Technology Of Development Of Professional Communication Activities Of Future Teachers

Abstract

The article deals with the technology of communicative skills development of future educators. The technology is built under the indicators of coherent speech (inter-phrasal communication, structural and semantic organization of speech, the communicative core of phrase, typical and stylistic integrity of speech). It has been proved that a technology is to be based upon diagnostic data of students' coherent speech and can be used in universities for studying of variable subjects. The diagnose held at the Kazan State University (2006-2009) showed that indicators of students coherent speech are far below average. Experimental tutoring had been held simultaneously (2006-2018): under studying of psychological and pedagogical subjects, students formed the ability to show inter-phrasal communication, semantic structure of statements and to prove the basic idea (the problem designated as the communicative core), to follow the logic of narration, description, to use stylistic means correctly. The article shows that the technology ensures educators' communicative proficiency, raises quality of their work in educational institutions

Keywords: Communicationactivitystudentsindicatorsconnected speechspeech culture

Introduction

Professional communicative activities of future teachers are mainly associated with educational communication. This communication takes place in the classroom and extracurricular activities at school. It is traditionally considered that the teacher is the standard of speech behavior, speech activity and communication. In some universities there are special courses, workshops for mastering the skill of communication (on the development of speech, culture of speech, rhetoric, etc.). However, in practice, after graduation from the university, no diagnostics are carried out due to the readiness of the future teacher to effective professional communication. The question of whether the teacher will be able to build correct communication with children, whether he will be able to explain the new material in a clear and accessible way remains open. Many specialists in Russia (Grunt & Lymar, 2007; Isaev, & Makarova, 2002; Klochkova, Volgina, Dementyev, & Klochkov, 2016; Kodjaspirova, 2004; Leontieva, & Ababkova., 2017; Makarova & Sharshov, 2011; Shipunova & Berezovskaya, 2018) and abroad (Menter, 2015; Galvin, 2016) speak about the difficulties of professional pedagogical communication. More than half of future teachers themselves are aware of these difficulties and for this reason sometimes do not go to work in educational institutions. Diagnostic studies conducted by us in 2006–2017 show that, despite special attention to Russian as a state language from the Government of the Russian Federation (2015), the level of proficiency in this language, from the point of view of the norms of speech culture, falls: the speech of future teachers suffers from a poor vocabulary, lack of expressiveness, clarity, consistency, accuracy, etc. But the most important thing that the experts traditionally do not pay attention to the fact that the speech of future teachers becomes less coherent. However, many language courses teach students anything (spelling, punctuation, business communication, speech culture, rhetoric), but not coherence.

Problem Statement

An incoherent speech, even if it conforms to the norms of a speech culture, can be spectacular, but not effective: it is not understandable to the interlocutors. Such speech does not reach the communicative goal - understanding and comprehension. Children understand incoherent speech poorly and, as a result, lose attention, interest in it, do not listen to the teacher. At the same time, the teacher himself is not always aware of his problems and often blames children for lack of interest in lessons, attention to his explanations, lack of ability to learn, turns to parents for help, or begins to persecute and intimidate children

The task of the research is to develop a technology for the development of the future teacher’s communicative activities, which would form in him primarily a coherent speech

Research Questions

In order to develop such a technology, it was necessary to:

  • specify the concept of connected speech;

  • determine the distinctive features (indicators) of coherent speech;

  • develop the content of the technology of development of communicative activity in the context of the main indicators of coherent speech

Purpose of the Study

Develop a technology for the development of the communicative activity of the future teacher in the context of the main indicators of coherent speech

Research hypothesis. Professional communicative activities of future teachers will be more effective if the following factors are determined:

- the main indicators of coherent speech of students;

- diagnostic data on how many students own the culture of speech and how many students have a coherent speech over a period of several years (development trends);

- content of the technology of teaching coherent speech (theoretical foundations, the system of exercises and tasks);

- the logic of the implementation of the technology of teaching coherent speech (the main stages, the sequence of exercises, etc.)..

Research Methods

The study was based on the metalinguistic concept of M. Bakhtin (1979), according to which the author of the statement feels active creative experience in the process of constructing the text: the creative work on making the text is experienced, but the experience does not hear and does not see itself, the experience is seen only by the product or object being created, which it is directed. Therefore, in the diagnosis of students' statements, the methods of observation, analysis of statements recorded in writing, as well as methods of statistics and mathematical analysis were used.

Findings

The organizing center of the experiment is the Scientific and Educational Center for Pedagogical Research of the Kazan Federal University.

To determine indicators of coherent speech, we used the results of our research conducted in 2007 (Gabdulhakov, 2007).

Connected speech is a speech of several sentences, interconnected by means of interphrase communication, united by one theme and the main idea, this speech is distinguished by a clear structure and stylistic unity. Connected speech, in fact, obeys the laws of text-formation, that is, it is constructed as a text, although it includes elements of conversationalism (interjections, pauses, intermittentness, exclamation, efficacy, dialogue, etc.) (Gabdulhakov, 2007). Therefore, among the main indicators of coherent speech, we highlight:

1) interphase communication (availability of interphase communication means - lexical repetitions);

2) the unity of the theme and basic thought;

3) the correct structure of textual units - paragraphs, complex syntactic integers, fragments;

4) the correspondence of the statement to the type of speech (description, narration, reasoning);

5) stylistic unity (the presence of language means that characterize the style).

These indicators usually characterize a statement that follows the laws of the correct text (Bakhtin, 1979).

When identifying students who have speech culture, students' ability to build a statement in accordance with the norms of speech culture (correctness of speech, communicative expediency, accuracy of statement, clarity and availability of presentation, clarity of speech, expressiveness of speech, relevance, etc.) were analyzed; In identifying students with coherent speech, the ability to construct a statement was analyzed in accordance with indicators of connected speech (interphrase communication, structural-semantic, typical and stylistic organization of speech).

Diagnostic studies conducted in 2006-2017 show that the number of 4th year undergraduate students (or 5th year specialty) who have a speech culture, that is, are able to speak literally and beautifully, does not correlate with the number of students who have a coherent speech, that is capable of speaking coherently, clearly and accessiblely (see table 1 & figure 1 ). The study used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (Gmurman, 2004). He made it possible to establish the absence of a correlation between these two parameters - the culture of speech and coherent speech.

Table 1 -
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Figure 1: The number of students with culture of speech, and the number of students with coherent speech, in 2006-2018. (at %)
The number of students with culture of speech, and the number of students with coherent speech, in 2006-2018. (at %)
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On the figure 1 the count of student with connected speech highlighted by red line. Thus, 1254 students were diagnosed at the final exams.

It can be noted that from 2006 to 2009 the culture of speech of future teachers had a slight tendency to grow (from 56% to 61%), from 2010 the culture of speech began to decline (from 59% to 41%). In all likelihood, temporary growth can be attributed to the Year of the Russian Language in Russia and events dedicated to the purity of the Russian language. That year was 2007 (Decree of the President, 2006).

The number of students who speak fluently has steadily decreased since 2007 (from 33% in 2007 to 12% in 2017). The decline can be due to the development of clip thinking in young people, and the lack of time to read good literature, and the lack of requirements to formalize their answers in a coherent verbal or written form. But the main reason, in our opinion, is due to the lack of students' skills to build a statement according to the laws of a coherent text.

Technology of experimental learning

Experimental training of students of coherent speech was conducted from 2012 to 2017. in the study of special disciplines "Theory and Methods of Speech Development", "Speech Culture", "Theory and Practice of Multicultural Education", "Rhetoric". The experiment involved 75 students (future elementary school teachers) and 128 students (future teachers of pre-school institutions).

The training technology consisted of two stages and was connected:

1) with the disclosure of the laws of text formation;

2) using these laws in practice (in the analysis or in the construction of coherent texts);

3) with the implementation of feedback schemes and adjustments to the content and training system.

For educational purposes, based on the selected indicators, we used the concept of law: the law of inter-phase communication, the law of structural and semantic organization, the law of the communicative core, the law of typical organization, the law of stylistic unity. The development and application of these laws in practice has become the content of experimental education.

1st law - the law of inter-phase communication . In mastering this law, students had to learn to distinguish between a coherent statement and an incoherent one. In a coherent statement, one had to learn to see and correctly use lexical repetition (repeating nouns or singular words in different sentences, pronominal and synonymous substitutions, etc.). For example, the statement Today we have the first lectures. The weather was cold can be qualified as incoherent (no lexical repetition), and the statement Today we held the first lecture. Lectures turned out to be very interesting can be considered connected: there is a repetition of the word lecture.

The 2nd law is the law of structural-semantic organization . In mastering this law, students had to learn to see and correctly use the semantic units of the text - paragraphs. A paragraph as a semantic unit of text usually has two parts: a paragraph sentence, which contains the main information (main idea) of the text, and an explanatory part, which comments, explains, proves the basic information of the text and thereby links one paragraph sentence with another. It is possible to check the correctness of the semantic organization of a statement by reading only paragraph sentences in a row: if as a result of the reading a coherent text is obtained (from the point of view of inter-phrase communication), then the paragraphs are correctly selected. If not, you need to restructure the text.

The 3rd law is the law of the communicative core . This law is associated with the ability to see and disclose a topic (microtheme). The microtheme (or subtheme), from the point of view of the theory of language, is revealed in a complex syntactic whole. A complex syntactic integer is a text unit, usually consisting of three parts: the beginning, in which the microtheme is marked, the middle part, in which the communicative core unfolds - the microtheme is opened, and the ending, in which the microtheme is completed. This unit does not always coincide with the paragraph, may contain several paragraphs, and may be included in the structure of the paragraph. The main thing that students should learn is to understand that the topic (micro-theme) answers the question about what or whom the text says, and the main thought is what exactly is said about the topic (or micro-topic).

The 4th law is the law of the typical organization of the utterance . This law implies the expediency of using this or that type of speech in speech: narration, description, reasoning, or mixed type. In constructing the narrative, students often confuse the chronology of events, their spatial and temporal correlation, which negatively affects the logic of presentation and complicates its understanding. In constructing the description, students confuse the main and secondary characteristics of the description. In constructing reasoning, students find it difficult to correctly (and appropriately) use complete (thesis, proof, conclusion) and abbreviated (thesis and proof or proof and conclusion) reasoning.

The 5th law is the law of stylistic unity . This law proceeds from the fact that a coherent speech should be stylistically colored (scientific, academic, artistic, publicistic, business, etc.). The inclusion of conversational elements in such a speech violates stylistic unity and interferes with its understanding. Interfere with the understanding and confusion of lexical, morphological, syntactic means of different styles. The lack of stylistic coloring makes it expressionless and not convincing.

Each law was worked out in detail in practice. For example, a system of exercises was used to master the law of the structural-semantic organization of the utterance. Students were asked to read texts, check in them the correctness of the allocation of paragraphs, make a plan of the text (simple and complex), retell the text or, on the basis of these paragraph sentences, build a detailed statement.

In one of the exercises, paragraph sentences were given (from the statements of V. A. Sukhomlinsky, 2017) and it was suggested to add explanatory parts to make a coherent statement.

  • Upbringing ceases to be upbringing when the child feels that he has been treated unfairly.

  • A child never has malicious intent.

  • Respect the children's desire to be good.

  • We can not allow the child to cease to respect himself.

  • You can not turn a child's heart into a shy bird.

Students pay attention to the fact that in this statement there is a lexical repetition (the words child and child’s are repeated). Therefore, the statement can be qualified as a coherent, but abbreviated. It is necessary to add explanatory parts. As a result, students get detailed coherent statements. Here is one of the options.

  • Upbringing ceases to be upbringing when the child feels that he has been treated unfairly. An unfair attitude on the part of parents or teachers can provoke a protest in a child, stimulate the development of his meanness and hypocrisy.

  • A child never has malicious intent. Adults should understand that a child can do something wrong not from evil, but by mistake. The child may be mistaken and he is entitled to it. If he is helped to correctly understand and survive the mistake, he will be aware of the moral meaning of his action and will try not to make this mistake in the future.

  • Respect the children's desire to be good. Adults should understand that the desire to be good is characteristic of the child. To do this, you should not abuse your power, you need to stimulate the development of his honor, kindness, decency.

  • We can not allow the child to cease to respect himself. We must teach him to value our own honor, we must stimulate the development of his desire to be better than he is.

  • You can not turn a child's heart into a shy bird. A child's soul, sensitive to goodness, justice, goodwill, should not encounter a cry or a heightened nervous voice.

The resulting statement is close to the reasoning of VA. Sukhomlinsky himself. Experiments on the text can be continued: to invite students to write an introduction or conclusion, to deploy evidence of a particular situation.

As a result of such exercises, the number of students who have mastered cohesive speech has increased significantly; The number of students with skills in speech culture has increased, but not very significantly (see Table 2 , figure 2 ).

Table 2 -
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Figure 2: The number of students owning the culture of speech and the number of students with coherent speech in 2006-2018. (at %) (After experimental learning).
The number of students owning the culture of speech and the number of students with coherent speech in 2006-2018. (at %) (After experimental learning).
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As we see, we managed to significantly influence the dynamics of the development of coherent speech of students, starting from 2012.

From 2012 to 2017, there has been a steady increase in the number of students who have a coherent speech.

If in 2012 experimental education was conducted in the last year, in 2013, starting from the third year, in 2014, from the second year, and in 2015-2017. - from the first course. As a result, we see that the earlier students are engaged in the analysis and construction of texts, the more they master the skills of coherent speech.

At the same time, the number of students mastering the culture of speech is also growing. The study used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (Gmurman, 2004). He allowed to establish the dependence of the effective communicative activity of teachers on the degree of their mastering the skills of coherent speech

Conclusion

According to teachers, students involved in the analysis of texts, have better results in other (non-language) disciplines. Acquired skills have a positive effect on the quality of their term papers and dissertations.

In experimental learning, emphasis was placed on coherent speech.

In our other studies (Likhacheva & Gabdulсhakov, 2018) a comprehensive experiment was conducted aimed at the development of speech culture and coherent speech. As a result, the number of students with coherent speech was not as significant as in the described experiment.

Thus, work on a coherent speech requires consistency, focus and concentration. Such work is positive for the quality and effectiveness of professional communicative activities of future teachers

Acknowledgments

The study was conducted on the grant Of the Russian State Scientific Fund "Technology teacher training": № of state registration AAA-A17-117032310046-2. Task № 27.9412.2017/BCh

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.25

Online ISSN

2357-1330