The article discusses the general patterns of development of physical culture, sports and their impact on the spiritual and moral education of the population in Russia. Particular attention is paid to the stages of spiritual and moral education. Each stage is fundamentally invariant, the mechanisms and structures of transitions from one level to another are also identical. The process of such transition is the result of the motivation of human social activity; the formation of the dispositional structure of the personality or the transformation of its interests into a specific goal. The historical process of formation of the educational system takes as a basis the harmonious development of the individual. The article shows that the task of our state is to create conditions for political stability, where effective economic laws must be created that stimulate economic growth, develop physical culture and sports in all segments of the population etc. Results of our research indicate that the pedagogical activity of the implementation of the process of moral education by means of physical culture and sports can be carried out quite effectively based on the author's programs. The study showed that moral education, based on the cooperation of young people, expands the educational opportunities of specific forms of education through patterns and mechanisms of group interaction. The study allows systematizing targeted cooperation in educational activities, forms the moral priorities of young people, enhances group cohesion, responsibility for the quality of education and the level of professional and pedagogical competence.
Keywords: Physical cultureeducationreligionsocietystate
The relevance of the study of moral education is determined by many factors. These include, above all, social systems (political, ideological, social, economic subsystems of society, as well as classes, nations, professional, demographic, territorial groups, education, culture, theoretical and practical pedagogy, etc.). The problem of moral education is eternal and is generated by the very course of the historical development of civilization.
It is important to know and reasonably combine in the spiritual and moral being the initial community of people as intelligent beings of the one world in order to form a feeling of unity of the human race, while preserving and multiplying the diversity of national cultures, customs and traditions. “We question the past so that it explains our present and tells about our future”.
Time, development, dialogue in culture, including physical culture and sport, as well as in all other spheres of life, demanded from young people the ability to cooperate, a tolerant attitude towards the world, truly moral in their activities (Ashmarov, 2015).
The ratio of many factors in traditional ethnic culture, including moral education, means of physical culture and sports, does not remain unchanged, it varies from epoch to epoch, from one national community to another. It is characteristic that the moment of commonality tends to increase with an increase in the degree of historical development and depending on the level and degree of inter-ethnic contacts.
However, each stage of development, unfolding in the next moment, can be both progressive and vice versa, which is quite common in Russian society during the period of its reforms (1991-2000). The moral social act is generated and carried out in a situation of concrete life connections, actions and relations of an individual. Physical culture and sports form an active humanistic environment in which, one can say, there is a struggle for the consciousness of people and, in particular, for the soul of the child, against aggression, drug addiction, desocialization (Balsevich, 1988).
The task of the study is to determine the model of development of spiritual and moral education, which is able to reflect the actual problems of young people in the educational process. This model can become isomorphic to its object, stop expressing something, and therefore it is necessary to consider the process only in stages, in accordance with the social laws on which the foundations of spirituality were formed, the main engine of which was pedagogy. This approach allows you to significantly closer to the essence of the problem (Buyeva, 1996).
Sociological studies have shown that physical culture and sports, to a greater extent than other activities, are carriers of specific relationships, as in this system, as in society as a whole, one can distinguish between agents of socialization, specific behavior and social interactions. A person engaged in physical culture and sports, communicating with people who have common interests with him, being a member of a certain group, a carrier of a certain subculture, cannot avoid the influence of the norms of behavior adopted in this group. In this communication, he communicates and assumes certain roles in the process and in identifying himself as a person (Ershov, 2010).
The historiographical basis of the study was the philosophical aspects of moral education; moral-psychological and interpersonal relations are revealed in the works of outstanding teachers; pedagogy and psychology of ethnos; the Genesis of culture is presented in the works; aspects of Ethnography; problems of sociological aspects (; aspects of the emergence and further development of physical culture, sport and their role in moral education is reflected in works (Frank, 1991).
Purpose of the Study
An important place is occupied by a theoretical analysis of the further development of physical culture, sports and their influence on the moral education of people. From the point of view of historical science, the appearance of means of physical culture and sports is due to three groups of factors or causes: universal, special and individual. Universal means of physical culture and sports, inherent in nature itself (walking, running, climbing, overcoming obstacles, etc.). Among certain means it is necessary to allocate motor actions associated with hunting, labor. Separate factors - the emergence of physical culture in the local conditions of the Earth - determine the specific features of humanity, although, as is known, humanity has both common to them and specific features associated with the specific conditions of life and human activity. All these factors are one, permeated by a universal connection (Grachev, 1938).
The main reason for the emergence of specific means of physical culture is being; this is what we understand for each ethnos separately. Being includes everything that can be perceived in any way, which one way or another can manifest itself in the mode of existence, which can bear traces of spatiality, temporality, modality, intensity. Thus, the means and physical culture and the sport itself, which are formed and developed in their everyday environment, are specific and original. Thus, being is the main cause of the appearance of both general and specific means of physical culture and sports. The development of being is a direct path to the development of physical culture and sports, and the interaction of both general and specific means of physical culture of different nations is the path to progress. It is known that history itself does not know the goals and the means, but only the cause and effect. If class society in the way of historical development ousted classless, won it, then it had decisive advantages over the latter. Under the tribal system, people were limited in their personal development possibilities. All their behavior was determined by customs, the norms of people's lives in a feudal society are in many ways different from those in a slave-owning society. With the advent of capitalism, they also change. Where the values of primary socialization coincide with the values of the secondary, the cultural heritage is preserved (Gurov, 2000).
In the course of the work, the following methods were used: theoretical analysis of psychological, pedagogical, philosophical, archaeological, ethnographic, historical, sociological, biological, religious, special literature on physical culture and sports, works of oral folk art; analysis of the curriculum in physical culture; study of the activities of secondary schools, colleges, universities to solve the problems of moral education by means of physical culture and sports; communication with teachers, lecturers, trainers, heads of educational bodies of various levels, religious figures; observation; interviews and polls; retrospective, quantitative and qualitative types of analysis; pedagogical experiment (Solovyova, 2017).
The formation of personality in a specific sociocultural environment in the process of its physical culture and sports was chosen as specific methodological principles. Holistic approach allowed to consider moral education in the context of the development of physical culture of the individual. A creative approach was explored in order to uncover the potential abilities of each young person in the purposeful mastering of the norms of spirituality (Verthuy, 1986).
The emergence of new moral principles and moral norms was made possible when history prepared a social basis for them. The moral development of mankind follows step by step after economic necessity; which precisely adapts to the real needs of society (Kaznacheev & Spirin, 1988).
Historicism recognizes the development of physical culture and sports with its subsequent influence on moral education as a relatively holistic system, the presence of discrete stages of development, the change of which is determined by the objective laws of society. Ancient Greek culture represented the ideal of man as a combination of physical beauty with spiritual and intellectual content. It is known that the harmonious development of the personality, of which Plato especially cared, consisted of such factors as mental, physical, moral and aesthetic development, which were an integral part of the general culture. The art of the East and its styles are a clear system of physical exercises with a philosophical, moral and ethical basis, which allows not only physically, but also morally, psychologically and spiritually improving a person. Today it is clear that culture, including physical culture and sports, the processes of upbringing are rooted in the depths of centuries. Laws reflecting the development trends of moral education by means of physical culture, determine the dynamics of the structure of a social object, the transition from one order of relationship to another. For the stage of long-term adaptation of the educational process, as evidenced by historicism, is characterized by the presence of pronounced, in many ways irreversible adaptive reorganizations. This process was difficult, and the achievement of effective results required appropriate knowledge, experience, conditions, goals, means, forms, methods, etc. One of the most effective means, as the analysis shows, is physical culture and sports (Parsons, 1985).
To solve new problems in the field of physical culture, sports and moral education in our country, state and public structures were created to manage the physical culture and sports movement, including moral education. The strengthening of moral principles in the life of our society requires the most serious attention to the formation of the moral principles of the individual. The process of physical culture and sports is one of the forms of human activity that has a great influence on moral character. It is important to constantly remember that the positive educational effect of physical culture and sports is possible only with skillful pedagogical use of their educational opportunities, with a creative approach to the use of means conducive to the education of valuable personal qualities. As society developed, the activities of organizations engaged in physical culture in the country increasingly covered previously unexplored areas of human activity and involved people in physical education and sports. Mutual assistance in the team, demanding each other, high discipline, ability to adapt their actions in the interests of the team, high diligence - all this can be brought up in the process of physical culture and sports. Sport is one of the areas of human activity, where moral standards are determined in accordance with its specificity. This is due to the fact that the athlete is in a diverse and complex relationship with other people. Under the conditions of the struggle, he acts with great physical and moral return, which requires him to be well-mannered, disciplined, restrained and strictly following the established norms and rules of behavior. The role of physical culture and sports in the development of moral education began to acquire, on the one hand, the scale, on the other - full value. The higher the level of sportsmanship of athletes, the more specific and thoughtful their judgments about moral values (Scheler, 1991).
Judging by the current state of affairs in the field of physical culture and sports, many scientific recommendations have not been reflected in practice. The system of physical culture that existed in our country during the period of socialist development began to change at the end of the last century. The fate of moral education is inextricably linked not only with what is given in the framework of history, but also with what its spiritual values and what influence the state has on them (Shchedrin, 1989; Berdyaev, 1989).
Analyzing the way of life in the 1990s of the 20th century, one can judge about the decline in morality in a significant part of people. Analysis of the development of the individual during the period of radical transformations of Russian society indicates the need for taking broad measures of spiritual and moral restoration. Summing up the formation and further development of physical culture and sports for the moral education of people, on the one hand, they should be considered in close unity, on the other, their interaction and mutual enrichment should be seen, and there is considerable potential for further development of moral education through the use of physical culture facilities and sports.
It is physical culture that is a social factor of effective influence on the process of physical development and improvement of a person, allowing to ensure the purposeful formation of his vital physical qualities and abilities. The physically normal human condition (which is just disturbed by the lack or limitation of physical activity) is the basis of human social activity. Physical culture is associated with a special kind of physical activity. This type of physical, motor activity in the form of physical exercises has an educational function, it develops not only the subject's organism, but also is connected with its behavior as a person (Vinogradov, 1991).
Consequently, the physical in man plays the role of the mechanisms by which his social functions are carried out. Only if physical activity is viewed from the perspective of human significance and value, does it become a factor in the true cultural development of the individual, the harmonization of physical and spiritual, sustainable familiarization with the physical culture (Zholdak, 1996). The process of physical improvement acts as a socially significant activity that promotes the development of not only physical but also spiritual abilities of the individual.
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28 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Lubkin*, Y., Dushkin, O., Ermilova, O., Voytovich, D., Novikov, Y., Shelestov, V., & Ershov, B. (2019). Physical Culture In Formation Of Spiritual Education Of Young People In Russia. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3648-3653). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.490