Convicts Personality`S Сriminogenic Contamination Based On The Human Structureology G. Amon Standpoint
The relevance of the study is due to the insufficient development level of methods to determine the personality criminogenic infection level. The research purpose is to identify markers phenomenon of the criminogenic infection offender identity. The offender criminological phenomenon consideration from the level criminogenic infection assessing standpoint involves its orientation, value orientations, characteristic and habitual behavioral reactions study. The comparative analysis method of the structure of the criminals personal feature serving criminal sentences in the imprisonment form and law-abiding citizens from the perspective of the human-structured concept of personality G. Ammon is applied. The work novelty is due to the specified criminal personality social phenomenon consideration from the personality theory perspective. The psychodiagnostic examination procedure was carried out on the basis of penal colony number 16 (PC-16) among the persons held in the special regime establishment. As a result, these criminals personal characteristics, their human structure differences from law-abiding citizens were revealed. Furthermore, the individual criminogenic infection severity intensity in quantitative and qualitative aspects determined. This indicator changes dynamics is considered at the human structure differences level, as well as in the aspect of the psychological defenses most characteristic and stable mechanisms formed in convicts. The research concludes that the offender should to be considered as a person, who can be determined the criminogenic infection level in quantitative and qualitative indicators. The article materials have a practical value for subjects investigating the criminal behavior phenomenon and carrying out individual crime prevention.
Keywords: The offender identityconvicted personcrimeterm of punishmentcriminogenic infectionhuman structure
The criminal identity cannot exist outside of society, and only society calls some actions crimes, and the very concept of "criminal" is derived from the concept of "crime". Therefore, there is no offender identity in isolation from the crime. And any wrongful act`s commission is a result of the behaviors choice variant in interacting with the environment. However, it must be stressed that external conditions do not directly give rise to criminal behavior. They act indirectly, determining the person`s inner world individual characteristics. According to criminologists, the individual learns only those social stereotypes that are more in keeping with his nature. Today, the “psychological component” of provisions law has reached a level when the professional psychological knowledge use is necessary to ensure their correct application. The fundamental element in this process is the criminal personality phenomenon (Shinnar & Shinnar, 1975). This personality is a carrier of certain negative moral and psychological traits and features; therefore, it is widely studied in both domestic and foreign criminology (Caprara & Pastorelli, 1989; Fishman, 1989; Turk, 1980, and others). Inasmuch the offender identity is the whole criminal behavior mechanism determining element, in fact, its source, the personal characteristics comprehensive study and consideration is the essential prerequisite for the preventive measures success.
The research problem is the lack of knowledge among criminologists and law enforcers about the personal differences between criminals and law-abiding citizens
The offender personality criminological phenomenon consideration from the criminogenic infection level assessing standpoint involves its orientation, value orientations, characteristic and habitual behavioral reactions study (Falek, Craddic, & Collum, 1970; Ford, 1991; Glueck & Glueck, 1956). The criminal's asociality criterion is his public danger degree manifested, in particular, through mental self-regulation deformations and defects. The methodology`s development for determining the person criminogenic infection level would to allow for effective individual prevention crimes and forecasting a possible recurrence.
Purpose of the Study
The presented work purpose is to identify and evaluate markers of the criminal personality criminogenic infection phenomenon
The particular interest within the framework of the methodological approach definition to the subject matter may be a view of the personality from the dynamic psychiatry Ammon (1982) concept standpoint. The technique advantage is its psychodynamic orientation, conceptually based on the G. Ammon dynamic psychiatry basic concepts, such as the personality humanistic model, self-identity, central unconscious self-functions and their constructive, destructive and deficient components, the mental disorders spectral nature, catch-up development I and est., as well as the opportunity to evaluate the personality structure in the totality of healthy and pathologically altered aspects.
The technique is based on measuring the individual`s central unconscious I-functions with conscious self-report use in the self-evaluations form of their own experiences and behavioral manifestations in the situations presented by the test statements containing the experience of the psychoanalytically oriented observation. It is closely connected with psychoanalysis by its appearance, but unlike the latter, it seeks to integrate various understanding the person essence aspects as much as possible in a holistic approach. In the methodology developing process, dynamic psychiatry has developed independent ideas about the personality, its development patterns, its structure and dynamics, mental health, its disorders causes and mechanisms, the mental pathology forms, their therapy and correction methods.
The personality fundamental concept according to G. Ammon is the I-identity, which is a nuclear psychological education that ensures the personality integrity. Identity is closely connected with other central mental functions, which activity is mediated by identity and, in turn, ensures its preservation and development.
Unlike most psychological concepts that embed a static notion into the personality “structure” concept, the personality humane model cannot be understood outside the interaction between the individual and the environment process. Meanwhile, the most important environmental factor is an integrated set of relations between the individual and the primary group, understood not as network of intersecting interactions or transactions (according to E. Berne), but as a group dynamic field where the individual fits in the exchange of so-called "social energy" in its formation and socialization process.
According to Ammon (1982), the concept of “social energy” is based on the phenomenon described by K. Lewin as the power interpersonal interaction mental fields, subject to group dynamic patterns. The particular importance in this personality concept is the understanding correlation between "conscious and unconscious". Inasmuch the unconscious is inaccessible to direct observation and manifests itself in every actual interaction as a relation`s condensation through secondary conscious psychological functions, theoretically it can include a potentially infinite number of hypothetical constructs.
The Central Self-functions, as the most important intrapsychic formations, serves as a kind of "organs", providing the nature of such interaction and individual psychological adaptation. Like any other organ, these functions can be formed "normally", "pathologically" or "delayed" in its development. Decisive here is the interaction nature, both in the primary symbiosis, and in General in the group dynamic life field.
In turn, the I-functions formation level determines the interaction peculiarities in subsequent interpersonal relations, or the exchange of "social energy". Such an exchange can positively expand the personality capabilities, contributes to its integration and the development of I-identity, ensuring its optimal adaptation to the environment, i.e. that is on the one hand, it can be constructive; on the other , it can deform the personal structure, to disintegrate the I-identity formation process, and disadapt i.e. acts destructively, or prevents the personality formation, the mental functions necessary differentiation, reduces the dynamic interpersonal interactions intensity, thereby generating functional intrapsychic deficiency.
Features of recommendations for individual work with convicts are considered on the convicted persons example for murder, causing grievous bodily harm and disorderly conduct. The material was developed by employees of the Russian Federation Ministry of Internal Affairs Research Institute (Antonyana, 1992) and for a long time was one of the main documents recommended for practical use. The impact on those convicted for these crimes types is particularly difficult, and the greatest number regime requirements violations are connected with such convicts. Herewith, the personality formation genesis, its structure, and analysis in personality differences among individuals convicted of various crimes were not analyzed. We are talking about the criminal personality properties, about the subjective qualities that served as the immediate and immediate cause of the crime.
Conducting our research to determine the persons criminogenic infection degree serving criminal sentences in the imprisonment form, taking into account the crime committed, allowed us to identify additional indicators characterizing human-functional criminals characteristics belonging to different categories depending on the wrongful act type.
In modern criminological research, a methodologically important judgment is clearly traced, defining the direction of our research (Trush & Gomonov, 2013, 2016, 2017a, 2017b). In particular, Professor Lobzov (2013) asserts that “before a person begins to manifest socially anomalous (or antisocial) activity, there already has been “something unlawfully oriented” in his mind that is ready to control a person in life” (pp. 218-219).
We conducted a comparative analysis of the average “raw” grades on all 24 data scales when standardization of the group questionnaire, which included 1000 subjects aged from 18 to 53 years old, mostly with secondary or secondary vocational education and groups of convicts the special regime colony including 300 subjects who committed violent, acquisitive crimes, as well as illegal actions in the sphere of sexual inviolability and drug trafficking.
To prove the non-accidental differences between two independent samples (Td gfk law-abiding citizens., Td gfk convicts) U- Mann Whitney - criterion was used (designed to evaluate differences between two samples by the level of any trait). Using this method, the empirical value of U emp was calculated. = 1, subsequently this value was compared with the critical value of U cr. In our case, with U em. = 1, U cr. = 6 for the level of statistical significance ρ ≤ 0.01.
Since u emp. <U cr., the hypothesis is accepted that the differences between the values of trends in human functions in groups of law-abiding citizens and persons convicted of crimes are statistically significant with reliability = 99%, that is, are not accidental.
Presents the numerical values of the average "raw" estimates for all 24 scales of law-abiding citizens (the average value of law-abiding citizens) and persons who have committed crimes (the average value of convicts). Significant differences in the severity levels on the human-functions destructive fear scales (C2) are determined, which confirms the previously mentioned theoretical position about the impact of formed at an early age anxiety on the legal orientation of the individual's primary socialization, constructive aggression (A1), external constructive restriction (Q1), deficiency narcissism (N3) and constructive sexuality (Se1).
Further research requires practical implementation consideration in relation to the individual mental reality assessment, which is most appropriate to assess the individual criminalization degree and determine the measures effectiveness for its resocialization. Existing significant differences in adaptive capacity (АС), mental activity (MA) and mental health resources (Re) can serve as markers in assessing the criminalization degree of persons and different criminal affiliation groups.
The existing significant differences in adaptive capabilities (AdP), mental activity (PAc) and mental health resource (Re) may be markers in assessing the person criminalization degree and of different criminal affiliations groups.
The most visible difference between the presented samples of law-abiding citizens and those convicted for committing crimes can be presented through the human functions trends analysis (Td gfk). In the present embodiment, the differences between a group of law-abiding citizens (Td gfk law-abiding citizens.) And persons serving sentences for crimes committed (Td gfk convicts.), Lies in the fact that Td law-abiding citizens A, C, Q, Q *, N, Se and CLS (the coefficient of legal stability) integral index is greater than one, i.e. resulting is a way of life with a constructive basis. In the group of persons convicted to imprisonment for the crimes committed, Td gfk convicts. more than 1 only Se and N, all others less than 1, i.e. in the vital activity process, the destructive and deficient basis prevails.
It should be emphasized that the greatest deviation from the balance of constructiveness / destructiveness-deficiency has external constraint trend (Q), like the individual`s ability to containment and differentiation - internal and external, desired and possible, his and others, accepted and rejected, manifested and restrained.
Sexuality (Se) is biologically inherent function of the individual, i.e. ontogenetically and phylogenetically the most ancient and stable psychophysiological structure. Describing narcissism (N), it should be noted that only persons with a positive psychiatric status are in prison.
Depending on the mentality development level, the “I” is justified on the level of psychological, philosophical, religious, economic, ideological and spiritual speculations. An individual may simply be unaware of the above levels, but simply experience a "correctness" state. Therefore, despite the indisputable crimes committed gravity, the individual will always find an excuse that provides his own positive image.
Further research requires practical implementation consideration in relation to assessing the person`s mental reality, which is most appropriate for assessing the individual criminalization degree and determining the measures effectiveness for its re-socialization.
In the conducted research course the manifesting and the most stable variations of human functions structural combinations in the General human structure of persons serving criminal sentences in the form of imprisonment, which in their qualitative and quantitative expression determine the choice between criminal and law-abiding life self-realization forms, are determined. The statistically significant existence of differences in the humane function`s trends of law-abiding citizens and those convicted of committing crimes was stated. Along with the influence of fear / anxiety component (C) in the structure of the offender's personality, the importance of the human functions external delimitation trend is noted (Q) as the ability to contain one’s own states and differentiate the individual from the outside world.
A dynamic integral indicator CLS (coefficient of legal stability) is presented, which allows, in addition to the system quantitative state, determined by the mental health resource coefficient (Re), to predict the manifestation deviant behavior probability.
One of the main differences in the law-abiding citizen personality structure is revealed - the С – N dipole (fear/narcissism) priority. This difference is partially confirmed by the qualitative discrepancy between destructiveness and deficiency in the groups of convicts, determined by the manifestation destructive-deficient components (KPds/dfN) coefficient. For a group of law-abiding citizens, KPds/dfN > 1 is characterized by a possible destructive manifestation, and for a group of convicts KPds/dfN <1, respectively, by a deficient manifestation
Thus, based on the foregoing, it is possible to speak about the legality and expediency of considering personal differences between criminals and law-abiding citizens in terms of the level criminogenic infection personality severity. Between these homostructure averages of persons in the target groups identified reliably significant differences, which are presented in the quantitative and qualitative indicators form. The changes dynamics in criminogenic infection of offender personality confirms the thesis about the relationship of its level and the crime severity. Consequently, based on the methodological apparatus of the personality human structural model and the comparison of the estimated indicators of subsequent levels, it seems possible to study the causal relationships in the personality formation and predisposition to a criminal way of life realization.
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Timokhov, V. P., Pirogov, P. P., Gomonov *, N. D., & Trush, V. M. (2019). Convicts Personality`S Сriminogenic Contamination Based On The Human Structureology G. Amon Standpoint. In N. I. Almazova, A. V. Rubtsova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 73. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 664-670). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.70