Each individual managerial decision is unique. However, the process of their formation and implementation is subject to internal logic. It corresponds to certain steps of the action algorithm. These are identifying the problem, analyzing the information received, formulating assignments, comparing alternative solutions, drawing up a plan for implementing them, and quickly managing this implementation. All of the above is typical for research activities. Thus, at the present stage of digitalization, the area of professional competence of a specialist in various areas of the economy and production is impossible without analytical knowledge and skills. Therefore, it is the system of research competencies that the modern education system should incorporate into the professional culture of a specialist. The education system in the modern world plays an important role over the course of a person’s entire life. A person expresses his professionalism in the desire to learn and create new scientific knowledge in all sectors of the economy. Modern companies are unique systems. To effectively manage these systems, knowledge of a mathematical, socio-humanitarian, and of course research character is needed. Modern companies are run by people with international knowledge in various fields. Education today is international and thanks to digitalization available in all parts of the world.
Keywords: Research competencemanagementchangeeconomic viabilitytraining
We live in a world of daily global change. Modern civilization is a system of incredible complexity. The era of information and human communication has replaced the industrial age. The technological progress surrounds us today everywhere, both in everyday life and in scientific life (Aladyshkin, Kulik, Michurin, & Anosova, 2017; Bylieva, Lobatyuk, & Rubtsova, 2017, 2018; Bylieva & Nam, 2018; Gashkova, Berezovskaya, & Shipunova, 2017; Kolomeyzev, & Shipunova, 2017; Pozdeeva, Trostinskaya, Evseeva, & Ivanova, 2017; Spihunova, Rabosh, Soldatov, & Deniskov, 2017). New sectors of the economy, based on digitalization and smart technologies, regularly emerge. This implies the demand for specialists with different sets of competencies that can, with a certain combination, meet the needs of a changing economy. The specific character of the modern civilization depends on two main factors: personal qualities in people and qualities of interrelations between them.
Today it is worth talking about the main social and anthropological factors with which various social technologies and institutions, and, of course, our society, in which we live, are forced to work.
The five of these major factors are listed below:
1. Dynamic decision-making systems.
2. Development of personal qualities.
3. The quality of relationships between people (communication).
4. Construction of meanings.
5. Problem solving.
Today in the world there is a group of companies, large and small, which work in various fields of activity. However, they are all united by similar values. They create and use the most modern technologies, they actively grow and develop. These companies are looking for people with certain competencies. New advanced companies need those who enjoy the work process, people who feel comfortable in a rapidly changing environment, people who see the goal and are able to go towards it, and understand the ways and mechanisms to achieve it. In order to cope with this task, an increasing number of employees will need systems thinking and research competence - the ability to quickly understand how complex processes, organizations or mechanisms are arranged (Alexankov, Trostinskaya, & Pokrovskaia, 2018; The Chart of New Professions, 2018).
Modern management systems involve continuous development and self-improvement. This is impossible without studying the problems of the organization, finding their solutions, and using modern methods of research and analytics.
Improving management is a necessary element in the development of any organization. Every manager should master modern techniques and methods of research to a certain extent.
Management, the main content of which is decision-making, is difficult to imagine without research. The study helps to better understand the situation, identify the problem and, therefore, find the most effective solution.
For modern management, research is an important characteristic of professionalism. A modern manager should master the basic techniques of research and be able to organize it in order to find new tools to improve management efficiency.
The formula of modern management is “to manage improving the things and perfecting oneself”. Only studying management will help realize this formula, which requires constant monitoring of the situation. Research allows us to see where the reserves are and what hinders development, what should be feared and what should be supported.
The development of professionalism in various fields of activity leads to the understanding of research as a characteristic and natural element of its practical effectiveness.
The question asked in this study is whether effective management decisions are the results of the research.
Solutions as an organizational reaction to the problems that arise are a universal form of behavior, both of an individual and of social groups, and are explained by the conscious and purposeful nature of human activity. A solution is a guide to action selected from a variety of alternatives and executed in the form of a work plan. In practice, a huge number of various decisions with different characteristics are made.
An organizational decision is the choice made by the head of an organization and used by him or her in the process of implementing managerial functions in resolving organizational tasks. Organizational decision contributes to the goals (Asaul, Knyaz, & Korotayeva, 2007).
A managerial decision is a prescriptive choice of a targeted impact on a management object that is based on an analysis of the situation and that contains a program for achieving the goal . Making managerial decisions is the main decision in the technological management cycle. The managerial decision is made by an authorized line manager within the limits of the rights granted to him, the norms of the current legislation, and instructions of the higher management bodies. Distinctive features of managerial (organizational) decisions are that they have the following characteristics: goals, consequences, division of labor and professionalism.
Thus, a managerial decision is a certain economic process accomplished within the framework of an organization’s management, which has three stages - preparation, adoption, and implementation of managerial decisions that include, in addition to identifying the problem, formulating assignments, and comparing alternative solutions, drawing up a plan for implementing these solutions, and operational management of this implementation (Lysov, 2006).
Each individual managerial decision is unique, but the process of their formation and implementation is subject to internal logic, which is often called the “decision cycle”:
1) identifying the problem to be solved (definition of a problem situation);
2) collecting and processing information for making managerial decisions;
3) organizing its implementation (Lysov, 2006).
When preparing a decision, one should make sure that all the resources necessary for its implementation are available, focusing on the organization’s predetermined goals and objectives.
At the stage of preparing a managerial decision, an economic micro- and macroanalysis of the situation is carried out, including the search, collection and processing of information, and problems that need to be solved are identified and formed.
At the decision-making stage, alternative decisions and courses of action carried out on the basis of multivariate calculations are developed and assessed; criteria are selected to choose the optimal decision; and the best decisions are chosen and made.
At the implementation stage, measures are taken to specify the decision and bring it to those who will implement it, the progress of its implementation is monitored, the necessary adjustments are made, and the result obtained from implementing the decision are evaluated.
Each managerial decision has its specific result; therefore, the purpose of management activity is to find such forms, methods, means, and tools that could contribute to achieving an optimal result in specific conditions and circumstances (Lysov, 2006).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of our research is to identify the role of research and the role of the researcher in management in order to make effective managerial decisions that lead to the maximization of the company's profits and bring it to new markets
In the article, the authors used the methods of the theoretical level of knowledge. Namely abstraction and induction.
We studied open sources (official sites) of large Russian companies, analysed the data on management education, consolidated empirical data and confirmed the hypothesis.
According to the State Statistics Committee, the statistical data of the Russian Federation at the end of 2017 are as follows: the total number of people living in the territory of the Russian Federation is 146,900,000 people; the labor force is 76,109,000 people, of whom 72,212,000 are employed. The workforce is people aged 15 years and older, who within the reviewed period are considered to be employed or unemployed. At the end of 2017, there were 4,561,700 enterprises in different industries of various forms of incorporation (Surinov, 2018).
From the data presented, it can be assumed that about 10 million people in Russia make managerial decisions at various levels, from starting their businesses to entering international markets.
According to the State Statistical Committee, at the end of 2016 the number of researchers with an academic degree in the Russian Federation was only 108,388 (Doctors of Science 27,430; Candidates of Science - 80,958) - this is 1 % who have state verification of the research competence (Surinov, 2017).
Taking the data from the large Russian companies (The Biggest Private Companies in Russia, 2018) regarding the education of the management staff (see Table
Having analyzed the data on enterprises, it is understood that they are in constant development, which implies the emergence of many problems following one another and requiring timely solutions. Many situations and problems arise unexpectedly and do not give time to think. Taking untimely decisions or ignoring them threatens with a crisis, and maybe even a catastrophe. In modern management, prediction and forecasting play an increasingly important role. Today, it is impossible to predict on the basis of only intuition or simple extrapolation of current events for the future; therefore, the latest digital technologies are used to analyze Big Data, and management functions are partially transferred to artificial intelligence. Again, in order to make decisions on what exactly can passed on without losing the control function, a research needs to be conducted.
Research as a management function is necessary to predict crises or sudden changes, to prepare for the paradoxes of the future, and to assess the chances of success, which must be seen, assessed, and implemented. For successful management, it is necessary not only to know and master the basic research methods, but also to show independence in identifying the problem, conducting research, and choosing the methods necessary to solve specific tasks of management activities.
Independence can also manifest itself in different ways - in execution, purposeful development, initiative; there is autonomy limited to a certain concept of business behavior, independence of experience, and independence of search. To be independent, a manager needs certain qualities that together form the concept of “research type manager” or “creative manager”.
The process of writing and researching the situation itself contributes to the formation of a research type manager.
Thus, collecting information from various sources allows seeing problems more deeply and realize the complexity and diversity of people’s relationships in organizations before others; presenting a situation in writing contributes to the systemic perception of reality, understanding of different points of view; situation analysis develops research skills, generates an interest in management activities, motivates career development and formulating conclusions and recommendations, develops analytical skills, the ability to generalize, etc.
Modern management can only be truly successful when it is in constant and continuous development, when it is focused on changes that ensure the resilience of the organization and its accumulation of innovation potential and purposefulness.
However, this turns out to be practical only under the condition of researching management systems, which involves finding the most effective options for building a management system and organizing its operation, eliminating contradictions and determining the causes of deficiencies, as well as determining ways for further development. Research allows finding compliance of the management with the changing conditions and economic factors.
In modern management, research is becoming one of the main management functions, which should be directed not only at the object of management, but also at self-management, which can become a brake on innovation, although its status should be a source of ideas for the company’s development and a motivational basis for its implementation.
The study of socio-economic systems has its own characteristics, both in the methodology of their implementation, and in the organization and use of results. These features must be understood, known and taken into account when conducting research in management practice.
The research methodology involves an understanding of its goals, approaches and the choice of specific methods. The effectiveness and practical significance of the study depends on this.
The objectives of the research can be tactical and strategic, general and local. The objectives define approaches, benchmarks (or limitations), and research methods. Their diversity and choice influence the practical effectiveness of the research.
Organizing the research involves determining who, how, and under what conditions (time, requirements, functions, powers, security, etc.) will conduct research, thus ensuring coherence and consistency of research activities.
The result of the research of management systems is a practical recommendation to change certain aspects of its functioning, improving the quality of managerial activity of the manager and the entire management staff. As a result, these recommendations should be embodied in management decisions, in developing a program for the improvement, modernization or reconstruction of a management system in the full range of its characteristics and parameters.
Any research requires a certain resource provision. It is impossible to conduct a modern research without the necessary resources (human, informational, financial, economic, or technical). Therefore, an important problem of management research is the calculation and allocation of resources necessary to conduct it.
The following order of using resources - distribution, functions, responsibility and authority - forms the basis of the research organization.
The Management systems research is conducted in order to develop management, select a successful strategy, and ensure the viability and economic status of the company. Yet, so as not to conduct the research for the sake of the research itself, but to achieve a significant effect, it is necessary to calculate or evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the research.
Quality characterizes the totality of the characteristics of the research, the most important of which are the result and effectiveness.
The result of the research is the opportunities that allow increasing the efficiency of management and ensure sustainable and prospective development of the company. The main criterion for an effective result is to translate the research result into an effective managerial decision, allowing to solve the problem posed in the research, ensure the progress of the company’s development, and enhance the managerial experience of a manager
The authors of the article are grateful to Russian companies for their openness and authenticity. All information. which is used for the article is taken from official sources of companies.
- Aladyshkin, I., Kulik, S., Michurin, A., & Anosova, N. (2017). Information Prospects For Socio-Cultural Development: Contradictory Grounds. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 19-25.
- Alexankov, A. M., Trostinskaya, I. R., & Pokrovskaia, N. N. (2018). Industry 4.0 requirements for quality of human capital and competencies formed within educational institutions. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioral Sciences, 34, 26-34.
- Asaul, A. N., Knyaz, I. P. & Korotayeva, & Y. V. (2007). Teoriya i praktika prinyatiya reshenij po vyhodu organizacij iz krizisa [The Theory and Practice of Making Decisions on A Company’s Recovery from a Crisis]. St. Petersburg: ANO IPEV. [in Rus.].
- Bylieva, D., Lobatyuk, V., & Rubtsova, A. (2017). Smartmob: evolution from flashmob to smartcity element RPTSS 2017 International Conference on Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 225-235.
- Bylieva, D., Lobatyuk, V., & Rubtsova, A. (2018). Homo Virtualis: existence in Internet space. CC-TESC2018. SHS Web of Conferences 44, 00021(2018).
- Bylieva D., & Nam T. (2018). Social Norms in Virtual Worlds of Computer Games. International Conference Communicative Strategies of Information Society (CSIS 2018). Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 289. 369-373.
- Gashkova, E., Berezovskaya, I., & Shipunova, O. (2017). Models of self-identification in digital communication environments. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 374-382.
- Kolomeyzev, I., & Shipunova, O. (2017). Sociotechnical system in the communicative environment: management factors. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 1233-1241.
- Lysov, O.E. (2006). Metody prikladnyh issledovanij v menedzhmente [The Methods of Applied Research in Management]. St. Petersburg: GUAP. [in Rus.].
- Pozdeeva, E. G., Trostinskaya, I. R., Evseeva, L. I., & Ivanova R. A. (2017). Problems of Personality Type Transformation in Current Conditions of Russian Society. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 1092-1099.
- Spihunova, O., Rabosh, V., Soldatov, A., & Deniskov, A. (2017). Interactions Design in Technogenic Information and Communication Environments. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 35, 1225-1232.
- Surinov A. E. (Ed.). (2017). Rossiya v cifrah 2017. Kratkij statisticheskij sbornik [Russia in Figures 2017. A Brief Statistical Book]. Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service. [in Rus.]. Retrieved from http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2017/rusfig/rus17.pdf
- Surinov A. E. (Ed.). (2018). Rossiya v cifrah 2018. Kratkij statisticheskij sbornik [Russia in Figures 2018. A Brief Statistical Book]. [in Rus.]. Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved from http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/rusfig/rus18.pdf
- The Biggest Private Companies in Russia (2018). Retrieved from https://www.forbes.ru/rating/367067-200-krupneyshih-rossiyskih-chastnyh-kompaniy-2018-reyting-forbes
- The Chart of New Professions (2018) Retrieved from http://atlas100.ru/upload/pdf_files/atlas.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
02 December 2019
Print ISBN (optional)
Communication, education, educational equipment, educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), Study skills, learning skills, ICT
Cite this article as:
Bashorina, O., Stepanova, N., & Larionova, V. (2019). The Function Of Management Studies And Researchers In Viable Managerial Decision-Making. In N. I. Almazova, A. V. Rubtsova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 73. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 952-960). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.100