the field of information technology (17.9 %). The smallest number of choices received medical profession (8,7%), manager (7.2 percent), specialist in the field of art and culture (5.4 percent), engineer (2.1%), teachers (1%).
Diagnosis was also aimed at identifying the ability of students to self-design their future. It turned out that 56% of respondents plan their future; short-term plans have 11%; 16% do not plan their future at all. Initially, the survey revealed the following life priorities of the participants: 31.25% of respondents chose a strategy of well-being, which is manifested in the desire to maximize the satisfaction of their needs for certain life benefits; 30.0% of respondents indicated that they would like to achieve success in life, enjoying public recognition and ensuring a strong financial position and a certain standard of living; 23.7% of all respondents chose the strategy of life self-realization as an opportunity for free creativity and self-development; 15.05% of respondents decided on the position of traditional life self-determination ("following the example of parents"). Thus, the experiment revealed problems associated with the development of mechanisms of self-determination in the social, cultural and educational sphere. The results indicated a low level of desire of adolescents to self-development and self-determination. The forming stage of the experiment included testing of pedagogical conditions of personal self-determination of schoolchildren by creating a cultural and educational environment of the school.
To study the structure of the cultural and educational environment and identify the degree of realization of its potential in the educational process, we conducted a survey of teachers and members of the administrations of school №20, school №24, school № 9 Cheboksary. The participants were offered a series of questions to identify the structure, content and role of the cultural and educational environment in the self-determination of students. The following are examples of the participants ' answers to the proposed questions.
Teacher of music school №20:
1.What do you think the cultural and educational environment is?
– The environment in which children learn, and create themselves.
2.What does the cultural and educational environment of your school include?
– In our school, the cultural and educational environment has different directions: scientific, aesthetic, technical, artistic, sports.
3. What role does the cultural and educational environment play in the school?
– It is very important at school to properly form a cultural and educational environment. Give the children directions they will go through life. The knowledge and skills that they will develop in the school cultural and educational environment should be a good foundation for their future activities.
Counselor school №9:
1. What do you think the cultural and educational environment is?
– The cultural and educational environment of the school is "the way of life of the school, the mentality", the ratio of all elements of the educational process, which sets the style, spirit, atmosphere of the whole school life. As a result, the school acquires its "own face".
2. What does the cultural and educational environment of your school include?
– The cultural and educational environment is a vector of formation of the personality of both the pupil, and the teacher. Children together with teachers prepare extracurricular activities, prepare for creative competitions at school, visit various museums and go on excursions.
3. What do you think does the cultural and educational environment influence the formation of the child's personality?
– The cultural and educational environment of the school in its most complete and complete form solves the problem of adaptation of a growing person to the conditions of life, the manifestation and implementation of his or her initiatives, self-affirmation and self-realization in the socio-cultural space of the whole society, where, if not in school to learn it? An activist in the school will be an activist in the future.
4. Do you involve parents in the organization of cultural and educational environment?
Yes, sometimes. They prepare us props, go on excursions and city competitions as accompanying, participate in school competitions with children, and help to prepare creative crafts for exhibitions (younger students).
5. Do you have any difficulties in organizing events, excursions, etc.?
– If there are, only with the city administration, or with the institutions themselves, where we want to send on a tour. In the school there are no such problems, not including the postponement of dates of events for objective reasons.
6. What is the structure of the cultural and educational environment of your school?
– This is a set of diverse components, for example, the traditions and innovations, communicative interaction.
Deputy Director on educational work of school №24:
What do you think the cultural and educational environment is?
– I think that the cultural and educational environment is what the school needs, the school program. Children are engaged during lessons and we are sure to occupy them after lessons, so that they develop further in different directions.
2. How is the cultural and educational environment built in your school and what is its peculiarity?
– We have a cultural and educational environment in the school, a lot of clubs and sports sections planned according to the schedule, where children are engaged from September 1. Each child chooses a circle or a section of interest and is happy to engage in extracurricular activities.
3. Does the cultural and educational environment influence the formation of the child's personality?
– Of course, the cultural and educational environment must influence the formation of the child's personality. It is these circles, sections that help to develop comprehensively, to choose the direction of further development of the student.
4. Is the work with parents included in the structure of the cultural and educational environment?
– We work closely with the parents of our students, we hold parent-teacher meetings, we have an asset with whom we discuss important issues related to their children. I believe that working together with parents is in the first place.
The analysis of the survey results showed that not all teachers of the surveyed schools have knowledge about the nature of the cultural and educational environment, its structure and its components. However, all respondents noted that one of the main roles of the cultural and educational environment of the educational institution is its focus on education, socialization and self-determination of the individual.
The results of the ascertaining study allowed us to formulate pedagogical conditions, the implementation of which will provide effective personal self-determination of students in modern secondary school:
1) variability of the organization of extracurricular activities of students, taking into account the features of the potential of the school;
2) use of social partnership opportunities in the organization of extracurricular activities;
3) organization of additional education, taking into account the mode of the school in the afternoon.
Let's consider the listed conditions in more detail.
Practice shows that there are several options for the organization of extracurricular activities:
- intra-school option: school without extended day groups, where the main burden falls on the classroom management; school with a group (s) of the extended day; school with groups of additional education of children (circle, sectional work);
- option on the basis of social partnership: school with groups of children from institutions of additional education on the basis of school; school with groups of children on the basis of institutions of additional education;
- mixed version: model "full-time School"; "School – cultural and educational complex"; "School – socio-cultural complex (center)".
The most common is a mixed form that uses the capabilities of schools and institutions of society and includes the following options for organizational structure and forms of extracurricular activities:
associations of interests (clubs, sections, studios, etc.), acting on the basis of the developed programs of additional education;
associations of interests (DOE, clubs, scientific societies, etc.) acting on the basis of the developed programs of activity;
temporary associations for the preparation and conduct of individual activities (search and research, socially useful practices, CTD).
In the process of implementation of pedagogical conditions of personal self-determination of students in the cultural and educational environment of the school were:
studied the basic normative and administrative documents on the organization of non-audit employment (extracurricular activities), analyzed the selected areas, forms and types of non-audit employment (extracurricular activities) in terms of their focus on the implementation of the goals and objectives of the educational institution;
selected areas, forms and types of non-audit employment of students, which is advisable to carry out continuously at all levels of General education;
identified the needs of children and parents for educational services in the framework of time and extracurricular activities;
analyzed the creative potential of teachers, parents, students; resources and material and technical capabilities of educational institutions and ways to improve them; the effectiveness and relevance of existing courses, special courses, clubs, sections, etc.; the possibilities of society.
The interaction of the secondary school with one or several institutions of additional education (the center of children's creativity, the club at the place of residence, sports or music school), or with the institution of culture (library, theater, Museum, etc.) was carried out on a regular contractual basis in accordance with the jointly developed program of activities. Forms of cooperation were as follows:
joint development and implementation of educational, developmental, leisure and game programs in schools and institutions of additional education of children;
joint work of schoolteachers, teachers of additional education, specialists of psychological and valueology services with various social groups of children: gifted and talented children, children from "risk groups", with disabilities, etc.
Completeness and quality of extracurricular activities are caused by the implementation of additional educational programs of the new generation. In the process of experimental work, we came to the conclusion that the educational institution and teachers themselves can form a program of extracurricular activities, based on the requests of the participants of the educational process and their individual characteristics. It is important to take into account the principle of orientation of the content of programs on the organization of cultural and social practices. Cultural practice was understood as a cultural event organized by teachers and pupils, participation in which expands their experience of constructive and creative behavior. The activities of such orientation were excursions, charity, environmental, military-Patriotic events, educational business events, useful things, etc. They were organized by the educational institution within a holistic, socially open educational space.
The programs were implemented both in separate classes and in free associations of schoolchildren of the same age group. In the first case, teachers of experimental schools developed programs (340 hours) for each class. In the second case, they created modular programs (much more than 340 hours for each age group of students) and offered students in that age group the opportunity to choose their own modules. Classes in this case were held not with the class, but with groups consisting of students of different classes and Parallels. At the same time, the share of classroom classes chosen by the student did not exceed the third part of the total number of classes he attended.
In school №20, the educational activity of the school was aimed at creating conditions for intellectual, moral, cultural, aesthetic and civic growth of the individual, capable of self-determination and adaptation to the changing conditions of life in society.
Before the teaching staff of the school were set the following tasks:
to improve the work on the development of cooperation: child ‒ teacher ‒ parents;
to create conditions for the maximum development of interests and inclinations of students, the development of the need for self-realization of the creative potential of the individual;
to form the needs of students in a healthy lifestyle and physical development;
to introduce students to the culture and traditions of the history of the school, hometown, Republic, Fatherland, using the cultural and educational environment.
For the successful interaction of all school structures were identified areas of educational activities: intellectual, spiritual and moral, sports and recreational, cultural, social (legal). Functioned the following sections: "Summer lightning", "The Young firefighter", "The Young inspector of movement", "Press-center", "Phyto-design", "Robotics", "Basketball", "Boys Choir", The choir "Live music", "Concert orchestra", vocal studio "Rose glasses".
The following events contributed to the development of spiritual values necessary for personal self-determination of schoolchildren: the Station of young technicians, the festival of yard games, the contest of crafts from natural material, the contest of photos about animals, the vocal contest "right Now I'll sing!", the Olympic games on fire safety, etc.
One of the important components of the cultural and educational environment is Patriotic education, which aims to develop students' best qualities of a patriot of Russia, the preservation of the continuity of generations on the basis of historical memory, examples of the heroic past of the people, familiarization with the traditions and rich culture of the country. To familiarize students with the events of the heroic past of our country and historical events teachers from school №20 conducted integrated lessons of history and literature in libraries and museums of the city. After school hours, thematic tours were held in the school Museum of Military Glory, meetings with veterans of the great Patriotic war, participants in military events in hot spots, with officers of the Russian Army, cadets of military schools. To foster a sense of belonging to the heroic past of their country, of patriotism, development of creative abilities of pupils in the school held a school contest of drawings, posters "Draw Win", the competitions "Zarnitsa" and "Eaglet". Excursion and tourist activities organized at the school included thematic excursions to the museums of the city of Cheboksary.
An important component of the cultural and educational environment created in educational institutions was sport and recreational activities. Sport and recreation activities were aimed at achieving the goal: to attract students to regular physical training, to promote physical culture and sports among the younger generation, to organize healthy leisure of students.
The school held actions:
A month of civil defense;
All-Russian anti-drug campaign “Report where they sell death”;
Republican month of legal knowledge;
Republican campaign “Youth for a healthy lifestyle”;
Christmas and New Year events;
The target of Republican preventive action “Attention – the holidays!”;
A month of defensive and mass, Patriotic and athletic performance;
A month of Patriotic education;
A fire safety month.
The analysis of educational activity of school revealed that the carried-out actions and competitions are demanded and effective for creation of the cultural and educational environment at school and promote personal self-determination of pupils.
The next participant of the experimental work was the secondary school № 24 in Cheboksary. All extracurricular activities in the school are aimed at the formation of social competence of students, the development of their creative potential, the creation of conditions conducive to the development of intellectual, creative, personal qualities of students, their socialization, adaptation in society on the basis of the principles of self-government, personal self-determination of students.
The teaching staff of the school solved the tasks:
involvement of each student of the school in the educational process;
development of students' independence, responsibility, initiative, creativity;
formation of a physically healthy person;
creating a situation of "success" for each student.
Experience and school traditions (moral, aesthetic and Patriotic education, on the one hand, and social needs – on the other hand, led to the choice of the teaching staff of the school of the main direction of development – the creation of such a cultural and educational space within the school, which would contribute to the personal self-determination of participants in the educational process.
School №24 conducted additional paid courses: school Studio of young children "Point of growth", "Dance selection", "Rhetoric", "Cognitive ecology", "Mathematical kaleidoscope", "In the world of complex numbers", "Language units and figures of speech", "Himself a lawyer", "Amazing near", "Around the world".
In school №24 educational modules were developed and implemented. Each month of the year had its own motto.
Parents of students actively participated in the formation of the cultural and educational environment of the school.
Work with parents included consideration of such issues as: the atmosphere of family life as a factor of spiritual health of the child and his or her personal self-determination, psychological characteristics of extremist manifestations and extreme behavior in the adolescent environment, education of tolerance in the family, understanding of the child, the Internet as a means of information and communication.
Implementation of the identified pedagogical conditions of personal self-determination of students in secondary school № 9 .Cheboksary was carried out in accordance with the goal - the improvement of educational activities that contribute to the development of a morally, physically healthy person, capable of creativity and personal self-determination.
Tasks of educational work:
improvement of the system of educational work in classroom groups;
introduction of pupils to the leading spiritual values of the people, its national culture, language, traditions and customs;
preservation and strengthening of health of students, instilling in them the skills of a healthy lifestyle, prevention of offenses, crimes by minors;
creation of conditions for building a system of education in the school on the basis of humanization and personality-oriented approach in teaching and education of students;
support of social initiative, creativity, independence of students through the development of children's social movements and student government;
development and improvement of the system of additional education at school;
development of communicative skills of teachers, work in the system "teacher – student – parent".
Extracurricular activities of school №9 educational activities included several areas: civil-Patriotic education, moral and aesthetic education, environmental education, physical education, labor education, family education, self-government in school and in the classroom.
Civil-Patriotic education at school is a single complex, the core of which is political, Patriotic, legal and moral education, implemented through training courses and extracurricular activities. The most important goal of civic and Patriotic education is to teach the world. And that means:
1) help children to see what can change the world: group, family, school, neighbourhood, country, beautiful and rich our planet for the better;
2) involve children and adolescents in the search for ways and means to solve problems and participate in the work to improve life for all;
3) support the young and old in their work for a better life for all: loved ones, a wider range of people, humanity as a whole, nature;
4) help to realize what is bad and what is good, what contributes to good and what is not;
5) to help the young and the old to see the threat to the good, and then to each person, group - to learn how to promote the necessary changes.
The main forms of work were: competitions, reviews, meetings, conferences, excursions, round tables, hikes, tournaments, relay races, participation in various competitions: City competition of works "Heroes of my family", etc.
Moral and aesthetic education included the following activities: "Dedication to first-Graders", a concert for the teacher's Day: "With love for You, Teachers!", school festival "Our names", mother's day events "Sanctity of motherhood", contest: "new year's toy", disco and "new Year's performance masquerade Ball", week of theatre and fun during the winter holidays.
It is established that personal self-determination of schoolchildren in the conditions of cultural and educational environment of the secondary school will be effective if implemented pedagogical conditions: the variability of the organization of extracurricular activities of pupils, taking into account the peculiarities of the potential of the school; the organization of extracurricular activities opportunities for social partnership; organization of additional education taking into account the mode of operation of the school in the second half of the day. The orientation of personal self-determination of students, as shown by experimental work, is closely related to the predominant types of extracurricular activities offered by schools.
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