The paper studies finite verb forms of one of the Dagestan languages – Avar, through a uniform form expressing the semantics of the present simple and future simple tenses. The exact quantity of these verbs is identified and relations of these verbal lexemes with their structural organization is described. The forms habitualis and futurum coincide only in terms of verbs with vowel auslaut (phonosyllabic structures [CV] and [CVCV]). There are only 17 units of verbs with structure [CV] in Avar language (10 with vowels
Keywords: Avar languagetemporal oppositionfuture
The differentiated system of tense forms of a verb consisting of three spheres (past, present and future) functioning in modern languages represents the result of historical development of initial binary opposition: past ~ non-past. In classic German languages (Old High German, Old English) the binary opposition past ~ non-past resulted from reinterpretation of aspectual correlation presented in Indo-European parent language.
In the course of formation of the tense category based on ancient aspectual correlations the deletion of old aspectual differences is observed. In Slavic language there are new aspectual relations based not on the correlation of duration ~ compression, effectiveness ~ ineffectiveness as in Indo-European parent language, but on the opposition of perfective and imperfective aspect. Along with the formation of new aspectual relations, there is the process of formation of a system of tense forms. In different languages various categorial forms of temporal opposition develop gradually, unequally and not simultaneously. In temporal systems of all languages the forms of futurum are considered as the latest link. The existence of written sources allows tracking the entire process of grammaticalization of various analytical combinations of modal verbs with an infinitive and reconsidering the modal semantics into temporal or even futural. The situation is different with Dagestan languages, which do not have ancient written sources and hence, it seems impossible to track the formation of a temporal system.
In the structural organization of simple tense forms of a verb in Avar language the obvious similarity of forms of habitualis (present simple tense) and futurum (future simple tense) and their difference from aorist form (past perfect tense) is observed. A task of this paper is to provide system description of similar features in structural organization and in semantic potential of forms of futurum and habitualis in Avar language.
Based on structural-semantic and functional analysis of synthetic finite forms of a verb with materials of Avar dialects, especially relic Antsukh and Zakatal dialects and material of related languages it is necessary to prove the development of a futurum form on the basis of a habitualis.
The dynamics belongs to permanent properties of a language. Based on the material of one of the Dagestan languages – Avar – the paper studies the dynamics of formation of future simple tense of a futurum on the basis of a habitualis form.
Besides it studies the issue of synonymy of futurum and habitualis as means of representation of semantics of the future in Avar language.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this paper is to study the process of development and formation of a futurum form in Avar language based on the material of relic dialects of Avar language and closely related Andi languages.
The main method of the study is multidimensional complex analysis. The study also covered the inductive method allowing shifting from detailed observations over language facts to their systematization and generalization and the method of structural-semantic analysis to study semantics, structural organization and functioning of finite forms of a verb. Descriptive-analytical and historical-comparative methods were applied to describe and analyze language means of expression of temporal semantics. The results of synchronic analysis of finite forms were exposed to diachronic interpretation using methods of internal and external reconstruction. Internal reconstruction is based on data of Avar dialects, external reconstruction – on material of closely related Andi languages.
The linguistic literature repeatedly refers to the assumption on initial absence of verbal tense forms in classic Indo-European languages and their subsequent appearance on the basis of aspectual distinctions (Espersen, 1958; Paducheva, 2001; Nübling, 2008). The action was traditionally represented as complete and incomplete. The first was reconsidered into the past tense, and the second – into the present. Thus, initially the system of tenses represented the correlation past ~ present. Then in the course of historical development of languages the future tense was developed on the basis of the present (MacCarty, 2002).
Regarding the verbal systems of Avar-Andi languages there is evidence confirming the same way of development of tenses in their grammatical system. The finite form of synthetic formation expressing semantics of the future tense is still not present in some languages of the Andi subgroup. Thus, for example, the special finite form of the future tense is not present in the Tindi language. To express the temporal semantics of action, which will happen after the speech moment the Tindi language uses the form of the present simple tense (habitualis), which combines the meaning of the future indefinite tense (Gudava, 1967), for example:
In Akhvakh language the future and the present are formally different only in the speech of the northern dialect. In all speeches of the southern dialect of Akhvakh language the semantics of the future tense is expressed by the form of the present simple tense (habitualis). Neither of three speeches of southern Akhvakh dialect has special forms of the future tense (Magomedbekova, 1967).
But some verbs of the northern dialect of Akhvakh language are characterized by formal coincidence of the present and future tenses. In such cases to specify temporal semantics the scholars resort to lexical specifiers – adverbs of time. For example, the sentence
The same refers to the dialects of Avar language. Optional use of forms of the present and future tenses is typical for some dialects of the southern adverb of Avar language to characterize the future action or event.
In dialects of Antsukh dialect – one of relic dialects of Avar language – the semantics of the future and the present simple tense is not formally differentiated at the level of finite forms of a verb. Here the same form of a verb is applied both to express the future action and to express the habitualis, for example:
In another relic dialect of Avar language – Zakatal – the semantics of the present and future tenses is also expressed by the same finite form of a verb.
In Avar literary language some verbs express the same semantics of habitualis and futurum. These are the verbs of the 1st conjugation with the stem on vowel auslaut. Non-derivative, unclassed verbs of Avar literary language the root coincides with the stem and is presented by the following phonosyllabic structures: [C], [CV], [CVC], [CVCC], [VCC], [CVCV]. Of them only two structures have vowels in auslaut: [CV] and [CVCV].
The structural type [CV] has vowels
Verbal stems of the structure [CV] with vowel
The structural type [CVCV] is presented by nine verbs with stem
The forms of the present and simple future tenses coincide for all these verbs, for example:
The Avar language has several forms to define action, which will happen in the future after the moment of speech: one synthetic form with categorial formants -
From our point of view, the verb of Avar language passed the same steps of development of a temporal system as the Indo-European languages (Okamura, 1996; Tatevosov, 2004). The structure of a verbal lexeme allows confirming the assumption of initial distinction of the past tense presented by a formant
The similarity of forms of the present and future tenses regarding verbs with the vowel stem is explained by the lack of thematic vowel in the structure of these verbs. Therefore, the only differentiating feature of the present and future tenses is the thematic vowel serving as a structural element of temporal suffixes: -
The analysis showed that the form of synthetic futurum is rather new in the grammatical system of Avar language. This is confirmed by the need for contextual support for realization of semantics of the future and material community with the form of the present simple tense.
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28 December 2019
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Aligadzhieva, A., Magomedova, D., Kadachieva, K., & Mallaeva*, Z. (2019). Dynamics Of The Future In Avar Language. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2098-2103). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.281