The article is devoted to the actual problem of the future specialist personality formation. Nowadays, the informational and political environment should be construed as an objective condition of professional activity. Information presentation depends on political goals, which implicitly guide current events interpretation and ideological concepts assessment. In this regard, a socially organized system of emotional and cognitive orientations of the mass subject in the public sphere is considered as a tool of political technology. The authors' start point is determined by an objective-systemic approach to the structural-functional analysis of the specialist’s worldview formation involving the use of semantic modeling method. The effective mechanisms of the mass consciousness orientation are noted to be associated with the matrix of worldview and motivational structure hidden in the network of cognitive and communicative practices. The instrumental function of the criterion of truth in the mental representation of social events can be presented sweepingly in true, false and mythologized forms of worldview. In modern digital culture, the role of mythology is becoming relevant for the worldview semantic matrix design. Myths correcting the correlation between the true, false and mythologized form of political consciousness, quickly spread in digital virtual environments. The shift in criteria of truth induced by means of myth-making is an effective tool of political technology aimed at introduction of certain illusory ideas or symbols that carry certain values and norms, into the mass consciousness.
Keywords: Specialist's worldviewsemantic matrixpolitical technologymass consciousnessmyth-making
The role of political technology in shaping the future specialist's worldview
The worldview of future specialists is formed in line with objective socio-political conditions developed by current political institutions. The semantics of these conditions are represented by legal norms and moral landscape which determines the frame of legitimate political and professional actions in real world situations and prognosis of future perspectives (Luhmann, 2004). The criteria of truthfulness of comprehension of current affairs as well as legitimacy of authority bear shifting historical character. In this light political technology based on the effective technologies of the informational network plays no small part in developments of individual and mass consciousness (Evseeva, Bashkarev, Pozdeeva & Tarakanova, 2018). Depends on political aim of transferring of information we can say about truthful, false, mythologized form of worldview, which direct mental representation of social events. Truthfulness criteria are most organically and seamlessly shifted in the myth creation process (Balakhonskaya, Zhuravleva, Gladchenko & Beresneva, 2018).
Currently the political technology is aimed at formatting the mass consciousness through transformation of unity of ideological and psychological conditions, manipulation of symbolic forms of representation of social meanings (Timermanis, Shipunova & Evseeva, 2014). Cognitive toolkit of political technology in this case is turned towards basic meanings of world comprehension and represented by implicit forms of communication that activate the emotional interpretation of symbols, unconscious intentions, ethnic stereotypes, common sense statements, archetypes of the collective unconscious (Harman, 2016).
Political manipulation incorporates systematic addition of certain imaginary ideas into the public consciousness, among them symbols conveying certain values and norms that are taken on faith, without rational comprehension. In this light the mythology as an instrument of creation of the semantics matrix of peer worldview is actualized.
In contemporary world the political myth creation technology propagates through digital environment. There is a gradual transition of real political life into virtual social space and we can observe the simulation of reality. Mass media becomes main conveyers of such reality. Organizational basis of this mechanism of political manipulation is the substitution of conscious actions of individuals for those unconscious ones of the crowd that are extremely prone to propaganda.
Studies of the political myth role in shaping the contemporaries worldview
In accordance with theory of Lasswell (2017), political myth includes tree basic components such as semantic, semiotic and pragmatic. Semantic component is most important because it defines relations between political subjects by using archetypes and mythologies. Archetypes, through semiotic component, transform into political symbols, which has acceptable form for mass audience. The pragmatic component provides axiological influence of myth on political process trough rituals and ideologemes-narrative. The purpose of effective manipulation of political consciousness of mass requires certain idealised system of views and meanings, which gradually enforcing in humans conscious. The idea when it is implemented in mass society, transforms in collective image-archetype based on which particular political myth is formulated. Lebon (2011) remarks that crowd has a special characteristic which cannot be reduced to characteristics of individuals.
Questions, which related with revealing of features of mass consciousness in the realities of virtualisations of political life, seem significant in theoretical and practical ways. Shifting the truth criteria in particular is also an actual problem in such an investigation.
Purpose of the Study
The main goal of this article is analysis of instruments of political influence on worldview of specialist. Research objectives in this context are:
Investigation of information field in the social sphere as an instrument of political influence on worldview formation;
Analysis of ratio between truthed, falsed and mythologized form of political consciousness in formation of specialist’s worldview.
Methodological settings for this study
The investigation of instruments of informational-political influence on specialist’s worldview based on conceptual framework of objective-system approach and has an interdisciplinary character. According the system-objective approach influence of political technology on individual consciousness depends on set of behavioural standards for political actors (Ives & Kendal, 2014; Nye, 2004; Smith, 2017).
In terms of system methodology, we distinguish the socio-psychological and axiological aspects of the worldview formation for concretization settings which fit adequate for announced tasks.
The socio-psychological aspect in this investigation defines vectors due to political technologies influenced on specialist’s worldview through socially-organised system of emotional and cognitive orientations of mass subject in public sphere (Almond & Verba, 1992, Matveevskaya & Pogodin, 2017). In this context, the constructive tools of political technology are represented by semantic modelling. S. Huntington observes matrix of meanings of political consciousness as hypothetic-inductive model which contains preferred by establishment norms of behaviour and standards of perception of political phenomena (Huntington, 2003). At the same time, political consciousness is associated with an ideal behavioural model that allows the socio-political system to function harmoniously.
The axiological aspect highlights the controversial role of certain social and political values in development of worldview of future specialist. That suggests the prospects for the analysis of criterion of assessment of real situations and events, as well as ideologies and myths as tools for political technologies (Beresneva, 2017; Drob, 2016).
Research methods for political technology tools
The structural-functional method is used in order to investigate factors of global information and social sphere as an instrument of political influence on specialist’s worldview formation
The analytical method allows revealing mechanisms of mass consciousness orientation and in the same time investigate semantic matrix of worldview and motivational structure in communicative practices.
The method of modelling allows to reconstruct semantic environments in the process of formation of a specialist's worldview.
Correlation of truthful, false and mythologized form of political consciousness in the formation of specialist's worldview
The truthful form of political communication is a transfer of true content and meaning of real political actions and relations. That form is provided by the objective and proved correspondence to political reality. As an example of this we can observe the qualification of direct execute of government power without limiting by law as dictatorship.
The false form of communication implies intentional misrepresentation of the perception of reality, which determined by pragmatic goals.
The mythologized form of political communication is form of political consciousness where knowledge and understanding of facts is replaced by symbols, stories and legends. Political myths carry ideological values and attitudes that are can be emotionally accepted by the subject. At the level of mass consciousness, the truth of the myth is not discussed, but intuitively perceived. Myth is observed as the only tool that can explain the contradictions of the world. The immersion of the individual into semantic space of the myth translates him into the world of other logic.
There are two ways for mythologizing of mass consciousness. The first way is the spontaneous emergence of myth. The second way is purposeful dissemination of mythologized stereotypes to create a certain perception of the relevant political realities. In this form, political myth originates in individual conscious and the spread through communicative sphere. During the spreading the myth is transformed in things of social consciousness which can exist without rational foundation.
The mythological perception of political reality is so complete that it allows the bearer of mythological consciousness to talk about the transformation of one phenomenon into another, without any rational justification for this transformation. The crowd is absent from criticism, it does not perceive reality rationally, everything is possible for it. The reasoning of the crowd is primitive and based only on associations. The crowd perceives only images and the brighter images are the better they are perceived. The political myths and legends are perceived better than the rational political statements. Formulas, clothed in words, save the crowd from thinking. The mass consciousness accept terrible things if they are shaped in relevant words.
Social reality and mythological form of political consciousness isn’t contradicting each other, but exist in difficult system of relations. Myth can correlate to certain realities. True, false and mythologized form of political consciousness can appear. It often depends on political tasks. The political mythology can be as positive as negative in dependence of axiology and ethics which is implied in this mythology. Sometimes political mythology leads to radical extremism and paralyze the opportunity to resist against it.
According to modern concepts in neuroscience, the dynamics of the human brain neural structures are similar to the processes on the World Wide Web, which is a distributed system of web documents combined by hypertext links between themselves. In the global context of digital culture and virtualization of real political life, semantic modeling of the consciousness information field is realized through hypertext links that are uncritically perceived at the intuitive-emotional level. Myth-making plays a significant role in social technology of political reality comprehension and makes corrections in development of future specialists' worldview.
Ratios of truthful, false and mythologized forms of political consciousness in their different forms of manifestation are not always realized and differentiated. While forming the worldview of a specialist they may transform under the influence of different socio-political trends, align with each other. Virtualization technologies in modern digital culture help expand the worldview defining and social functions of mythology in construction of the semantic field. Mythologized forms acquire defining character in the mechanism of contemplation of political situation and so the goals, tendencies and means of their change in the public consciousness.
In conclusion note must be taken about the effectiveness of the functional tools of political technology aimed at the unconscious individual initiation of the emotionally intuitive mechanism of the worldview mythologizing. In particular, tools such as
˗ Attribution of critical significance and meaningful status to the mythologized object and its particular aspects and representations;
˗ Tendency to formulate in the mass consciousness certain archetypes of perception of political phenomena;
˗ Symbolic image of political situations;
˗ Appeal to the mass emotional perception of the myth;
˗ Ontologization of the myth in believers’ minds.
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02 December 2019
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Shipunova*, O. D., Ivanov, E. A., Balakhonskaya, L. V., & Balakhonsky, V. V. (2019). Political Technology Tools In The Specialists Worldview Formation. In N. I. Almazova, A. V. Rubtsova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 73. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 671-676). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.71