The article presents results of the study conducted in the framework of project No. 19-012-00531 “The vocabulary of the material culture of the Kalmyk language: experience of ethno-linguistic research”. The article discusses lexemes (хувцн, хувц-хунр, улв, девл, халвң), belonging to the thematic group “clothes”. They were identified on the material of the epic “Dzhangar”. Ethnolinguistic analysis of lexical units is carried out by various features (word compatibility, grammatical and accentological features of the word, dialectological features, etc.). The following ethno-linguistic patterns were revealed. Despite the fact that material culture is permeable and influenced by other cultures and progress, the epic language retains original Mongolian lexical elements. For example, in the language of the epic “Dzhangar”, two hyponyms “clothes” хувцн and хувц-хунр were found. These lexemes denote the totality of all types of clothing, including heroic vestment. The epos “Dzhangar” existed among Derbet, Torgut, Don Kalmyk-Buzava, therefore, depending on the localization of the narrative tradition, the language of the epos explicitly reflects dialect features of the ethnic group. For example, the Kalmyk literary (Derbet, Torgut) dentilabial в in the Buzavian dialect corresponds to the labial б in хобц-хонр ‘clothing’ binom (lit. хувц-хунр). The middle labial vowel
Keywords: Kalmyk languageepic "Dzhangar"vocabularyclothingethnolinguistics
In the modern anthropological paradigm of linguistic knowledge, language is studied in close connection with ethnoculture, and the person as a carrier of consciousness, language and culture is a focus of linguistics. Language, linguistic consciousness as a culture phenomenon, as a mirror of the spirit of the nation is the subject of research of one of the current trends in modern linguistics - ethnolinguistics.
If culture is defined as a system of values that characterize a nation, in this system, language occupies a central place culture has internal and external parameters that determine national specificity. Thus, the phenomena of the material culture (clothing, shoes, hats, architecture, household items and household goods, etc.) must be attributed to the external parameters (attributes) of the national culture. These parameters are historically variable, since material culture is permeable and influenced by other cultures and progress.
Folklore works, including the Kalmyk heroic epos “Dzhangar”, bear evidence of archaism, being a collection of traditions reflecting the ancient self-consciousness of the nomadic people. It reflects the naive picture of the world, its categories, universals and specific features. Understanding of the epic text, practical mastering it is determined by the features of its lexical composition.
Purpose of the Study
The article aims to analyze lexical units denoting items of clothes on the material of the epic "Dzhangar". The article studies the etymology of words, meanings of lexical units reconstructed based on various features (word compatibility, grammatical and accentological features of the word, word structure, etc.). A lot of works dealt with these cultural units (Erdniev, 1970; Bakaeva, 2008, 2017a, 2017b). However, these lexemes have not been analyzed by linguists. The works by Bachaeva (2015), Pyurbeev (2015), and Mulaeva (2015, 2016) deal with the lexical units of the epos “Dzhangar”.
The research material is 28 texts of recordings of the Kalmyk heroic epic “Dzhangar” (The Kalmyk Folklore Collection is being created by the Kalmyk Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It includes representative songs of the epos “Dzhangar”.) , which are combined into repertory cycles or are represented by separate songs: Maloderbet cycle (3 songs), Bagatsokhurov cycle (3 songs), Eelian Ovla's repertoire (10 songs, magtal), Mukebun Basangov (6 songs), Dawa Shavaliyev (4 songs, magtal), Nasanka Baldyrov (1 song), Badma Obushinov (1 song).
The automatic analysis of the corpus of the texts of the epic “Dzhangar” was carried out using the morphological analyzer “TextAnalyzer (Bembeev, Kukanova, & Kadzhiev, 2014). The automatic analysis of the texts helps deal with a large amount of information. Therefore, the contextological method is one of the main methods of analysis which establish typical consistency for each lexical unit. In addition, linguistic methods of analysis were used to identify features of the semantic definition in lexicographical sources, grammatical and accentological signs of the units. To identify and reconstruct the semantic meanings of lexical units, we used various lexicographical sources.
The composition of the thematic group of lexemes denoting clothes, types of shoes and hats found in the epos "Dzhangar" includes the following lexical elements:
1) clothing, the general term (hyperonym)
Let us start with the hypername
This lexeme was found only in the repertoire of Eelyan Ovly:
<...> " Тавгинтн шүүснд күртҗ, / Көлстә
<...> Дәәни олн зүсн зер-зевән агсад, / Элдв сәәхн
Since “Eelyan Ovla” was a representative of the Maloderbetan storytelling school, the use of the dialect lexeme
In addition to
The epos “Dzhangar” existed among the Derbet, Torgut, and Buzawa. In 1901, the collector of Kalmyk folklore I. I. Popov one chapter of “Dzhangar” “About Ulan Khongore” (Ubushiyeva, 2011).
Academician Vladimirtsov (1989) considers the Don Kalmyk language as a sub-dialect of the Kalmyk language, along with Derbet, Torghut and Brebrat. Kichikov (1967) considers it as a sub-dialect of the Derbet dialect of the Kalmyk language. Meanwhile, the Buzavian dialect differs from the literary language and other dialects of the Kalmyk language which is clearly reflected in the folklore records. For example, the Kalmyk literary (Derbet, Torgut) dentilabial
Bertagaev (1971) defines nominative binomials in Mongolian languages as “combinations of words of a paradigmatic level, performing the nomination function” (p. 121). In the Mongolian languages these binomial lexemes formed by the juxtaposition of two synonymous components are widespread. The semantics of these lexemes has a semantic nuance ‘collectiveness, intensity’:
In the songs of the epic "Dzhangar", one of the most frequent lexical units in the thematic group "clothing" is the word
In the Mongolian languages, this lexeme has two meanings: ‘1. seat cushion ’and‘ 2. quilted short top dress, jacket’. According to Dybo (2015), “specialization of the meaning as a detail of protective armament is observed in Oyrat sources; the Oyrat origin is confirmed by borrowings with the same meaning in the Turkic languages” (p. 21). As for the etymology of this lexeme, according to Dybo (2015), in ancient times the word
The lexeme was found in the texts of the Lowoderbet and Bagatsokhurov cycles, as well as in the repertoire of Eelian Ovla and Mukuben Basangov.
The following collocations with the lexeme
Currently, the Mongolian peoples wear stocking gowns
This lexeme was found in the texts of the Lowoderbet and Bagatsokhurov cycles, as well as in the repertoire of Eelian Ovla. The owner of this headdress is the spouse of Dzhangar Aga Shavdal.
The article analyzed only a small part of the lexemes (
The article was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research as part of the research project No. 19-012-00531 “The vocabulary of the material culture of the Kalmyk language: the experience of ethno-linguistic research" traditions and interaction "(state registration number AAAA-A19-119011490036-1)".
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21 January 2020
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Bembeev*, E., Batyreva, K., Vankaeva, E., Mukabenova, Z., & Ochirova, N. (2020). Ethnolinguistic Analysis Of The Lexemes Denoting Clothes Objects (On The Epos "Dzhangar")*. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 355-361). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.49