The paper considers that belonging to a certain culture allows a person to master mainly those ways of implementing regulatory processes that ensure optimal functioning in the relevant sociocultural space; the system of conscious self-regulation is determined by the value-semantic structure of the personality and the experience of cultural development. The purpose of the study was to establish the role of the sociocultural identity of a person in the system of interconnection of life values and strategies of conscious self-regulation. Theoretical analysis of the problem allowed building an assumption that the system of conscious self-regulation has a relationship with the value-semantic structure of the personality. The data of empirical research on the style of conscious self-regulation among respondents living in different regions of southern Russia are given. The data of a comparative analysis of personal predictors of self-regulation for respondents from different regions of southern Russia are discussed. It was established that the level of development of the system of conscious self-regulation is not invariant and has cross-cultural specificity. Differences in the indicators of conscious self-regulation among a multitude of attributes are largely associated with life values, an expression of sociocultural identity. Research materials were obtained using a sample of 307 respondents aged from 20 to 72 living on Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, republics of North Ossetia-Alania, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria. Attention is drawn to the fact that the system of research methods was based on the integration of nomothetic and ideographic approaches, included observation and psychological testing.
Keywords: Sociocultural identitylife valuesconscious self-regulation
Currently, the increased dynamics of the rhythm of life, increasing information and emotional stress are accompanied by a negative impact on the mental state of a person, which actualizes the problem of developing the ability of an individual to manage his resources, regulate his state, and find homeostasis between the internal state and externally manifested behaviors. Regulation largely depends on the goals set by the person, the conditions of the surrounding reality, and individual characteristics. Activity takes place in the space of objects of culture and social interaction with other people.
The idea of analyzing self-regulation as a universal human regulatory resource in achieving vital goals for a subject is presented in a number of domestic works (Leontev, 2002; Morosanova, 2012) and foreign scientists (Baumeister, Schmeichel, & Vohs, 2007; Carver, 2004; DeWall, 2010). The problem of mental regulation and self-regulation is one of the most global and fundamental problems of general psychology. Her research opens up in many ways specific, non-traditional opportunities for understanding and meaningful explanation of the general patterns of construction and realization of arbitrary activity by a person, for understanding the phenomenon of a person’s general level of subject development, for studying individual-typical features of activity and behavior, for productive participation in solving a wide spectrum very diverse practical tasks.
The problem of determining the role of personality factors in the system of conscious self-regulation of arbitrary human activity is currently highly relevant. As a personal regulator, a wide range of personal constructs are considered, primarily such as the life values of a person (Hoyle, 2006). Scientists agree that when perceived by individual consciousness, values and meanings are not only universal categories, but also determinants underlying the choice of a life path, defining features of human self-regulation.
If we consider self-regulation as a conscious process aimed at managing our arbitrary activity, as a value position that is formed in the process of socialization-inculturation that occurs at a particular time, in a particular region, in particular circumstances, then it is reasonable to establish the role of sociocultural identity in shaping systems of human life values in the choice of strategies for conscious self-regulation of behavior (Banshchikova, Fomina, & Morosanova, 2017; Zimmerman, 2004; Fluma & Kaplanb, 2012).
To reveal the specific possibilities in understanding and substantively explaining the realization by a person of a particular culture of its arbitrary activity, the conditionality of arbitrary activity in the cultural context — traditions, norms and values of a particular community seems to be a fairly promising area of research (Matsumoto & van de Vijver, 2011).
Belonging to a particular culture provides a person with mastering mainly those methods of implementing regulatory processes that ensure him optimal functioning in the relevant sociocultural space; the system of conscious self-regulation is determined by the value-semantic structure of the personality and the experience of cultural development. Theoretical analysis of the problem allowed to build an assumption that the system of conscious self-regulation has a relationship with the value-semantic structure of the personality, this relationship is due to the nature of the respondent’s socio-cultural identity. The study of the presented relationship is a fundamental scientific problem and is significant for the development of cross-cultural, differential psychology, and identifying the role of this relationship to ensure the success of professional activity is of practical importance in solving actual problems of educational psychology and labor psychology (Schmitz & Perels, 2005).
The object of the research was the system of conscious self-regulation of arbitrary human activity. The subject of research is the relationship of conscious self-regulation and the system of life values of a person, due to the nature of socio-cultural identity. The total number of respondents participating in the experiment - 307 people, living in the Stavropol Territory (hereinafter - ST) - 62 respondents, Krasnodar Territory (KT) - 69 respondents, the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (hereinafter - NOA) – 52 respondents, Karachay-Cherkessia Republic (hereinafter - KCR) - 62 respondents and the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (hereinafter - the KBR) - 62 respondents. In terms of gender, the sample is represented by 90% of the respondents are female and 10% male.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to establish the socio-cultural features of the system of conscious self-regulation among respondents living in the southern regions of Russia. To determine the role of a person’s sociocultural identity in the system of interconnection of life values and strategies of conscious self-regulation of behavior.
The study consisted of several stages. At the first stage, a comparison was made of indicators of the development of regulatory processes among respondents from different regions of southern Russia. At the second stage, a comparative analysis of indicators of sociocultural identity of respondents from different regions of southern Russia was carried out. At the third stage, the degree of determination of the general level of self-regulation by predictors (values of life and indicators of sociocultural identity) was determined using regression analysis.
Groups were studied using the following set of methods. To assess the regulatory characteristics of the personality, the questionnaire “Style of self-regulation of behavior” (SSRB) was used. The multiscale polling methodology of Morosanova (2004) makes it possible to diagnose the degree of development of conscious self-regulation and its individual profiles, the components of which are private regulatory processes: planning (Pl), modeling (M), programming (Pr), evaluation of results (ER), as well as flexibility (F), autonomy (A) and “General level of self-regulation” (GL). The method allows to determine the level of development of the processes of self-regulation and regulatory-personal properties: low, medium, high. The method “Morphological Test of Life Values” (MTLV) by Sopov and Karpushina (2001) makes it possible to diagnose a person’s motivational and value structure, to identify the most significant terminal values for the respondent and those vital areas these values can be realized. The main diagnostic constructs of MTLV include terminal values and life spheres. Questionnaire for Socio-Cultural Identity (OSCI) of (Krupenko & Frolova, 2019). The method is designed to determine sociocultural identity and allows you to define ethnic identity, regional identity, racism, as a complex and controversial complex, which largely determines or explains the behavior of a particular person in society. Mathematical-statistical data processing was carried out in the SPSS environment using classical methods of mathematical analysis.
The first task to be solved in this study was to compare the indicators of the development of regulatory processes among respondents from different regions of southern Russia. As a result of the study, it was found that for respondents, regardless of the region of residence, there is a harmonious or smoothed self-regulation profile - all indicators of self-regulation have an average level of severity (see Table
The assessment of the reliability of differences in mean values between samples with the use of the Kruskul-Wallis H-test showed significant differences on the scales “modeling” (0.0005), “programming” (p = 0.0280), “flexibility” (p = 0.0056), “independence” (p = 0.0028).
Relatively more pronounced values of the regulatory-personal scales are “flexibility” (μ = 6.2 and μ = 6.4) and “independence” (μ = 5.7) among respondents from the Stavropol Territory (ST) and Krasnodar (KR), while the respondents from Karachayev Circassian Republic (KCR), the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (NOA) and the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), the priority is occupied by the “programming” scale. These facts indicate that the respondents of the UK and CC demonstrate the plasticity of all regulatory processes. In the event of unforeseen circumstances, the subjects easily easily rearrange the plans and programs of their actions and behavior, they are able to quickly assess the change in significant conditions and restructure the program of their actions. They are autonomous in the organization of their activities to achieve the goal. Respondents from the republics (KCR, KBR, NOA) differ in that they more carefully think over the methods of their actions and behavior to achieve the set goals, develop programs of their activities in a more detailed and detailed way. According to the indicator “General level of self-regulation”, the following trend is observed. The overall level of formation of an individual system of conscious self-regulation of the arbitrary activity of the respondents is in the range of average values (24-32 points). At the same time, the most pronounced are the average values of the general level of self-regulation among the respondents of KR (28.9), KCR (28.7) and NOA (28.5).
At the next stage, a comparative analysis of indicators of sociocultural identity of respondents from different regions of southern Russia was carried out.
There are significant differences in the scales of "regional identity", "racial tolerance." For respondents from KK and SC, these scales have relatively high average values, which indicates a more pronounced degree of ethnic tolerance of respondents to representatives of other cultures and regions. The relatively elevated level of regional identity indicates the similarity of social traits, values, and norms among representatives of a given region (according to the method key).
The third stage of the study was devoted to assessing the degree of determinacy of the dependent variable (in our case, the indicator “General level of self-regulation”) by predictors (independent variables — life values and indicators of sociocultural identity); a regression analysis was used. The results of the analysis are presented in Table
It follows from the table
So, for the respondents of the Stavropol Territory such vital value as “own prestige”, which is realized in professional life, in the field of physical activity, are important factors influencing the system of conscious self-regulation of behavior. For the subjects, the desire for recognition, respect, approval from colleagues, and other, the most significant individuals, are indicators of an individual system of conscious self-regulation. Thus, in actions, in situations of professional activity, they listen to the opinion of reference persons, are guided by it.
For respondents from the Krasnodar Region, the life value of “achievement” is a significant predictor of conscious self-regulation. The absence of a stereotypical set of attributes that underlie behavior, the desire to achieve specific and tangible results - these are significant factors that influence the self-regulation of their behavior. Negative values of the sociocultural identity indicator suggest the following: self-identification with socio-cultural traditions, conscious responsibility for their continuity, their transfer from generation to generation gives the mental makeup of this people unity and act as a kind of regulators of behavior. Not the severity of these indicators, necessitates the need for independent, more conscious self-regulation of their activity.
For participants in the experiment from the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the vital predictor of conscious self-regulation, as well as for the representatives of the previous group, is the vital value of the “achievement”. At the same time, this group differs from the previous one in that the respondents of this group have a stable systemic tool that allow this social group to distinguish themselves from others. In addition, the community of feelings, ideas, beliefs in the end and determine the form of behavior in a situation of social interaction of respondents from the KCR. According to Shomanbayeva (2008), value orientations and ethnic prejudices are the supporting elements of the ethnic identity of the individual.
A significant factor influencing the self-regulation of their behavior for respondents from the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic is regional identity - a stable territorial community united by a common value system of its members, a similar reaction to social processes and a common will to social action.
The terminal life value of “preserving one’s own individuality” is a significant predictor of the conscious self-regulation of respondents in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. A negative relationship has been established between the general level of self-regulation and racism. The desire of respondents to be independent of other people, the preservation of the uniqueness and originality of their personality, their views, beliefs, their lifestyle, the desire to be as little as possible influenced by mass trends, a clear statement that the innate, inherited biological characteristics of a person do not determine his behavior - indicators of conscious self-regulation of arbitrary activity.
This study analyzed the characteristics of sociocultural identity, terminal life values as predictors of conscious self-regulation. From the terminal values in our sample, the most significant were the values: “own prestige”, “achievements”, “preservation of one’s own individuality”, realized mainly in the sphere of professional life. Also, our data show some regional specificity of the presented values. Thus, the vital value of “preserving one’s own individuality” is significant for the respondents of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, and the value of “achievement” for respondents from the Krasnodar Territory and the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. A negative relationship has been established between regional identity and racism with a general level of conscious self-regulation. Confidence and open relations with representatives of other nationalities make it possible to productively highlight the essential conditions for achieving goals, adequately assess the fact of reconciliation / mismatch of the results obtained in order to operate, flexibly adapt to changing conditions (indicators of private regulatory processes: independence, flexibility and programming).
At the same time, there is a need for further study of the presented relationships. We assume that conscious self-regulation acts as an individual metacompetence, which serves as a personal resource and on the development of which the success of a professional activity depends. Testing this hypothesis will form the basis for further research.
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 17-06-00804 “Conscious self-regulation and coping behavior in the conditions of students' adaptation to a new socio-cultural environment: general patterns and cross-cultural differences”.
I thank Morosanova Varvara Ilinichna, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Education, the Head of the Laboratory of Psychology of Self-Regulation of the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor (Moscow) for help and valuable advice, for the work, part of which was covered in this article. I thank Olga Viktorovna Polchenko, a psychologist, Maxim Leonidovich Sokolovskii, a leading researcher at the Research and Educational Center for the Psychological Support of Personal and Professional Development of the Institute of Education and Social Sciences of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education.
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28 December 2019
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Banshchikova*, T. (2019). Sociocultural Conditionality Of Relationship Of Conscious Self-Regulation And Human Life Values. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 203-210). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.29