Emotive Adverbs In The Kabardino-Circassian Language


Emotions play an important role in a person’s life. Emotive vocabulary that explores semantic, derivational, grammatical, syntactic ways of denoting and expressing emotions in linguistics is one of the components of the lexical-semantic system of any language. Emotiology is still a new undeveloped section in Kabardino-Circassian linguistics. The paper discusses adverbs – lexical and grammatical group of emotive vocabulary, the smallest of the significant parts of speech. It is noted that adverbs in Kabardino-Circassian grammar are a "live" and actual linguistic category and exhibit a number of features that distinguish them from other languages ​​(Russian, English). The semantics of emotive adverbs is defined, their morphological composition is analyzed, the most productive way of formation is identified and the correlation of these units with adjectives is highlighted. The paper compares emotive adverbs with the category of state, which is still a controversial phenomenon in linguistics in general, and the one unexplored in Kabardino-Circassian linguistics in particular. Therefore, possible variants of the combination to indicate the emotional state of a person and to express predicativeness in the Kabardino-Circassian language are considered. As a result, the role of хуэдэу, and ещхьу в adverbs in the formation of such emotives is revealed. Idioms occupy a special, significant place in the emotive vocabulary of the Kabardino-Circassian language, therefore, adverb-adverbial modifier models indicating the emotional state of a person were investigated. Comparative phraseological units with emotive meanings that converge with the category of the state in semantics and the predicativeness are also analyzed in this context.

Keywords: Emotive adverbsemotiologymorphological compositionderivationpredicativeness


Adverb in linguistics is traditionally defined as an unchangeable part of speech to indicate a property of an action, quality, or a subject. That is how it is characterized in school, university textbooks and grammar books. Nevertheless, scientists are divided over the essence of adverbs. The views of Russian scientists of the mid-nineteenth century are of interest (Aksakov, 1846; Shakhmatov, 2001; Peshkovsky, 2001, etc.). They defined the adverb as a syntactic category: “An adverb is not a part of speech ... It expresses a relation, it is a syntactic phenomenon itself” (Vinogradov, 1972, p. 43). As long as the twentieth century, Jackendoff (1972) called the adverbs "the most insidious part of speech" (p. 37) and drew attention of foreign linguists, some of whom started to compare the adverb with the "dust bin" (Palmer, 1975), or "grammatical bin" (Trask, 1993), since all the words difficult to identify are found in the "grammatical bin". Today, despite many studies by Russian and foreign linguists and attempts to classify adverbs, this section of morphology is still a lot of controversy because of its heterogeneity (Huddleston & Pullum, 2002; Buysschaert, 2010) due to the lack of a single principle in semantic classification, etc. In the Kabardino-Circassian language, adverbs are a very special part of speech, since formally, according to external properties, they do not differ from the forms of declension of content words. This allowed some researchers to deny the presence of adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language as part of speech (Elberdov, 1948). Gyaurgiyev (1963) explained this comparatively poor morphological appearance of Kabardian adverbs by "complex morphological system of the verb which in most cases forms a combination with the adverb, i.e. the properties of the verb-predicate are typically indicated by not independent words-adverbs, as in many languages, but by various affixes that form the verb stem" (p. 93). This paper considers adverbs in terms of emotiology.

Problem Statement

Emotive vocabulary is one of the most important branches of linguistics. The study of emotions, ways of their indication, expression and functioning in speech contributes to the knowledge of culture, language, and, therefore, the self. Despite the similarity of emotions experienced, each national culture has its own specific forms of their manifestation (Wierzbizcka, 1999) even if native speakers are forced to live outside their homeland (Abazova, Hutezhev, & Unatlokov, 2018). The linguists have ignored emiology over a long time. According to Shakhovsky (2009), the problem of categorizing emotions was "quite exotic and dangerous" until the mid-1970s since more often it caused hostility but not interest. Very few research papers addressed emotions (Aitchison, 1987). Emotiology in Kabardino-Circassian linguistics is still a poor studied area (Bizhoev & Tokmakova, 2018). Therefore, the development of its individual issues will undoubtedly contribute to the development of not only emotive vocabulary but also the lexical-sematic system of Kabardian-Circassian linguistics as a whole.

Research Questions

One of the relevant aspects in the study of emotive vocabulary is the study of emotives as grammatical units. This approach, in our opinion, can disclose the underlying structures of the semantics of emotives, which will provide more opportunities to convey emotions. Almost all traditionally distinguished significant morphological groups of words are presented in the emotive language of the Kabardino-Circassian language: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and interjections. Adverbs are not the most numerous of the listed grammatical groups; however, they are relevant for study like of all aspects of emotiology. According to the semantic classification of adverbs traditionally used in the Kabardino-Circassian language (Kabardino-Circassian language, 2006), emotives are referred to the attributive qualitative category. Most emotive adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language belong to the semantic class of "emotional state" that imply feelings and emotions currently experienced by a person (Tokmakova, 2017).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to analyze emotive adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language and to identify their semantic, morphological and functional features.

Research Methods

The study of emotive adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language requires a set of methods. This paper employs the following linguistic methods: a descriptive one to collect and systematize materials on the research topic; a comparative one to identify common and specific features in Russian, English and Kabardino-Circassian languages, to identify their similarities and differences in the study of adverbs, categories of state, etc.; a structural one to detect the relationship between semasiology, morphology in order to establish the most productive ways of forming emotive adverbs, etc. The paper also uses methods of analysis to select and study adverbs that indicate the emotional state of a person, etc. and methods of synthesis to combine the category of state with emotive adverbs, etc.


Emotive adverbs are represented in the Kabardino-Circassian language by various emotions, for example, Іэлу means "fiercely, wildly", ябгэу "menacingly, violently", нэжэгужэу "gaily, cheerfully, hospitably, cordially", гуапэу "heartily, kindly, warmly" гумащІэу "goodheartedly", нэщхъыцэу "angrily, frowned", шынагъэншэу "fearlessly", etc. The vast majority of emotive adverbs in the Kabardian-Circassian language the emotional state is primary ( нэщхъейуэ "sadly, moodily, glumly, sadly, somberly"; нэщхъыфІэу "gaily, cheerfully", гущыкІыгъуэу "disgustingly, detestably", etc.). However, there are also adverbs with a derived meaning (compare ткІийуэ 1. "tightly", 2. "strictly, severely"; хуабэу 1. "warm, hot", 2. “cordially, affectionately”; дыдж-дыджу 1. "bitterly", 2. "malignantly, scathingly ", etc.) (Dictionary of the Kabardino-Circassian language, 1999).

According to the morphological composition, the considered emotives are derivatives, i.e. formed from other parts of speech. They are mainly derived from qualitative adjectives by means of the suffix – у //– уэ : щысхьыншэ "ruthless" – щысхьыншэ + у "ruthlessly, mercilessly"; щтэІэщтаблэ "timid, indecisive" - щтэІэщтаблэ + у "timidly, indecisively"; еру "cruel, fierce" – еру + уэ "cruelly, fiercely"; нэщхъей "sad, sorrowful" – нэщхъей + уэ "sadly, sorrowfully", etc. These are simple derivatives of emotive adverbs that feature the degrees of comparison preserved from qualitative adjectives: compare щысхьыншэухущытын "treat sb. mercilessly", нэхъщысхьыншэухущытын "treat sb. more mercilessly," and щысхьыншэдыдэухущытын "treat sb. very cruelly." Despite the derivation (from adjectives), these words have common features with verbal adverbs, which are also formed with the suffix –у//–уэ , adjoin the verb and are used in the sentence as adverbial words.

The considered emotives include complex derivatives formed by 1) adding two or more stems ( къакъэ-пщІыпщІу "gaily, cheerfully, lively", гуфІэ-гупсэу "joyfully; happily", гущтэ-гулэу "frightenedly", Іэдэб-лъэдэбу , "calmly; sedately", etc.), 2) by reduplication of the same stem ( щІэщыгъуэ-щІэщыгъуэурэ "capriciously", хуэмей-хуэмейуэ(рэ) "without desire", нэщхъей-нэщхъейуэ "rather sadly", щІыІэ-щІыІэу "reservedly, unfriendly", etc.). Only the second component is formed with the– у//–уэ suffix in complex derivatives of adverbs of emotions. In terms of semantics, these words indicate a less specific quality as compared to simple derivatives of adverbs.

Zubenko (2015) noted that a similar effect of adjectives on adverbs derived from these adjectives can be observed in English. When analyzing their semantic connections, she came to the point that adverbs derived from adjectives should "inherit" their semantics (Zubenko, 2015). Based on the classification of adjectives given by Dixon (2004), Zubenko (2015) distinguished 13 semantic classes of adverbs, including the class indicating the state and mood of a person, which is the most numerous class that motivates to act in a certain way. In fact, these emotive adverbs are of interest to us.

Speaking about emotive adverbs, we should mention the category of state, which along with the words that express the volitional state, the physical state of living beings, the state of nature, environment and surroundings includes the words to indicate the mental state of a person. The place of the category of state is not yet clearly defined in linguistics. Some researchers refer it to adverbs due to their morphological immutability (Fries, 1952). Others (Scherba, 1957; Vinogradov, 1972; Rayevska, 1976) report that the category of state is a separate part of speech. According to Vinogradov (1972), the category of state includes indeclinable-nominal and adverbial words that have forms of tense and are used only as a predicate. They "differ from adjectives and nouns since they are indeclinable and have tense forms, and they differ from adverbs in tense forms and inability to determine verb and adjective qualitatively or contingently" (Vinogradov, 1972, p. 321). Nevertheless, in modern Russian language textbooks, the words of the category of state are often considered within the section "Adverb" (Razumovskaya, Lvova, Kapinos, & Lvov, 2017), however, certain isolation of these words is noted. In "Modern Russian Literary Language" edited by Kostomarov and Maksimov (2003), the state category is considered as a special subgroup of predicative adverbs denoting emotional, physical, and some other states. As it is noted in the textbook, unlike other subgroups of adverbs, they act as a predicate, the main member of a one-member sentence, not as an adverbial modifiers ( In the evening everyone was bored: The room was cold ) (Kostomarov & Maksimov, 2003).

In the grammar books of the Kabardino-Circassian language, the category of state is not mentioned in the studies of leading specialists in Circassian languages. This is likely due to the fact that, firstly, the role of predicativity, which is inherent in the words of the category of state, in the Kabardino-Circassian language is performed by the verb, which is used with one or another adverb ( Хъыджэбзыр нэжэгужэу къызэплъащ "The girl looked at me cordially"). Secondly, the semantic expression of emotionality and predicativity in the Kabardino-Circassian language can be observed in adjectives that act as a predicate ( НобэфыкъызэкIуар си гуапэщ. "I am pleased that you have come today"). In the Kabardino-Circassian language, there are a lot of cases when adverbs act as predicates, thus acquiring predicativity. But this typically concerns adverbial adverbs that do not fall into the category of state. In this regard, it is necessary to consider separately the adverbs of хуэдэу "as if, as though, like smth." and ещхьу "like, similarly", which in semantics do not express the mental state of a person. However, these adverbs can introduce some shades of emotiveness into sentences while fulfilling the syntactic role of a complex predicate in a sentence. In these cases, хуэдэу, ещхьу are used with predicative affixes –щ, -т, -къым depending on the communicative function performed by the sentence. For example, Лиуан и мэлыхъуэхьэрзэрыкъугъырдыгъужьым хуэдэущ "Shepherd Liuana is howling like a wolf (lit.: "The manner shepherd Liuana’s howling is like a wolf. Бийм и щIытIым тIасхъэщIэххэрзэрыбгъэдэпщхьарлъэнузызыгъэхьэзырааслъэным ещхьущ . "Scouts crawled up to the enemy's trench like a lion ready to jump (lit.: "The manner of crawling to the enemy's trench by scouts is like a ready-made lion's jump. The components of хуэдэу, ещхьу are often replaced with affixes –у//-уэ, which are used to indicate the nominal component (Kabardino-Circassian language, 2006, p. 421): дыгъужьым хуэдэущ "like a wolf" – дыгъужь- у "howling as if a wolf"; лъэнузызыгъэхьэзырааслъэным ещхьущ "like a ready-to-jump wolf". In our opinion, only in these cases we can speak about the category of state in the Kabardino-Circassian language.

Comparison and specifics of the analysis of adverbs in terms of indication and expression of emotions allow us to consider phraseological units of adverbial character, especially since phraseological units occupy a special place in Kabardino-Circassian emotiology. According to Kremshokalova (2014), the Kabardino-Circassian language has the richest phraseological material, it figuratively and concisely includes a complex of cultural meanings accumulated by the Adyghe people over a long period of time. Since phraseological units reflect the specifics of the national linguistic consciousness of the Circassians, they are most numerous part of the emotive vocabulary. Here are some examples: (и) гуркъитхьэщIыкIауэ "with a light heart" (lit.: with a clear heart), гукъанэхэлъу "offendedly", гупсэмхыхьэу "deeply" (lit.: to the bottom of the heart), Iупсыркъыжьэдэпхъэпхъыу "with foam at the mouth (from impatience, anger) "(lit.: spraying with saliva), пэщхъыным (гъуэзыр) кърихуу "furiously" (lit.: smoke from the nostrils), etc. These emotives represent the basic model of adverbial phraseological units – "name + adverb form". Some of the phraseological units of this variety have special accompanying words, without which they are not used in the adverbial meaning – Iум ису (къехьэкIын) "make much of sb." (lit.: to carry sb. in mouth), и жьафэкъемыхыу (дыхьэшхын, гъын) "without stopping (laugh, cry)" (lit.: keep lips), etc.

We have considered the adverbs of хуэдэу, ещхьу in combination with the names. Now we will consider them as part of comparative phraseological units with an emotive meaning: щыблэуэнымхуэдэу (бзаджэщ) "angry, threatening like thunder" (lit.: like lightning which is about to hit), тхъукъыщахуамхуэдэу "as if he was blesses" (lit.: as if he was covered with oil), мастэхэлъымхуэдэу "unbearably " (lit.: as if a needle is stuck ), etc. According to Kardanov (1973), the grammatical peculiarity of the adverb хуэдэ is that it has predicative affirmative affixes –щ, -т in combination with a participle with a case affix –м , and this makes it possible to consider these phraseological units ( блэуэнымхуэдэщ "like a snake (angry)", хывпыджэнымхуэдэщ "like a furious buffalo" to be a special predicative unit of a comparative nature. This, in turn, allows us to assert the proximity of similar phraseological units with the category of state.


Emotive adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language are used to express feelings experienced by a person at this particular moment. Due to this, most of these adverbs fall into the semantic class "emotive state". Similar to other adverbs in the Kabardino-Circassian language, a distinctive feature of emotive adverbs is their external similarity with the forms of content words. The semantic-word-formation analysis of emotive adverbs showed the greatest number of derivatives from adjectives defining their main morphological features, namely, the category – attributive, qualitative, degrees of comparison. However, the considered emotive units reveal common features with verbal adverbs. Comparison of emotive adverbs with the category of state that was not developed in Kabardino-Circassian grammar revealed their identity when individual nominal components of comparative expressions with adverbs of хуэдэу, ещхьу are used to express the emotional state of a person and perform a predicative function. The specificity of emotive vocabulary in the analysis of relevant adverbs allowed us to use phraseological units of adversarial nature and to study their basic morphological model and features of its functioning in the language, as well as to consider identical comparative phraseological units with an emotive meaning. The latter with the adverb of хуэдэ , which can be formed using predicative affixes in combination with the participle, are close to the words of the category of state in terms of characteristic features.


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21 January 2020

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Tokmakova*, M., Bizhoev, B., & Dzuganova, R. (2020). Emotive Adverbs In The Kabardino-Circassian Language. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3138-3144). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.423