The article deals with the role of the media in popularization of amateur associations and hobby clubs. The role of federal and local newspapers in antinuclear and ecological movements has been analyzed. Local leaders of these movements and associations have been determined. They were scientific and creative community, in some cases leaders of Regional Committees, District Committees, and City Committees of CPSU. The article describes the role of students in Kazan – as chief participants of these movements. The authors analyze different stages and forms of ecological organizations, their functions and social role in the society. The development of ecological movement is caused by community understanding, establishments and wider population of overgrowing of environment degradation processes from local and regional into global ones. Specific character and possibilities of non-formal education in associations to influence social identity of children and the youth have been determined. Socio-economical, political and cultural events acute today are the main factors of these associations and movements’ origin. Eventually, ecological movements indeed can be forms generating and distributing ecological knowledge. Environmental organizations should re-estimate and change informational tools to guarantee their best application. It has been determined that causes of ecological amateur associations occurrence and activists’ values and aims are interconnected. The aims were gradually formed, following the values structure formation and basing on them. The results allow making a conclusion about the reasons of low social potential of local communities, articulating more perspective ways of socio-cultural support of changes in the local government.
Keywords: Ecological clubsregional politicsassociationsdiscourse
A member of the Academy of Science Saharov (2006) in the article “World in a Half Century” in distant 1974 wrote that by 2020 the ecological balance and human environment would have been seriously damaged. Scientific-and-ecological progress would bring no happiness if no deep changes in social, moral and cultural life of the humanity occur. The internal life drives of their activity are the most difficult to be predicted but they determine whether the civilization would survive or not (Saharov, 2006).
Dissolution of the USSR and the Republic of Tatarstan sovereignty drew our attention to amateur associations and hobby clubs in RT.
Analysis of media since late 80th early 90th of the 20th century evidence that the authors of that time reacted immediately and surpassed the desires and strivings of the numerous readership to involvement, to new events and culture in general, and amateurship in particular. On the one side, this aspiration was compensated by interpretation and publication of literature on new youth associations and organizations, on the other side, by addressing historical background of setting up children and youth associations and hobby clubs at the end of 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries. All this was timely, influenced the culture of our compatriots, but had no scientific interpretation and event description in the sphere of culture in general and amateurishness in particular at that time. This article deals with the role of the media, which immediately broadcasted those events.
Beginning from 1986 amateurishness’ problems received some attention in many republican editions. Newspaper “Vechernyaya Kazan’” raised the amateurishness and social associations’ issues. The analysis proves that the year was rich in ecological issues. For example, on 1986.15.12 this newspaper publishes the article titled “Let be an ecology club”. On 1986.5.12 republican newspaper “Komsomolec Tatarii” states: “There is a Kazan club – “Friends of Nature Club” and publishes this Club law (Muhachev, 1986). On 1987.17.07 “Vechernyaya Kazan’” reports the creation of ecological club at the editorial office. On 17 December 1988 “Vechernyaya Kazan’” informs the readership about the establishment of the “Ecological Fund” as a scientific and production fund in collaboration with Kazan State University named after Ul’anov-Lenin (currently Kazan Federal University). On 1989.2.09 “Vechernyaya Kazan’”, turning to the programme “Nasledie” – “Miras” that the time for consolidated ecological movement has come, notes in the article “Once again on the ecology of culture”, (Halitov, 1989). On 1989.10.10 the newspaper recommends to the community the Draft Regulations of the ecological movement. On 1989.18.08 the paper releases information on organizing an initiative group OAZIS – the department for active protection of the artificial environment in Kazan. The article “Ecology and Entrepreneurship” evidences the different perception of the ecology. The same newspaper on 25 April 1989, in the article “There is an alternative” reports about the All-Union movement “Sarkofag” (“Sarcophagus”) which included the ecological club in Kazan, All-Union Leninist Young Communist League Committee in Kazan State University named after Ul’anov-Lenin. This association passed the Development Agenda of Country and Republic Energetics (Kazakov, 1989). Newspaper “Soviet Tatariya” also turns to the problem of ecology on 30.12.1989. In the article “Where the trout lived” tells about the journalists’ club. This club was established in spring 1988 (Yakimenko, 1989). The club meetings were devoted to the prospects of non-waste technology implementation at industrial enterprises, alarm state of “small rivers”, issues of constructing APS in Tatarstan. This club was headed by Minnibaev T., the ideologic department instructor of CPSU Regional Committee (CPSU RC). It should be noted that ecological clubs, associations, funds were created not only in Kazan by the support of newspaper “Vechernyaya Kazan’”, but in other regions by the support of other newspapers of TR. In particular, an ecological journalist’ club in Almetyevsk should be mentioned. It was at the newspaper “Znamya Truda” (“Labour Banner”). The organizers and co-founders were Propaganda and Agitation Department of agriculture and food industry at CPSU RC, City Party Committee in Almetyevsk. It is reported in “Soviet Tatariya” in “A word in Defence” on 5 October 1988 (Haziahmetov, 1988).
Similar clubs appeared in Nizhnekamsk. Newspaper “Soviet Russia” on 21 March 1989 reports about it in the article “Journalists and Ecology” (Danilov, 1989). There appeared a socio-ecological union in Chistopole. Newspaper “Leninskij put’” reported about it on 1990.14.11. District Party Committee is a cofounder of the socio-economical union.
What was the reason for such a wide ecological movement of community and, first of all, of intelligentsia and students in the Republic of Tatarstan (РТ) in those years. First, these are NPS construction, biochemical plant construction near Borovoe Matyushino, Kazan, and geological disposal of the radioactive waste at the plant “Radon” and so on. All 1988-1989 had a slogan: “I am against the chemical plant and NPS”, “For” and “against” between “necessary” and “prohibited”. It is worth noting, that the establishments were “for” and citizens were “against”. In early 1990 there finally appeared “Green movement” in RT. The basis for that movement were the following social associations: Kazan City Ecological Club, nature protection brigades at KSU named after Ul’anov-Lenin (university), Kazan Chemical-Technological Institute, clubs “Greenpeace”, “Voshozhdenie”, departments of Tatar Social Center in districts of RT. The article “Green movement” reported about it in Tataria (Shafigullina & Green, 1990).
In 1992 these clubs, associations, brigades unite into Antinuclear society “Green peace”. On 2 July 1992 the meeting of Antinuclear Society in Tatarstan takes place. Its participants raised the issues about geological disposal of radioactive waste at “Radon”. This plant had existed 17 years before 1990 and accepted radioactive waste from neighborhood and republics.
Thanks to publications in “Soviet Russia”, “Izvestiya”, “Komsomol’skaya Pravda” and others these ecological movements in RТ become well-recognized, and as a consequence the third International Seminar of Association “Ecological Upbringing” takes place in Kazan’. Scientists from different associations, societies of the CIS, the FRG, the USA, and the Netherlands participate there. In particular, “Kazanskie Vedomosti” (Kazan’ Bulletin) on 22 June 1993 informs the readers about the events. On 1994. 20.04 newspaper “Izvestiya Tatarstana” (“Tatarstan News”) informs in the article “Ecofund: what are the perspectives” that an ecological fund was established (Hamidulin, 1994).
Media analysis showed that during this period “Antinuclear Society of RT” also functions. However, since 1994 these clubs and associations are rarely mentioned in newspapers. In particular Kazanskie Vedomosti in the article “Ecofund, as the nature can not be cheated” on 30 May 1995 (Frolov, 1995) Also, in magazines “Tatarstan” in 1996, № 1, p. 6–13 the article “Ecological movement in RT” the authors make an attempt to reconsider this event of the late 80th early 90th (Gazeev, Porfirjeva, & Kletov, 1996).
The magazine “Idele” in 1996, № 5/6, p. 76–77, in the article “For the sake of life...” turns to the ecological fund of RT and that was the last publication on ecological issues (Petrov, 1996). This allows us suppose the following: the state of ecological movement in RT in 1994 is at its top, there appeared eco-fund, Antinuclear society including different clubs, associations, brigades, and so on. For solving certain problems united or acted separately according to their Regulations. Thanks to active actions of these associations the construction of NPS, bio-chemical plant were brought to a halt, information on the state of rivers, air, and soil was published. Ecological services, which conducted inspection of food products, rivers and so on were established. Main forms of their activity were meetings, signature collection, and appeal to the Parliament, State Duma of RT and of RF, open letters, appeals to the community of public figures, creative intelligentsia, and ecological movement leaders. The trumpets of this movement were editor offices of the central newspapers, in particular, “Vechernyaya Kazan”, and local, regional, city newspapers. Moreover, newspapers, editor offices of the papers initiated the establishment of such clubs and movements. As particular occurrences, they were headed by the Regional Committee of CPUS, Komsomol District Committees, City Committees of CPUS, especially in 1986-1988. The driving force of these clubs, associations were scientific intelligentsia, the faculties of the universities, journalists, artistic intelligentsia, the most mobile group were the students of KSU named after Ul’yanov-Lenin (today Kazan Federal University) KCTI (Kazan chemical-technological institute) –KSTU. A significant role had the organization of the Board in KSU named after Ul’yanov-Lenin responsible for training the staff for this field – Board of Ecology. Workers and students of other establishments in Kazan joined this movement, in particular, students of Kazan State Institute of Culture, Department of Educational-and-Cultural Activities, the group and the club which we created “Atna kitch” – “On Thursday evening” (Kalimullina & Kalimullin, 2018). We actively participated in signatures collection against the construction of NPS, organized dramatized meetings, took part in torch processions, and built houses for the youth. We gave the received money as charity into the ecology fund and so on. No these diminish the role of the state in solving ecological problems in RT, in particular, the role of М.Sh. Shajmiev, the first President of RT. His letters, which concerned this issue, had been kept and released. It should be admitted that exactly ecological clubs, associations, societies, movements had a final impact on the decision to stop the construction of NPS and biochemical plant in RT. Unfortunately, today we have to state that these movements being the core matter of the socio-cultural event in RT starting from 1986-1993, having its glory hour, decreases in 1994. It does not mean that these clubs, associations, and brigades became not necessary and ecological problems in RТ had been solved. As a matter of fact, this is not about the end of this movement. Most likely, it is about steadying and activity of these movements within the Constitution of Russian Federation, and that one of the Republic of Tatarstan; the Act on Culture of RF, RT; Act on “Social Associations” and others. It should be noted that many “ideologists” of that movement, scientific, artistic intelligentsia in majority withdrew from these organizations with a filling of duty fulfilled. As analysis of certificates for amateurish associations and hobby clubs shows the main members of these clubs, associations, movements were pupils, members of the hobby clubs at Children’s Centers for Creativity and Recreation, the youth movement “Tatarstan heritors’ union” and so on (1970) as before. Moreover, the club of friends of nature in Kazan the “Ant” should be specially mentioned. It has been active for more than two decades. It is a movement of pupils for preserving and cleaning of nature area from rubbish. “Komsomol’skaya Pravda” wrote about it. Our motto is “Ant hill” (Dorofeev, 1986); the magazine the “Youth Leader”, “Forest. Kazan”, the “Ant” (Pankratov, 1990).
As we can see, the mass media tends to focus on all associations existing at that time, which results in shallow understanding of the subject. In most cases, these publications were devoted to a narrow issue. However, we think that these publications, though aimed at a wide scope of population, played an important role in the media of 90th the 20th century in the start of deep research dealing with different aspects of amateurship both in Russia and Tatarstan.
According to our analysis, estimating the common state of the amateurship and social movements, associations and publications of that period and research we can say that their scope was wider and more interesting in 1978- 1991 (Kalimullina, 2004).
State analysis of the problem in theory and practice allowed stating that in the period of 1987- 1991 the socio-cultural movement was characterized by a sharp increase – dominating of socio-political associations and clubs. Numerous researches, theses, the media and other sources point at it. There are studies where various media architecture are reflected in approaches to democracy typology and trace problems which media encounter in order to survive in globalization and digitalization (Buckley, 2000). We think this circumstance should be taken into account when analyzing the socio-cultural situation at a certain period in RF and RT.
To our opinion, amateurship in RT, reflects all the most interesting trends popular and supported by Republican research as a mould – guidance center of popular art and cultural-and-educational work (RRGC RT), administration of cultural-recreational establishments (CRE) and others. However, judging by our analysis, publications and processes in the society the following trends in hobby clubs and associations organizations were reflected:
– Ecological clubs and associations;
– Ladies’ clubs and associations;
– Military-patriotic, socio-political associations.
Post-event analysis of ecological movement studies in the Republic of Tatarstan.
As it has been mentioned above, there are ecological problems even today. That is why, the Government of RT passed the “Development concept of ecological movement in the Republic of Tatarstan for the period till 2015”. The “Youth ecological movement in RT” continues its work. Among the most important actions we can name issuing the bulletin the Center of Ecological policy in Russia “On the way to Russia’s sustainable development”, social children ecological movement operates “Green Planet”, preliminary concept note is considered of the “Concept of development of the ecological movement and education in Tatarstan till 2021”. N. N. Moiseev’s approaches to this issue where he talked about the “ecological socialism” were interesting. Such authors as А.V. Vinogradov study the history of Russian social ecological movement, the other author О.N. Yanitskiy made a review of the ecological movement in Russia. E. P. Sabodina turned to this issue. This issue was also reflected in works by U.U. Galkin, V.А. Smyshlyaev, М.G. Farnieva and others.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose is to study the role of the media in popularization of amateurish associations and hobby clubs. To analyze the role of republican newspapers in the evolution of antinuclear and ecological movements
The following methods have been used:
Scientific, methodical literature and special periodicals survey;
Regulatory documents analysis (RТ and RF), dealing with common issues of cultural politics, amateurish associations and hobby clubs.
Practical experience analysis of CRE RТ Kazan’, Naberezhnye Chelny, Al’met’evsk, Nizhnekamsk.
The source study base were – regulatory acts of Russian Federation, the Republic of Tatarstan, archive documents, of former and active amateurish associations and hobby clubs, projects and regulations, reports by RRGC and others.
Periodicals: magazines “Club and Amateur Activity”, “Club”, “Folk Art”, “Cultural and Educational Activity”- “Meeting”, library “For the Club worker”, PSL “Inforculture”, and regional: “Kazan”, “Miras – Herritage”, “Tatarstan”, “Idele” and others.
All said above allows us conclude that during a certain period the following trends of social associations and hobby clubs, colorful and varied in their contents (palette, form) existed.
Ecological which contained such associations as:
– An initiative group, brigades, clubs, ecological fund, consolidated ecological movement and as a result – ecological movement.
– Socio-Ecological Union, green movement and as a result – the antinuclear society.
– These trends became famous via newspapers “Vechernyaya Kazan’”, “Soviet Tataria”, “Komsomolec Tatarii”; in Russia – “Soviet Russia”, “Izvestiya”, “Komsomolskaya Pravda”.
Cofounders and organizers were the editorial offices of the papers:
– “Vechernyaya Kazan'”;
– “Znamya truda”(“Labour Banner”), “Al'met'evsk”;
– “Leninskij put'” (“Lenin’s Course”) (CHistopol').
Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that amateurship becomes a socio-cultural movement in RT at that time.
The last decade of the 20th century was marked with qualitative changes in an interpretation of the national practices in amateurish movement. These changes are rather contradictory. On one hand, Russia continuing its development within its boundaries lost creative, scientific, cultural bounds with former Union republics and their scientists. Their achievements became difficult to know. On the other hand, a new scientific environment is being formed which allows new research on the former base. Increase in national identity and simultaneous active appeal to own historical, national, scientific experience and the experience of other states creates the grounds for greater achievements in different spheres of knowledge including cultural studies.
There is no doubt that studying national practice of amateurship can be a perspective modern trend of a cultural science. This fact confirms the process of development of the exploratory activity. Estimating the way of studying (presentation) of amateurship in RF and RT at a certain period of time it would be fair to mention that it is studied as an event of Russian culture and is done in the following directions:
– Preparation and publication of popular literature about amateurship, carriers of a certain culture and for a wide readership;
– Methodical and teaching-methodical literature for practicers;
– Media publications describing new organizations at a certain historical period whose aim was to describe on the spot and popularize this event;
– General scientific studies of the amateurship issue in our country;
Scientific works devoted to studying different aspects of the amateurship (theses) in RF and RT.
That allows making the following conclusions:
– Amateur associations and hobby clubs is the richest area of emotional strain, artistic development, social creativity, giving where a variety of emotional expressions of every individual, where a person receiving emotional experience makes the other one emotionally richer.
– Cooperating with others a member of the association acquires existence lively experience, valuable for his whole life, in particular and for the society in general.
– Institutionally organized associations give a possibility to a person to express oneself, choosing what is interesting, corresponds to the abilities, and exactly here a bright individuality of a person is formed.
We would like to finish citing Saharov (1996) “Ecology is percieving the world as a house. Nature is the house where the man lives” (p.84). Ecological hobby clubs and associations will help to conserve our common house. We think, the media has proved our thesis.
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21 January 2020
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Kalimullin*, D., & Kalimullina, G. (2020). Social And Cultural Practical Aspects Of Social Activity Development In Tatarstan. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3531-3538). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.474