The choice of thematic field of this study is determined by the need for reflection of knowledge as a mechanism for the design of a disciplinary matrix that serves as the basis for education, training and education of a new type meeting requirements of modern society; as a new paradigm of modern education; as a platform for the sociocultural development of an individual, emerging on the basis of a strategic audit of basic pedagogical models, methodological principles, didactic methods, etc. The focus of modern pedagogical science is changing under the influence of its epistemic potential, which allows teachers to use the latest technologies in teaching; enhance the receptive ability of the subject; actualize the practice-oriented nature of education. Cognitive practices allow identifying mechanisms of diversification and modernization of modern education; determining the degree of influence of a mediated product on the implementation of an educational strategy; evaluating the measure of responsibility of educational organizations for the results and quality of education of the subject. They expand the range of training of trainees taking into account the attraction of the best domestic and foreign pedagogical models and models of education based on the formation of the subject's vitagenic experience. The authors describe the range of traditional and non-traditional approaches to understanding existing and newly emerging cognitive procedures, which help to significantly expand the range of teaching aids in the educational process by developing students' cognitive skills; formation of consciousness in taking advantage of new and existing media; etc.
Keywords: Subject of educationcultural transmissioncognitive practices
For the non-conflict existence of the subject in the information society, radically changing all social institutions, let us turn to the phenomenon of modern education, regarded as a social elevator, as a reproducer of the social system, as a constantly changing social environment (Gershunskii, 2002).
Modern education (in the traditions of postmodernism) must be reflected as a synthesis of cognitive practices, since it plays the role of a cultural transmission, i.e. provides the subject with strategic and operational success in life in the conditions of a constantly changing audience, professional standards, convergent technologies, inclusive culture, etc. (Kornetov & Salov, 2016).
Education today is
- the independence of the subject in achieving the goal;
- an array of information to be learned;
- interpersonal communication;
- subject activity in extremely uncertain conditions (Boguslavskii, 2016).
Education is the construction of a personal trajectory of learning and cognitive activity and development that promotes self-education of the subject. Self-education factors are:
- exponential growth of information volumes;
- internet - the habitat of young people;
- existing, not fully used Internet potential;
- the Internet as a space for experiment (Rozin, 2006).
In modern education there is a wide range of traditional and non-traditional approaches to understanding existing and newly emerging knowledge procedures. Such cognitive practices include: programmed learning; distance education; informatization of education; development of informational and educational environment. Among this diversity, we note the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches to cognition; the practice of deconstruction and postmodernism; linguistic theories and teachings about the language, etc.
Within the framework of a given problematic, epistemological discourse is important for the researcher, since the subject of his research is cognition (as a moment of nature's evolution and its product) (Mikeshina, 2009). At the same time, the practice of studying extra-scientific knowledge is expanding; any form of intellectual despotism is rejected; habitual binary thinking is loosening; removed simplified reduction on the principle of disjunction; reflexive knowledge of human cognitive activity due to the expansion of computer technology, etc. (Kanke, 2009). Cognition can be informative and systemic, developing in traditional discourse (I. Kant, J. Locke, E. Husserl, K. Popper), but it can be non-systemic, peripheral, sometimes outrageous (J. Derrida, M. Heidegger, L. Wittgenstein, H.G. Gadamer). Thus, we have two types of cognitive practices: on the one hand, these are epistemological and logical-methodological practices; on the other hand, this is artistic and humanitarian thinking.
Modern education is drawn to a model that postulates the three vectors of its development: who to teach, how to teach, for whom to teach. Today, there is a change in disposition of the child - an adult and a modern child is often more knowledgeable and prepared for life in a digital society.
In the system of higher and secondary vocational education today students are trained who can meet the challenges of the time:
1. Blended learning: full-time + electronic. Modern education is hard to imagine without digitalization (Tsirulnikov, 2010);
2. Individual development trajectory of the subject of education.
3. The current situation is imperative and a priori aims the pedagogical community to create an educational ecosystem. An ecosystem is a combination of efforts for the interaction of the state, society, business, science in order to intensively increase human capital and its reasonable, humane, economical use. For non-conflict ecosystem functioning
- the network of quantoriums is expanding;
- customization of the program material is carried out;
- automation and robotization is being introduced;
- cognitive flexibility is used;
- develops the emotional intelligence of the subject.
An important function of modern education is a course on the further use of distance education, which is often identified with training and teaching. Learning is a process of purposeful transfer of social and historical experience; organization of the formation of knowledge and skills; this is what the learner gets from interacting with the school as a whole, with teachers, students.
Teaching differs from learning by the poles of attention: teaching focuses attention on entering the learning process, i.e. on what is given to the student - the content of the educational process (knowledge, skills, skills). Education focuses on exit, i.e. that the student received, and the received is estimated by students not so much from the point of view of its content or interest, but rather from the point of view of the usefulness of the carried out training for its present or future activity.
Teaching reflects the teacher's view of phenomena and processes, learning is the view of the learner. The opinion of the teacher is always wider and deeper, as this is an expert view. Pragmatism and some fragmentation are characteristic of the trainee’s gaze. Due to the fact that the teacher thinks mainly deductively, and students think inductively, a feature of distance education is that students mostly learn what they do not know and do not know.
The choice of educational content is one of the most important issues of modern pedagogy. The degree of responsibility for the selection of educational content is indicated by serious quality control. The teacher, taking into account the different scale of knowledge and its growth, pushes the conceptual boundaries of the interpretability of theories with the help of the cognitive vector. At the same time, the subject of the educational process should not allow the possibility of indoctrination and social exclusion due to an erroneous choice of the content of education.
Purpose of the Study
Education is the most complex mechanism that generates the best spiritual, scientific, methodological and didactic practices. In this regard, we believe that modern education should be developed in three main areas: the formation of spirituality, the development of didactics, the creation of an artificial environment.
I. The spirituality of society depends on the quantity and quality of the mental material accumulated by previous generations. Scientific and technical progress generates not only the latest technologies and materials, but also presents certain challenges for the education system. The challenge was the digitalization of modern society and the development of the Internet, which attracts the attention of adults and children to content and narratives in the practice of education. There is no doubt that there are pros and cons of this innovation: a person develops various types of neuralgia from computer hobbies, vision suffers, uncontrolled aggression arises. Teaching aikido will help minimize risks and cope with this phenomenon. Translated from Japanese Aikido, it is “the path to harmony of spirit”. And harmony is especially necessary for us today. Harmony is proportionality, and without awareness of the harmony of all parts of the whole, it is difficult for a person to perceive the world around him, to form himself as a person of the 21st century. We define pedagogical aikido as a set of spiritual practices aimed at the harmonious development of the individual: development of the will, self-control, unlocking the potential of the individual, regulation of emotions, restoration of relationships, gaining power, etc.
II Didactics. The peculiarity of the didactics of modern education is that it retains its own subject-oriented nature, expands didactic implicants, stimulates the development of new learning technologies. In the pedagogical context, this function should be taken into account in cases when certain events violate the situation customary for students / teachers, which significantly complicates their learning activities. The way out of this contradiction, we see the use of methodological innovations that help to relieve emotional tension and impart confidence in their own strength.
In this regard, the main in the learning process is the person who makes decisions based on rapidly changing grounds. Linear setting of tasks is not relevant today, but the following postulates are important:
- a variety of approaches to solving problems;
- learning is always a process and never a result;
- the key skill today is the ability to recognize patterns and see the meaning between areas of knowledge;
- The learning process is a decision making process.
III. Environment. For the successful implementation of the education process, the state of the environment (quality characteristics, resources, geometry, etc.) in which it is carried out is important. Environment is
1. An environment that has a configuration, a navigation system, its own information field, a development trajectory, the potential for integration interaction;
2. The semantic continuum that connects a person with the outside world, which informs, promotes certain moral and aesthetic values, has an ideological or organizational impact on the world view and social behavior of people;
3. A structure with the properties of connectivity, integrity, controllability, depending on the saturation of its various resources (Kuznetsov, Vovchenko, Samoilov, & Bykasova, 2018). Pedagogical science allows you to create a favorable environment for the existence of the subject of education in society, developing new practices that allow the learner to analyze the situation and conduct an audit of the surrounding team.
Since the 21st century is the age of digitalization, we consider timely the coverage of the “media environment” concept, which is actively included in the pedagogical thesaurus (Meyer, 2005). The media environment is a sociocultural phenomenon that has the following characteristics:
- high-quality content: archetypes, meanings, symbols;
- multi-layered substrate saturated with diverse informational material;
- intellectual substance peculiar to its subjects (Bykasova, 2016).
Environments can be artificially shaped. To do this, it is necessary to conduct a series of activities aimed at organizing various communities of diverse forms:
- methodical association of teachers, developing a model for organizing the project activities of students;
- scientific and creative community of students;
- interdisciplinary, universal projects that contribute to the further development of the environment (Sachs-Hombach, 2006).
Today's students will work with another contingent of trainees and this generation of Z. It becomes necessary:
- to create an artificial learning environment (conditions for the development of new educational platforms and technologies, effective interaction of subjects);
- to expand the range of applications in the practical work of social networks;
- to use maximum of gamification;
- to introduce into the educational process of artificial intelligence;
- to apply of a new type of information presentation - distant;
- to expand of mobile e-education;
- to use additional virtual reality;
- to apply machine learning, etc.
Specially created environment is capable of forming a subject of cultural activity; develop metasubject abilities (readiness for self-development, implementation of moral choice, continuous education).
The main functions of the environment, we believe the following:
a) communication is the connection of a person with other people. Today there is a rapid development of communication in the field of culture. Communication in modern society is considered as a form of spiritual communication of people (signs, symbols, images). In the course of communication, spiritual values are exchanged;
b) multimedia - a combination of various types of influence and perception in the process of interaction (up to the onset of synergy effect) (Sharonov, 2008);
c) toolality - the ability to use databases and information resources;
d) interactivity - providing feedback in the communication process (interaction), communication, information exchange;
e) extensiveness - ensuring the empowerment of the sense organs and other human systems through communication with the outside world.
These functions have a significant impact on changing the communication structure of individuals from various social strata. The Internet has a particular impact on the communication process. Due to the fact that the world wide web is (mostly) the privilege of young people, virtual space has become a place of constant communication between children and teenagers.
In the modern virtual space of communication, a special social medium is also being created that promotes
- the emergence of new virtual worlds that unite users around the world (Brenner, 2012);
- collaboration of students, teachers, parents (network form of communication) (Sokolov, 2008);
- the formation of a system-wide phenomenon: “the spirit of the school” as a certain emotional and axiological characteristic of relations.
The main attributes of the educational organization environment are:
- character (relations between the participants, regime moments);
- indicators (saturation, structuredness);
- parts (social contact, information, subject, etc.);
- discourse (training program, teaching style, nature of control).
We have identified the main characteristics of the environment, having
- effects (integral, consolidating, educational foresight);
- properties (training, education);
- modification (virtual, educational, educational);
- Relations (interpersonal, subject-object, object-object);
- factors (spatial, objective, material, etc.) (Schulz, 2006).
The modern educational space is a combination of various environments that traditionally existed in one form or another in the practice of Russian education and constituted its gene pool. The proposed definition of the concept “environment” allows us to use the functions of this concept: methodological, explanatory, transformative. Consider them:
1. The methodological function of the concept is the possibility of organizing the project activities of the subjects of education. In such projects, not only information technologies are taken into account, but also the psychology of relationships that are formed between subjects and objects in the course of joint activities: communication, sympathy, hobbies.
2. The descriptive function of the concept allows to characterize the environment as a pedagogical phenomenon that forms the education of the subjects of joint activities in the field of social relations. Joint activity is a system of interactions between the subjects of education, which is not static, but is constantly expanding and improving. The interaction of all project members is aimed at creating a socially significant product, which increases the motivation of participants, leads to the achievement of an educational result.
3. The explanatory function of the “environment” concept is that the ways of becoming the subjectivity of the project participants through their gradual integration into joint activities are clearly revealed.
4. The transformative function of the environment consists in the organization of joint activities aimed at the formation of horizontal relations between the participants of joint activities.
The variety of artificially created types of environments forms various qualities of the personality. For example, the scientific environment has to conduct laboratory or field research (development of scientific thinking); patriotic environment fosters love for the motherland, pride for the country in which you live, loyalty to duty (the development of devotion to the motherland); the aesthetic environment contributes to the disclosure of the deep qualities of the personality through participation in art studios, photo circles, choir (education of aesthetic taste); the sports environment unites all participants in the educational process through competitions in various sports (the formation of a healthy lifestyle); the anthropogenic environment forms a sense of responsibility for the aquatic, terrestrial, air, soil environment and living organisms (environmental culture of the trainees), etc.
The development of an artificially created environment takes into account the following principles:
1. Stereotyping and social inclusion (the subject accepts stereotypes of behavior in society and non-conflict part of the circle of communication);
2. The activity of the subject (the development of the existing rules, the "spirit" of recreation, the desire to occupy its own niche in the microsocium, etc.);
3. Continuity and consistency (the relationship of the sensual and logical, rational and irrational, conscious and unconscious in the behavior of the subject);
4. Integrity (the best didactic samples are concentrated in an artificially created environment, new methods are practiced, innovations are being tested);
5. Communicativeness (a specially created environment is comfort and psychological relaxation, disposing of the subject to a sacred conversation, which removes certain difficulties during socialization) (Blair & Serafini, 2014);
6. Meta-subjectability (a set of knowledge obtained in an artificial environment in horizontal and vertical structures).
Creating a special (educational, informational, scientific, etc.) environment makes sense because of the organization of communication at a qualitatively different level: it allows to combine discursive and intuitive elements of students' creative activity in the process of communication; theory and practice of the subject of education. At the same time, a new form of dialogue between the subject and the object of education arises - cultural and ideological, which means the synthesis of cognitive practices, the opening of a symbolic relationship - the state of creativity.
In summary, we note that
1. Modern education develops and diversifies all the processes associated with the transfer to the student of the values and meanings accumulated by generations;
2. Education today appears in such a cultural field, when the subject is an integrity of thinking and activity, which corresponds to the existential-anthropological concept of philosophy.
3. The principles of cognition as a synthesis of cognitive practices are: the distinction between an empirical and an existential subject, rationality and continuity, rootedness of cognition in being.
4. The goals of the development of modern education as a synthesis of cognitive practices are inextricably linked with the following ideas:
- creation of socially constructed education (with vertical and horizontal data exchange protocols);
- development of continuous and adaptive education;
- implementation of personalized education throughout the life of a person, necessary for his successful, productive and responsible activities;
- formation of flexible human resources as one of the leading educational resources;
- development of mechanisms for the implementation of individual educational strategies for all categories of citizens;
- bridging the gap between technological power and the level of spirituality of the social subject;
- development of educational infrastructure;
- ensuring an effective system of socialization and self-realization of the subject of education.
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28 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Pershonkova, E., Garmash, S., Petrushenko, S., Podbereznyi, V., & Bykasova*, L. (2019). Education Subject As A Synthesis Of Cognitive Practices. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 569-576). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.77