The Great Patriotic War demanded the greatest effort and enormous sacrifice, revealed resilience and courage of Soviet people, ability to self-sacrifice in the name of freedom and independence of the Motherland. During the war, heroism became a norm of behavior. Thousands of soldiers and officers immortalized their names in Brest, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kiev, Leningrad, Novorossiysk, Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk, in the North Caucasus, the Carpathians. The research subject is the history of the Great Patriotic War and participation of Chechen soldiers in this war. In particular, the military path of Movladi Visaitov is described. The article is devoted to the military path of the commander of the 28th Guards Cavalry Guards Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov who participated in the battles since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. M. Visaitov accomplished a lot of feats. The meeting on the Elbe River is the brightest event in the life of the hero and our history. The meeting of Soviet and American troops on the Elbe River is the final stage of the Great Patriotic War. On April 25, 1945, the 28th Guards Cavalry Regiment under the command of the Guard Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov was the first to enter Torgau region. This event was included in the chronicle of the Second World War. Visaitov was the first Soviet officer to shake hands with the commander of the American army General Bolling. This historical fact deserves special attention, since the Chechen people were deported to eastern regions of the USSR.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic WarChechen warriorsMovladi Visaitovfeat
Thousands of Chechens have written pages in the bright history of the war with fascist invaders, fulfilling their patriotic duty. High examples of courage were demonstrated during this terrible and cruel war. From the very first days of the war, thousands of Chechens joined the army; over 10 thousand workers joined the militia. Over the years of the war, more than 50 thousand people were mobilized to the front, of which 30 thousand were Chechens. The courage of the Chechen warriors was legendary, their courage was an example for soldiers; front-line newspapers and leaflets wrote about them.
Chechens along with representatives of other nations combatted the fascists near Bryansk and Kursk, Leningrad and Stalingrad, Smolensk and Kerch, they forced the Dnieper River, defended the Volga River, Moscow and the Caucasus. They fought in Berlin, France, died for Prague and Warsaw. Many of them have been undeservedly bypassed by rewards for their combat merits. However, not thinking about medals, they demonstrated courage, fulfilled their sacred duty, remained loyal to their people. The feats of the Heroes of the Soviet Union Hanpasha Nuradilov, Abujadzhi Idrisov, Hansolt Dachiev, Movladi Visaitov, Dasha Akayev, and Alaudin Ustarkhanov will have never been erased from the memory of the people.
Over the past years, much has been done to reflect the greatness of the Victory in historical science, reveal the sources of mass heroism of the Soviet people, their high spiritual and moral qualities, show the decisive role of the Red Army in defeating the German fascist troops. The contribution of the peoples of the USSR to the Victory over the enemy was shown. There are a lot of works which deal with various aspects of the issue. One of the first works is the monograph by Abazatov (1973). The works by Filkin (1989), Gakayev (1988), Ibrahimov and Khatuev (2005, 2015) address the issue of participation of Chechens in the war. Participation of Chechens at the final stage of the war is discussed in the research by Tsutsulaeva (2005, 2009, 2010, 2016). The works of Zvyagelsky (1990), Duhaev (2013) and Batsaeva (2016, 2017) are devoted to Movladi Visaitov. The researchers have carried out a lot of research. However, there is no comprehensive research on the combat path of the commander of the 28th Guards Cavalry Guard Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Visaitov (1966). There are his memoirs about his battle path (Visaitov, 1966).
The research subject is the history of the Great Patriotic War and participation of Chechen soldiers in this war. In particular, the military path of Movladi Visaitov is described in this article.
Purpose of the Study
The article aims to highlight the life and activities of the commander of the 28th Guards Cavalry Guard Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov.
The methodological basis was the principles of objectivity, science and historicism, involving the study of facts and phenomena in their diversity, in particular historical conditions of their emergence and development. On the basis of the principle of historicism, the life and activities of the hero of the Great Patriotic War Movladi Visaitov in a specific historical situation and in chronological order were described.
Movladi Visaitov is a legendary hero of the Great Patriotic War. Movladi Visaitov was born on May 13, 1913 in the village Nizhny Naur in Nadterechny district of the Chechen Republic. In 1932, he graduated from the cooperative college. He worked as a store manager. In 1932, he decided to enter Krasnodar Cavalry School, but since he was not yet eighteen years old, he was refused. However, he managed to enter this school. He persuaded the village council worker to change his date of birth. In 1935, having gradated from the school in the rank of lieutenant, he was sent to one of the regiments of the Crimean Cavalry Division (Batsaev, 2016).
M. Visaitov was professional, courageous, and integral. In 1940, in the rank of lieutenant commander, he commanded a squadron. This year, in the rank of captain, he was sent to Moscow to take the course for commanders.
Visaitov participated in the war since its beginning. In the first months of the war, he covered his name with unfading glory. The regiment under the command of M. Visaitov crushed the advanced units of the Nazis. His military talent and boundless courage were the subject of universal admiration. Already in July 1941, Movladi Visaitov was introduced to the Order of the Red Banner. The case is unique even without regard to his nationality. The soldiers loved and respected the fearless commander for his courage and bravery.
Mikhail Sholokhov bought one of the best horses in the country and sent it to the best cavalryman of the Soviet Army. The horse was given to Visaitov.
One of the episodes of the military life of the Chechen hero is connected with this horse.
It was not far from the Don River. It was a cloudy and foggy evening, and it was difficult to distinguish Soviet soldiers from the enemy. M. Visaitov decided to check the left flank. He rushed on a horse to meet a convoy of infantry, and having approached them, he realized that they were the Germans. He spurred the horse, crashed into a column and when their guns started to shoot, he was already out of reach. However, the bullet took him. In the darkness, it was difficult to navigate. Visaitov remembered that the native village of Sholokhov was somewhere nearby, and the horses were able to find their way home. Since he was too weak from blood loss, Visaitov lowered the reins and trusted the horse. The horse really brought Visaitov to Veshenskaya which was not yet occupied by the Germans. (Zvyagelsky, 1990, p. 43)
The legendary commander M. Visaitov took part in the Stalingrad Battle. He freed Poland. He was awarded the Order of Lenin, Red Banner, Suvorov, Red Star. According to the commander of the 6th Guards Cavalry Grodno Guard Division Major-General P. Brikel, “for personal courage, skillful command in difficult conditions, Visaitov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union”.
In 1942, M. Visaitov was sent to the 114th Chechen-Ingush cavalry division formed in Grozny. After its disbandment, the 255th Chechen-Ingush cavalry regiment and the separate division were created at its base. M. Visaitov was appointed the chief of this regiment staff (Duhaev, 2013).
In February 1944, the Chechen-Ingush people were deported to Kazakhstan. The command was given to "withdraw" all Chechen officers from the combat units and bring them to Moscow. From Moscow, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Having got this terrible news, one hundred military officers came to the snowy Red Square early in the morning and stood up hoping that someone from the top leadership would be interested in this unusual parade and listen to them. They were surrounded by NCIA officers. This protest could cost them life, but Marshal Rokossovsky insisted that the Chechens be returned to their units and preserve all their awards and titles.
Later, Visaitov participated in the battles for liberation of the Crimea, Ukraine, took part in the Koenigsberg battle, went to East Prussia.
In April 1945, the 28th Guards Cavalry Regiment under the command of MA. Visaitov in cooperation with tank and artillery regiments, broke through the enemy defense near Schwedt (Germany) and captured Hammelppring and Rheinsberg. By the end of May 2, 1945, the regiment reached the Elbe River. In the north of Wittenberg (Germany), Visaitov was among the first to meet with the the Anglo-American army which launched the notorious second front. From the end of April to the beginning of May, Visaitov managed to crush up two enemy regiments, capture 50 settlements and destroy a lot of manpower and equipment of the enemy. In addition, the regiment commanded by Visaitov liberated 3,000 Soviet citizens and more than 500 prisoners of war from the concentration camps (Tsutsulaeva, 2005).
On these days, the Elbe meeting was held. Visaitov was the first Soviet officer who shook hands with the commander of the advanced American units General Bolling. In honor of this historic meeting, Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov presented General Bolling with the most precious thing he had – his own warhorse. The general gave him his jeep. On the same days, US President Truman singled out Visaitov for the Legion of Honor order. This order is an extremely rare and honorable award. In the United States, if the holder of this Order enters the room, those present, including even the president, are obliged to stand up (Zvyagelsky, 1990). Few enthusiastic responses were written about Soviet soldiers:
Lieutenant Colonel Visaitov committed heroic feats for the period from January 1 to May 2, 1945. He showed qualities of a skilled military leader, neglecting his own security during the battle which ended with the final defeat of the German army and Elbe meeting with American troops. The skill, valor and excellent performance of duties ensured the success of the military operation. (Duhaev, 2013, pp. 87-88)
The story about the famous meeting was later falsified. In historical science, instead of Lieutenant Colonel Visaitov, another person with “right nationality” and “stainless biography” participated in this meeting. Justice was restored only after the rehabilitation of the repressed peoples in the late 1990s. This happened after the statement of the American veterans of the Second World War who announced the substitution. Visaitov became a hero of the USSR only on May 5, 1990. For personal courage, skillful command of the regime, Comrade Visaitov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. He died before restoration of historical justice.
Visaitov accomplished a lot of glorious feats. Only for two spring months of 1945, the regiment commanded by Visaitov captured more than 2500 soldiers and officers. He destroyed 7 tanks, 6 armored personnel carriers. For these feats, the regiment was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and Visaitov was awarded the Order of Lenin. During the war years, Visaitov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, Suvorov of the 3rd degree, Red Star, medals: "For Military Merit", "For the Defense of Stalingrad", "For Victory over Germany". He had Soviet and foreign medals (Polsih, Hungarian and Czechoslovakian). In 1945 he was singled out for a title of Hero of the Soviet Union. However, for obvious reasons, he was not awarded this title (Duhaev, 2013).
In 1945-1946, Lieutenant Colonel Visaitov studied at the Military Academy named after M.V. Frunze. However, in 1946, as a representative of the deported people, he was sent to the reserve. There is a copy of his report addressed to Stalin. The hero writes:
I do not belong to the category of officers who are to be demobilized due to old age, disability or for some other reason. It seems to me that the only reason for my dismissal is my nationality. There is no other reason. I know that our ideology is alien to biological principles, principles of racial hatred which were the principles of the ideology of the Nazis. During the war, I was inspired to fight the enemy not for life but for death believing in our Victory. This faith made me unshakable in the most difficult situations. (Zvyagelsky, 1990, p. 44)
In his report, Visaitov writes that he would like to continue to serve in the ranks of the Red Army of the great country that he defended. He received no answer. It is strange enough that he was not subjected to repression. The Legion of Honor order might have saved him saved.
After the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1957, Lieutenant Colonel Visaitov worked as a Deputy Minister of the Interior of the Republic. Then, he took various positions in the national industries. For a long time, he lived in Grozny.
During the war, he met people of various nationalities. Some of them became his lifelong friends. An Ukrainian woman Galya who treated him after he had been wounded in the battle near Taganrog was one of them. Visaitov found her after the war. The friendship of two families - Chechen and Ukrainian - continued until his death. Visaitov died on May 23, 1986. He was buried in Nadterechnoe.
The people knew and loved Visaitova. He glorified his name by feats and good deeds. Throughout his life, he helped people, protected the offended and poor. Therefore, people remember him.
He was one of those who expressed their opinions. He was a courageous man who said what he thought. At the same time, he was a very responsive person, he always helped people. For his military merit, he was endowed with both rights and authority. M. Visaitov is a man of legend, the pride and honor of our people. He is a real hero. It is a pity that he did not have the chance to receive his well-deserved reward.
Thus, the Chechen warriors took an active part in the Great Patriotic War. The study described activities of the commander of the 28th Guards Cavalry Guard Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov. He was singled out for a title of the Hero of the Soviet Union. However, due to his belonging to the repressed people, he was not awarded with this title. Only years later, justice triumphed. The analysis of the published material helped reveal biographical information about him and reproduce the hero's military path. At the same time, a comprehensive study of archival materials is needed to reflect the life and activities of the commander of the 28th Guards Cavalry Regiment of Guards Lieutenant Colonel Movladi Visaitov.
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28 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Matagova, K., Gaitamirova, S., & Batsaeva*, I. (2019). Military Path Of The Hero Of The Soviet Union Movladi Visaitov. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 278-283). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.39