The genesis of economic interests has a rich historical heritage. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that modern economic reality can not have an unequivocal way of development due to the presence of a complexly-structured system of interaction between economic entities the relations of which are based on multiple interests and different reasons for their activity. They depend on a whole complex of various factors. At the same time, there are practically no specific proposals or recommendations on the coordination of interests. In our opinion, economic interest acts not only as an integral part of a single economic system, but also ensures the interaction of economic entities with economic laws. Understanding the category of “economic interest”, many authors have directly opposite interpretations. Considering economic interest as an object and a subject, it is necessary to note that on the one hand, it is objective. Due to the fact that human behavior is always subjective, such phenomenon as a manifestation of interests should be considered as subjective. Therefore, considering economic interests from the point of view of the economic system and as elements of this system, the authors argue that they are the carriers of the feature of objectivity. The authors note that motivational foundations and their subsequent actions in the context of the manifestation of economic interests acquire the feature of subjectivity. Thus, economic interest can be defined as a form of manifestation of economic needs, expressing the economic benefits, the benefit of a person.
Keywords: Economyeconomic interestsbusiness modelssystem
With the development of the theory of economic interests, the methodology of their research was formed. The multidimensionality of the categories “interest”, “economic interest” is determined by the decreasing relevance of scientific research on this topic (Slepakov, Sidorov, & Orlova 2017; Slepakov, Novoselova, & Khubulova, 2018; Novoselova, Shulga, Mikhayushkin, Kolpak, & Kabrits, 2018; Kazakov, Bobryshev, & Golchenko, 2014; Popova, Sorokozherdiev, & Spirina, 2015; Taranova, Podkolzina, Prokhorova, Kolomyts, & Kobozeva, 2018).
As a “pioneer” economist, whose work was devoted to the study of economic interests, the authors highlight Tyurgo (1961). Tyurgo (1961) for the first time attempted to justify the category of “interest”. He proposed to classify interests and needs and for the first time summed up the scientific base under the category of “interests” and “needs”, the relevance of which has not changed since that time.
The evolutionary trends that embraced the modern economy make it possible to overcome the limitations of certain interpretations and theories that have already occurred and are occurring with economic phenomena and processes.
Outstanding scientists and researchers studied the classification of interests (Chernetsova, 2011). This researcher considered this category through the prism of the interaction of a person and higher intelligence. “If physical world is subject to the law of motion, then spiritual world is no less subject to the law of interest” (Chernetsova, 2011, p. 372). However, the representatives of the classical school of political economy (Slepakov et al., 2017; Slepakov et al., 2018; Novoselova et al., 2018), were the first who defined the economy itself “as the world of wealth, characterized by social division systems of labor , the movement of goods and money, the accumulation of capital and the distribution of incomes” (Chernetsova, 2011, p. 378). The followers of the classical school believed that the economic system reproduces independently those economic phenomena and conditions under which laws are formulated. These laws, in their turn, determine the formation of the forecast trajectories of their own development. The disadvantage of this approach is in the fact that these researchers did not take into account human factor, that is, the interests of an individual, which at various times had specific features and underwent transformation, which contributed to the emergence of conflict (crisis) situations and phenomena.
The subject of the research is the organizational and economic relations formed in the process of ontogenesis of economic interests under modern conditions.
The systemic economic crisis of the 21st century, which shook most of the countries of the world, showed that objective economic laws operate in economic relations, that any socio-economic system has its own laws that, regardless of the multiplicity of secondary processes in it, consist of hidden and more global causes that have a significant impact on the economic situation.
It is necessary to understand that there are certain definite patterns of their development not only in economics, in nature, but also in all areas of public life (Klochko & Zelinskaya, 2017; Klochko & Reznichenko, 2018; Slepakov et al., 2017; Slepakov et al., 2018; Novoselova et al., 2018; Kazakov et al., 2014; Popova et al., 2015). These patterns do not depend on the fact that at first glance it seems as a jumble of multiple accidents.
In the context of the development of the economic life of any society, it is necessary to note that all production processes are subordinate and governed by laws. The existence of these laws does not mean the absence of unforeseen phenomena or distortions in social development, and the manifestation of laws in a separate phenomenon is not necessary. More often, they manifest themselves in the totality of certain processes and phenomena. However, any law is a necessary, essential and repetitive link between society and the feature of nature. The relation is inherent in many economic phenomena, for example - the price of a commodity and the amount of labor expended on its production; necessary working time and free time; supply and demand; production and consumption, etc.
The enforcement of law does not depend on the will or consciousness of a person, it is born under the condition of the emergence of relations and economic interests, expressing their basis while regulating such components as production, distribution, exchange and consumption of life benefits in this period of development.
The set of economic laws (pricing, cost, time saving, etc.) reflecting the laws of development of society is a system of economic laws. In this system it is impossible to rely on the main laws, all of them are important and interrelated, and if one of them is violated not only the system can be disturbed, but also the balance of society as a whole.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to study the nature and processes of development of economic interests at various management levels.
During the course of the research, systematic approaches, as well as methods of observation, analysis, comparison, and generalizations were applied. The authors also used the method of scientific knowledge, analysis and synthesis.
It was found that along with the multiplicity of objective laws of society, there is an economic law, which according to numerous sources is defined as follows - it is the most important, unchanging and necessary perception of economic phenomena and processes that determine their dynamics. The essence of this law is to uncover the causal link of the mode of production, where one side generates the other. Its content is closely related to its essence, and the elements of the law are as follows: cause-and-effect relations, the process of interaction between parties, the forms of this interaction and the result of this interaction. However, there may be other elements, so the assessment of the content of economic law is possible only if its operation and identification of certain elements of the mechanism of its action.
There are many economic laws of historical nature. Human activity is subject to various economic laws, through its entry into historically determined economic relations. Therefore, any economic laws express the deep connections of economic phenomena and are characterized as value concepts of economic development.
The compliance with these concepts, i.e. deep connections, contributes to the sustainability of economic development. The deviation from the laws not only interrupts the development of economy, but also destroys its integrity. In this regard very important component is the awareness of business entities and the state, in particular, the full operation of economic laws and the construction of an economic system in accordance with their interpretation.
An economic entity in carrying out economic activity primarily pursues its own benefit and personal interest, which, as a result, leads to a clash of interests in general. In this regard, the system of development of economic interests should be based on such priority areas as the creation of conditions under which the balance of interests of all subjects should be achieved. However, due to the limited economic resources, there is a need to conduct economic activity, taking into account the totality of economic processes. The factors determining the emergence of this situation are the presence of its own, unique economic system in each state, which incorporates a set of diverse activities, and the activity of economic agents is reasoned by the fact that it is closely dependent and interconnected with other actors or agents of the market. Therefore, economic activity should be carried out in the context of continuous analysis of the assessment, comparison, and selection of multiple alternatives for the use of economic resources.
In general, the system of economic interests of an economic entity can be formulated as a subsystem of the social system of economic interests. It has such structure-forming components as: integrity, presence of stable connections and relations between the players of economic interests, structure.
To conclude with, it follows that economic laws direct the actions of certain processes through the expressed intrinsic stable and repetitive causal relationships and dependencies. It is important that due to economic laws, the main directions and parameters of the development of a system or another sphere of public life are determined.
Modern reality and the current challenges of national economy in the internal economic and foreign policy components require a new justification for the development of the economic system based not on its individual interests, but on the unity and integrity of all its elements, taking into account the stability of the development of private and general interest economic systems.
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21 January 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Novoselova*, N., & Rybyantseva, M. (2020). Ontogenesis Of Economic Interests Under Modern Conditions. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2498-2502). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.334