Within the scope of the study a literary text is considered in terms of linguosynergetic paradigm and appears as a dynamic self-developing system, functioning through the synergy of the meaning structure elements. The target movement of meanings in the text, realized by means of symmetry, is the most stable to fluctuations part of the system, which can be indicated as a nuclear zone of interpretation. The nuclear zone of interpretation correlates with the core of the author's intention and determines the perception of the addressee through the category of symmetry, it is characterized by such qualities as equilibrium, closeness, linearity, orderliness. The peripheral zone of interpretation is represented by the areas of the system that are most subject to fluctuations, most often these are areas of meaning uncertainty of the text space. The spontaneous movements of the meaning structure elements endow the meaning system with such qualities as disequilibrium, openness, nonlinearity, disorderliness. Individual readers’ interpretations are implemented as meanings, unintended by the author, emerging at the perception of the text by the recipient they represent self-moving meaning fluxes. Interpretation of vector semantics according to the reader's, not the author's objective determination leads to asymmetry of meaning movement and to destabilization in the meaning system.
Keywords: Linguisticslinguosynergetic systemmeaningliterary text
The attempts to define the meaning of a literary text within the framework of a particular linguistic approach have been made repeatedly. The complexity consists in the multi-aspect nature of the phenomenon studied and the variability of its interpretation. In the modern research paradigm, the meaning of a literary text is the object of study of many Humanities, thereby confirming the interdisciplinary status of the problem. Literary text has always been in the field of research of several sciences: linguistics, literary studies, semiotics, psychology. A special place among these disciplines belongs to linguosynergetics as providing an interdisciplinary approach. Linguosynergetics studies the processes that ensure the transformation of disordered structures into ordered; synergetic analysis of the language provides the possibility of acquiring new knowledge on the process of meaning formation.
Within the scope of the study a literary text is considered in terms of linguosynergetic paradigm and appears as a dynamic self-developing system, functioning through the synergy of the meaning structure elements. As traditionally considered, the system of literary text possesses such qualities as: equilibrium, closeness, linearity, orderliness. They are determined by structurally organized meanings that were originally determined by the addresser. They represent the core of the author's intention and determine individual interpretations. These meanings, however, are not static; they represent a dynamic system that develops in the course of the deployment of the text space at the expense of meaning increments.
The research is aimed at determining the meaning level of a literary text as a complex dynamic self-developing system. The correlation between the movement of meanings in the author's objective determination and the target movement of meanings in the text is defined. For this purpose the nuclear and peripheral zones of interpretation are singled out, and the basic principles of realization of self-moving processes at the meaning level are described. The most characteristic linguosynergetic categories inherent in the meaning system of a literary text are defined, their brief overview is given.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the research is to identify the dynamics of the literary text through self - moving processes at the meaning level (individual interpretations). Such interpretations may diverge from the author's intention and form “self-moving meaning fluxes” (Myshkina, 1998).
Synergy of self-movements of meaning fluxes provides an idea of the text as a synergetic system. The spontaneous movements of the meaning structure elements endow the meaning system with such qualities as disequilibrium, openness, nonlinearity, disorderliness. The text acts in this respect both as a repository of ready-made author's meanings, and as a generator of meanings, unplanned by the author, but arising due to a certain degree of receptive freedom, which appears by reason of differences in the level of interpretative communication of the addresser and the addressee. The differences in the interpretation competence of the addresser and the addressee may also arise from various extralinguistic factors - social, historical, cultural. “The writer, related to the system of the text selected for energy exchange, enters the dialogue with his predecessors and contemporaries, involving them to scatter his individual conception in the literary discourse of the era” (Fomenko, 2016, p. 25).
The study is performed by using such scientific methods as: observation, generalization, analysis, synthesis. The methods of linguistic description applied are the methods of semantic analysis, vector semantics of functors and the method of symmetry-asymmetry, that allows to establish the nature of the self-moving processes on the meaning level and to describe the nature of meaning increments that occur as a result of the synergy of meaning elements movements.
Linguosynergetic approach allows to “show in an entirely new light the phase transitions in the process of generation of a literary text by identifying the role of chaos in updating the order parameters, and to consider the complex dynamic system in the sphere of cultural exchange via self-organization of literary texts” (Fomenko, 2017, para. 8). A substantial contribution to the problem of synergy of language and synergy of a literary text in particular has been made by Myshkina (1998), Piotrovsky (2006), Belousov (2008), Pihtovnikova (2015), Dobronravova (1990) etc. The synergetic model of text formation, relevant to our research, was introduced by Moiseeva (2007), and the basic theses and concepts of symmetry and asymmetry in the linguistics of the text were developed by Ponomarenko (2005).
Since the meaning increments implemented by the author are systemic, they appear as a target movement of meanings in the text, developing in an orderly manner and drawing the reader with their threads in the direction of a particular idea, differences in interpretation of the meaning can be single, but not constant. In view of the fact that a certain system of meanings development has initially been set by the author, it is not possible for the reader to depart from it making serious deviations.
In order to prevent the possibility of granting the addressee complete receptive freedom, which would lead the system from order to chaos, the protective mechanisms of the text are triggered, strengthening the author's position and preserving the integrity of the text with respect to possible individual readings. These mechanisms, first of all, are the relation links between meaning elements at each of the text levels, and paradigmatic relations, which arise between them. In order to make modelling of the meaning level possible it is essential to define its structure units, among which we distinguish: beta-functor, functor, vectorial semantics, complex meaning unit, meaning construct, meaning plane, partial meaning and initial meaning. Functor is a lexical unit of the text, which functions as means of projection of semantics of text units into the space of a meaning plane. Functors are unevenly distributed in the text plane and irradiate a sheaf of semantic meanings. Lexical units that can reduce or enforce semantic valency of a functor are identified in terms of the study as beta-functors. We define initial meaning as the most general and core (global) meaning the addresser implements in the text, pursuing the main aim of transmission of the former to the addressee. Partial meanings deliver aspects of idea to the addressee. Relatively complete description of initial meaning reveals possible through integration of partial meanings, representing it (Zhurkova, 2018). The basis for the emergence of relations between the elements of the meaning system is the principle of symmetry, implemented by means of semantic repetition, reflected in the identity of semantic elements of functor and beta-functors as well as in the vector semantics of functors belonging to the same meaning plane. According to Barthes (1994, p. 57), "the product appears as a complete whole, in other words, as a whole, endowed with meaning, due to the regular repetition of the same units and their combinations". To preserve the integrity of meaning of the work in general, as well as its meaning planes in particular, it is not necessary to repeat the lexical units themselves, it is enough to repeat vector semantics in functors distributed in the plane of the text. The irradiation of identical vector semantics by functors and projection of meanings that are correlated with certain meaning plane is the realization of the category of symmetry that organizes the meaning plane of the text.
The reader's perception of the text transmutes from chaos to order. At the initial stages of reading the recipient sees functors radiating a set of meanings into the text, not knowing which of these meanings is preferential. The author determines the meaning perception of the text by the recipient through the distribution of elements of symmetry in functors and beta-functors in the plane of the text. The category of symmetry, which provides the correlation of functors by means of expressing identical meaning elements through their semantics is the basis of the target movement of meanings in the text. The deviation from symmetry procured by individual interpretations is perceived as asymmetry leading to disequilibrium of the system. To identify the target movement of meanings in the text, the reader needs to find the key to the author's code, to identify such elements of symmetry that would be supported by the whole system and would not get into disagreement with it. The symmetry elements are implemented in functors in the first place, but beyond that they are maintained by the whole meaning system of the text. The target movement of meanings in the text, realized by means of symmetry, is the most stable to fluctuations part of the system that can be designated as a nuclear zone of interpretation. The peripheral zone of interpretation is represented by the areas of the system that are most subject to fluctuations, most often these are areas of meaning uncertainty of the text space. The interpretation of vector semantics of the functor according to the reader's, not the author's objective determination leads to the asymmetry of the meaning movement and to fluctuations in the meaning system. Individual interpretations can be considered in the context of the linguosynergetic paradigm as fluctuations destabilizing the system. They are implemented as unplanned by the author meanings arising from the perception of the text by the recipient, and can be defined as self-moving meaning fluxes. With the predominant self-moving character of the meaning space, the meaning system can come into conflict with the movement of the text in the author's objective determination and become chaotic. This is mainly due to the fact that functors appear as bifurcation points in the meaning system. If in a certain number of functors the meaning movement of the text space is deviated from the author's objective determination, the system starts to converge to chaotic state. In such a case, the system becomes unstable with respect to fluctuations and the explication of any relevant meanings is practically impossible. Thus, the semantics implicated in the functor by the author is an order parameter on the semantic level that keeps the system from becoming chaotic, and the explication of the semantics different from that implied by the addresser will actualize the meanings unplanned by the author, in such case self-moving meaning fluxes appear. The peculiarity of the functors is that they dialectically combine the potential for the emergence of chaotic meaning fluxes, arising from individual interpretations, and for the implementation of meaning fluxes, determined by the author's objective determination.
In the process of reception of a literary text the target movement of meanings becomes explicit to the addressee, the elements of symmetry that correlate sets of functors with definite meaning constructs and later with the author's objective determination, are revealed. At that moment chaotic reading of the text systemizes, chaos converges to orderliness. Thus, symmetry can be regarded as the leading principle of organization of a literary text, studied as synergetic system, ensuring its gradual transition from chaos to order. The openness of the system is realized by means of self-moving meaning fluxes revealing both through functors and beyond them. The emergence of fluctuations in functors leads to disequilibrium of the meaning system, while the implementation of self-moving meaning fluxes in the areas of meaning uncertainty does not affect the equilibrium of the system. Due to the presence of individual interpretations the text appears as an open system. The text is characterized with the greatest degree of openness at the beginning of its reception by the addressee, when the order-parameter (symmetry) has not yet been uncovered by the reader. However, at some point, when the code of the author becomes obvious to the recipient, the meaning structure of a literary text elaborated in the mind of the addressee comes to identity with the meaning structure of the text, implied by the addresser. Individual interpretations become determined by the author's meanings and in the course of the deployment of the text space, the first ones lose their individuality and come to a state of isomorphism with the core of the author's intention. The text transforms from an open system to a system that tends to closeness, in other words, the transition from chaos or disorder, to order is being realized. It shall be noted that despite the possibility of high level of determinism, the system, reconstructed by the recipient, will never become a completely closed system, since the cases of increment of meaning, though rare, still remain possible. The text system may be characterized by complete closeness only regarding its creator.
The target movement of meanings in the text is aimed, first of all, at a certain result - at bringing the reader to the initial meaning of the text, which determines the entire text space. The identification of the initial meaning becomes possible through the synergy of meaning planes, when the meaning system reaches a qualitatively new level. The determination of the initial meaning is feasible only at the dynamic equilibrium of the meaning system, realized through the principle of symmetry. The prevalence of asymmetry in meaning reception, which is determined by self-moving meaning fluxes cannot lead the interpreter to the relevant initial meaning, i.e. to such initial meaning that in terms of target movement would reflect the core of the author's intention, but in terms of the semantic system functioning would not get into disagreement with its elements. The semantic system is dynamic, in the process of its development it overcomes periods of orderliness and disorderliness, stable and unsteady equilibrium, however, at the final stage of perception it comes to a state of stable dynamic equilibrium. The transition to dynamic equilibrium is characterized by the absence of possible oscillations of the system, most often it coincides with the generation of the initial meaning of a literary text. The initial meaning represents the global principle of symmetry reflected in different measure in all semantic elements. The dynamic nature of the integrity of a literary text is determined by its initial meaning, that is, the principle of subordination of parts to the whole, where the whole plays a constructive role, and the parts can undergo certain deformations due to their subordinate position. The meaning system realized by the principle of such subordination can be characterized by tension and unstable equilibrium. Subordination is considered as a dynamic process, and the meaning structure as a tense system, the stability of which is determined by the initial meaning.
Therefore, in the study of the meaning system in terms of linguosinergetic paradigm, we can distinguish the following principles of the system organization, namely: openness/closeness, linearity/nonlinearity, orderliness/disorderliness, equilibrium/disequilibrium, hierarchy.
The dialectical combination of openness and closeness of the meaning system is regulated by the ratio of the nuclear and peripheral zones of interpretation. The nuclear zone corresponds to the target movement of meanings in the text, deviations from which in the process of interpretation are minimal and do not make changes to the basic structure of the system. The nuclear zone correlates with the core of the author's intention and determines the perception of the addressee through the category of symmetry. At the same time, “the diversity of points of view enriches the work of art, which is, on the one hand, a complete and closed form, and on the other hand – an open product” (Olizko, 2009, p. 44). The openness of the system, that is, its interaction with the environment is regulated by individual interpretations, considered within the system as self-moving meaning fluxes. They bring new information to the system, enriching it and providing new elements for its development. Self-moving meaning fluxes are rarely implemented within the nuclear zone of interpretation, because they are not supported by symmetry and introduce dissonance in the dynamics of the semantic system, which cannot remain unnoticed by the interpreter. The sphere of their implementation is most often in the areas of meaning uncertainty, providing the reader with a certain interpretative freedom.
Categories of linearity/nonlinearity are realized at the level of perception on semantic and meaning levels. The semantic level is characterized by the linear construction and the linearity of perception determined by it, but the organization of the meaning level requires a transition to nonlinear character of perception, which allows to identify the sections of semantic symmetry correlated with a particular partial meaning in the text, and the identification of such correlations in the text that are not available through linear reading.
The category of symmetry is the basis of orderliness of dynamic development of the meaning system, since by revealing the elements of symmetry and their role in the meaning formation it is possible to “establish the laws of the dynamics of the meaning system of a literary text and to characterize on their basis the worldview concept of the author fairly and objectively” (Myshkina, 1998, p. 83). Symmetry is the basic principle on which the construction of the nuclear zone of interpretation is realized, this zone corresponds to the part of the meaning construct determined by the author's objective determination. Complete symmetry of the structure, however, is unattainable, since self-moving meaning fluxes introduce elements of asymmetry into it. Meaning structure “is organized, striving for symmetry, but at the same time self-organized, striving for asymmetry” (Olizko, 2009, p. 36). With the prevalence of asymmetry semantic structure becomes open and dominated by the flow of information from the outside, rather than by generation of information within the text space.
Stable states of the system are observed in the zones of symmetry, where the oscillations introduced into the system cannot disturb its dynamic equilibrium and cause a deviation from the target movement of meanings in the text. The instability of the system can be the result of fluctuations caused by self-moving meaning fluxes. In its development, the meaning system overcomes both periods of stable equilibrium and periods of unstable equilibrium.
As the survey on the material shows, textual space is symmetrized regarding a certain number of partial meanings; partial meanings in their turn are symmetrized regarding the initial meaning. Through the implementation of the category of symmetry in the meaning system, equilibrium dominates over disequilibrium, linearity over nonlinearity, closeness over openness, orderliness over disorderliness. Stabilization of the system means the convergence of the core of the reader's reception with the core of the author's intention and the adequacy of interpretation. Elaboration of the initial meaning implements the principle of dialogic perception and gives the reader an answer to the key question of the text which was previously implicated into it by the author.
The hierarchy of all text levels is determined by the meaning level, which determines the vector of meaning deployment of the text space. Modeling and analysis of the meaning level of the text space are possible in terms of linguosynergetic paradigm, by applying the principle of symmetry as a fundamental principle of dynamics development and self-preservation of the system with respect to possible fluctuations caused by individual interpretations, considered as self-moving meaning fluxes.
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28 December 2019
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Olizko*, N., & Zhurkova, M. (2019). Synergy Of Meaning In A Literary Text. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3747-3753). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.502