In the article, the author examines the instruction procedure of census department heads, their assistants, instructors and supervisors, counters before the 1959 All-Union Population Census in the town of Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk region. The success of any census depends on many factors - on the willingness of society to participate in this event, on the high professionalism of the selected personnel who work directly with population during the census. The 1959 All-Union Population Census is special of its kind. This is due to the fact that the previous census in Russia was conducted in 1939 that is twenty years ago, not ten, as is customary in all countries. Considering this fact, the Central Statistical Office (CSO) paid great attention to the training of personnel who participated in the realization of a large-scale project to implement the 1959 All-Union Population Census. For several months, intensive recruitment and training took place and, at the final stage of preparation for the census, the CSO formulated and sent to the regions clear requirements for processing and transmitting the data received from the population.In the study, the author relies on the fundamental work of Russian and foreign scientists. The works of Russian authors are distinguished by the latitude of research and the global nature of conclusions on these problems. Scientific works of foreign authors are filled with locality and close attention to details, which is especially valuable for a researcher. In conclusion, the author summarizes the process under consideration and comes to logical conclusions.
Keywords: Historical demographycensusUral
The relevance of census issues is confirmed by modern foreign studies. The team of authors Weber, Seaman, Stewart, Bird, and Reith (2018) in their work Census-independent population mapping in northern Nigeria cover the issues of remote sensing, which is used in estimating the population, correlate data from national censuses with micro-censuses. With the help of satellite images, they create a binary map of settlements, which helps predict the development of society.
Anderson (2015) in the article Censuses: History and Methods claims that the census is a complete count of the population, usually a nation, conducted by the government as of a specific date. The data perform a variety of functions, including political distribution, program planning, fund allocation, marketing analysis and forecasting. Censuses are costly, socially and technologically challenging, and serve to draw public attention to demographic patterns and changes (Anderson, 2015). The population census is the official count of population in the country and the collection of information on individual demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population. Valente (2015) writes about this in his work Censuses: Current Approaches and Methods. He reasonably claims that all countries conduct a population census at least once every 10 years, often with a housing census, which is the official count of the housing stock and collection of housing characteristics. Along with traditional census methods, the author points to the development of alternative approaches using register data in combination with field data collection and other sources (Valente, 2015).
However, for 10 or more years that pass between population censuses, society is globally changed, Woods (2009) writes about this in his work “Evaluating population estimates in the United States: Counting the population between the censuses”. Demographic assessments of society, which play an important role in public policy and research formation, should be conducted between censuses. The article provides a brief history of population assessments, as well as a discussion of general principles for estimating and understanding population assessments (Woods, 2009).
Speaking of alternative ways of counting the population, it is impossible to mention the work Urban phenology: Toward a real-time census of the city using Wi-Fi data of the team of authors Kontokosta and Johnson (2017). New data streams are generated by a variety of in-situ tools, mobile sensing and social media that can be integrated and analyzed to better understand urban activity and mobility models. Effective modeling of population dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution has significant implications for city management and policy, strategic long-term planning, emergency response and management, and public health care. The article develops a census of the city in real time using Wi-Fi data to study urban phenology as a function of localized population dynamics (Kontokosta & Johnson, 2017).
Kish (2001) in his article Statistical Systems: Censuses of Population states that a population census usually means a complete record of the people and housing units found in the country on a certain date. After sporadic efforts in various countries, modern censuses began in 1790 in the new US and continued for decades. For two centuries, censuses had been the main source of national statistics and international comparisons. Today, the content, quality and methods of censuses have significantly changed and will change in the future (Kish, 2001).
At times, particular attention of scientists is attracted to certain aspects when studying the chosen stratum of the population. Suwanro, Tongkumchum, Choonpradub, and Dureh (2018) demonstate this in their study Socio-economic status of youth non-participation in Yala province: Population-based study using Thailand 2000 census data. They have studied the impact of demographic and socio-economic factors on the non-participation of young people in the life of Yala Province based on the 2000 Thailand Census and Housing Fund data. The shares of non-participation and determinants have been modeled using logistic regression (Suwanro et al., 2018).
It is impossible to separate society and the environment in which it exists. Yu, Wardrop, Bain, and Wright (2017) speak about this in their research Integration of population census and water point mapping data – A case study of Cambodia, Liberia and Tanzania. They address the complex issue of water resources and improvement of the drinking water quality. They have analyzed the inconsistency of data on population size and water supply points in their work (Yu, Wardrop, Bain, & Wright, 2017).
Russian scientists pay no less attention to demography issues. Thus, Isupov (2000) in his work “Demographic disasters and crises in Russia in the first half of the 20th century. Historical and demographic essays” described the demographic subsystem intensity of the Russian society of the first half of the 20th. According to the author, demographic crises turned into disasters, which had a deplorable effect on the population during this period. In terms of destructiveness and casualties, he compared the element of nature with wars that caused no less damage to society (Isupov, 2000).
A group of authors headed by Poliakov (2005), an academician of Russian Academy of Sciences in the three-volume edition of “The population of Russia in the 20th century” in the third book reveal the period of the 60–70s, in which they consider the natural course of demographic processes being not interrupted by wars and socio-political cataclysms. The researchers have developed a concept for a discussion issue in science about the peculiarities of the demographic transition in Russia to a new type of population reproduction. New materials show the demographic consequences of urbanization, migration and emigration of the population; main trends in the development of urban and rural families (Poliakov, 2005).
This paper examines the preparation for the 1959 All-Union Population Census - the first post-war census, which was conducted as of January 15. She counted the extant and resident population. The program-methodological questions of the 1959 census were discussed at the All-Union Conference of Statisticians from 4th to 8th of June in 1957 in Moscow. The scientific community took an active part in addressing issues related to the census. A single census date was established in urban and rural areas, which became traditional for all subsequent population censuses. The census data processing was completely mechanized. The development of the census results according to the established program was carried out by the Central Machine Record Station of population census by USSR Central Statistical Office.
The subject of this study is the instruction procedure of the census department heads, their assistants, instructors and supervisors, as well as counters before the 1959 All-Union Population Census in the town of Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk region.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the work is to study the documents received from the Central Statistical Office (CSO), on the eve of the 1959 All-Russian Population Census, containing direct instructions for the census takers of the city of Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk region.
The author used historical descriptive, historical and chronological methods, as well as methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison in the study.
In accordance with the decision of the USSR Council of Ministers and the instructions for the 1959 All-Union Population Census, regional inspectors of the Central Statistical Office were appointed responsible for conducting the census on trains. Responsibility for the landing of census brigades was assigned to the heads of stations; to the timely provision of data on the population of carriages in trains to the instructor of the brigade and for sending information received from the train brigade leaders to the census headquarters; to providing census brigades with a place to rest while waiting for a train; to providing the census brigade train on the return journey. According to the order of the Ministry of Railways, instructors, supervisors and counters who were invited to conduct a census on trains on the night of January 14 to 15, 1959, were granted the right to free travel by rail. The right to free journey was a certificate of the established form.
On January 5, 1959, the head of the Statistical Department of Chelyabinsk region, I. Iasiukov, sent instructions to the inspector of the Central Statistical Office of Zlatoust, according to which, in order to check the readiness for the population census, it was recommended to hold meetings of census departments heads, their assistants before January 10, 1959 to which representatives of the SC CPSU and the district executive committee were invited. The following items were checked at meetings: 1. provision of each census block with instructed personnel; 2. learning census instructions and other documentation by census department heads and their assistants; 3. reports of census department heads on the state of preparation were announced. In conclusion, it was set: а) provision of equipped rooms, transport, census department communication, instructor stations; b) provision of census departments and instructor stations with a complete set and the necessary reserve of census tools; organization of the protection of census departments and instructor stations; c) filling in the books of instructors-supervisors and counters; d) readiness for the census in closed institutions, hotels, houses of collective farmers, guest houses, railway stations, etc.; e) the state of mass explanatory work among the population, the state of visual agitation, the design of streets, squares, equipment of stands, exhibitions (Zlatoust Archive Department).
After the meeting, the heads of census departments held meetings with instructors-supervisors and counters. A CSO inspector or his assistant was present at these meetings; a representative of the city executive committee was invited. The meeting tested the learning of responsibilities and census instructions by instructors-supervisors and counters.
Special attention was paid to the procedure for recording temporary residents and temporary absent, drawing up control forms, issuing certificates, filling in answers to 12-15 questions of the census form and answers to question 14 for dependents of workers and employees, as well as consolidated statements. Provision of the census department head and the instructor-supervisor for room, transport, communication was checked.
For all identified deficiencies, immediate measures should have been taken to eliminate them. These meetings were one-day. The inspectors of the Central Statistical Office had submitted a memorandum on the results of meetings to the Statistical Office by January 12, 1959.
In addition to the previously sent list of works, the Statistical Office of Chelyabinsk region provided the content of telegraph messages of the inspectors of the Central Statistical Office about readiness and census progress sent to them at a certain time.
By the end of the day on January 9, a message on issuing census documents to the counters was sent: the total number of counters of the main counting stations (without a reserve); paid reserve of counters; the total number of counters at counting stations in closed-type institutions, hotels, in congestion points of moving population, in trains (including counters of reserve brigades at stations of census brigades landing in trains and at checkpoints); the number of all counters who received census documents (without a paid reserve); the number of main instructor stations; the number of instructor stations where brief instructions on the procedure for conducting a preliminary round were conducted with counters; the number of counters present at all instructor stations.
The next telegram was sent at 12 noon on January 11 - the beginning of a preliminary round of the stations’ premises by counters. It contained information on the number of main counting areas in which the counters were to conduct a preliminary round of the premises and warn the population about the upcoming census; on the number of counters of the main counting stations, which began a preliminary round of the premises on January 11; information on the number of counters that, for any reason, did not start a preliminary round of the premises (illness or other reasons) on January 11 and the measures taken to ensure the round of the premises in the stations of these counters.
The third telegram was sent at 12 o'clock in the afternoon on January 14 - about readiness for the census. It indicated the number of counters who had completed preliminary rounds of the premises of their stations, information about the availability of full readiness for the census on transport (about test trips made by census brigades to trains, about the creation of instructor and counting stations); on the provision of readiness for the census in closed institutions and hotels.
The fourth telegram was sent at 12 noon on January 15 - the beginning of the census. It contained information on the total number of counters of the main stations (without reserve) that started the census; the number of counters in closed-type institutions, hotels, in the congestion points of the moving population, in the trains that started the census (including the counters of reserve brigades at the stations of the census brigades landing in the train and at census checkpoints); the number of counters who, for whatever reason, did not start the census and the measures taken to conduct a census at these counters’ stations; the number of trains in which the statistical office was supposed to conduct a census; the number of trains in which the census was taken.
By the end of the day on January 18, the fifth telegram was sent - about the census in urban settlements and in rural areas. It indicated the number of people enrolled in the census form at the end of January 18 in the main enumeration stations; in institutions of a closed type, hotels, in points of a congestion of the moving population and in trains. Areas where it was difficult to conduct a census, the measures taken to ensure the ideal census were indicated.
At 12 o'clock on the day of January 23, the sixth message was sent - about the end of the census at the fag-end of the day on January 22 and the beginning of the control round. It contained information on the total number of counting stations, including counting stations in closed institutions, hotels, in congestion points of the moving population, in trains, as well as counters of reserve brigades at landing stations and control points that conducted the census in trains; counting stations among them where the census was completed within the prescribed period; about the number of instructor stations in which the control round was started.
In the seventh telegram of January 24 - on the census results by the end of January 24, including the results on closed institutions, hotels, in the congestion points of the moving population and trains, including data on civil population, rewritten by the ministries. By the end of the day, on January 25, the eighth message was sent - on the course of the control round: A. City - the number of counting stations where the control round was conducted; the number of people additionally entered in the census forms, as well as the number of control forms compiled during the control round. B. Village (data indicated in the order, as for the city).
By the end of the day, February 3, the ninth report was sent - about the results of the control round by the end of February 1 separately for the city and village, including the census results for closed institutions, hotels, the congestion points of the moving population and trains, as well as data on civil population rewritten by the ministries.
By the end of the same day, on February 3, the tenth message was sent - about the delivery of census materials by instructors-supervisors on reserve brigades at landing stations and checkpoints.
By the end of the day, on February 6, the eleventh message was sent - about the delivery of census materials by the census department heads to district / city inspections. By the end of February 19, the final twelfth report on the results of the analysis of control forms by CSO district / city inspectors. The content was about the number of compiled control forms: the number of control forms of inter-district migration; the number of control forms of inter-regional migration; the number of control forms of district migration; the number of control forms for which recorded people were found in the census forms at the intended place of the census, and what is more the records in the 2nd and 3d questions remained unchanged; the number of people recorded on control forms that were omitted in the course of the census and re-recorded in the census forms; the number of control forms, the address part of which was compiled in a defective way and therefore it was not possible to make a collation with the census sheets.
The census departments heads associated with the district inspectors by telephone, transmitted reports by telephone and at the same time sent confirmations by post or express; reports were telegraphed from the census departments, not connected with the district inspections by telephone and far from the regional centers. The heads expected the supplementary letter on the procedure for the provision of preliminary results of the census.
Thus, the instruction of Zlatoust census takers was carried out in accordance with the decision of USSR Council of Ministers and the instruction for conducting the 1959 All-Union Population Census. The heads of census departments, their assistants, instructors-supervisors, and counters highly rated the effectiveness of the final instruction procedure, which had a positive impact on the performed work.
- Anderson, M. (2015). Censuses: History and Methods. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 302–307.
- Isupov, V. A. (2000). Demographic disasters and crises in Russia in the first half of the 20th century. Historical and demographic essays. Novosibirsk: Chronograph.
- Kish, L. (2001). Statistical Systems: Censuses of Population. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 15049–15053.
- Kontokosta, E., & Johnson, N. (2017). Urban phenology: Toward a real-time census of the city using Wi-Fi data. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 64, 144–153.
- Poliakov, Iu. A. (2005). Population of Russia in the 20th century. Historical essays of 1960–1979. Moscow: Russian political encyclopedia.
- Suwanro, S., Tongkumchum, P., Choonpradub, C., Ma-a-lee, A., & Dureh, N. (2018). Socio-economic status of youth non-participation in Yala province: Population-based study using Thailand 2000 census data. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(1), 129–134.
- Valente, P. (2015). Censuses: Current Approaches and Methods. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 296–301.
- Weber, E., Seaman, V., Stewart, R., Bird, T., & Reith, A. (2018). Census-independent population mapping in northern Nigeria. Remote Sensing of Environment, 204, 786–798.
- Woods, S. (2009). Evaluating population estimates in the United States: Counting the population between the censuses. Government Information Quarterly, 26(1), 144–147.
- Yu, W., Wardrop, N., Bain, R., & Wright, J. (2017). Integration of population census and water point mapping data – A case study of Cambodia, Liberia and Tanzania. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220(5), 888–899.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
21 January 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
Cite this article as:
Suvorova*, A. (2020). Instruction Of Zlatoust Census Takers In Run-Up To All-Union Population Census. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3000-3006). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.404