The historical and cultural heritage of Russia of the Newest history period is considered from the perspective of political symbolics. It is noted that in the post-Soviet Russian Federation political symbols perform a number of socially significant functions, contribute to the formation, preservation and transmission of the historical and cultural heritage of the state. It is stressed that through the assimilation of political symbols of the nation and the state, the ideals and values of the country are preserved in the consciousness of the person. Special attention is paid to the history of formation and development of ritual-procedural symbolism. The ideological role of the inauguration as a symbol that forms the national image of the head of state and the consolidation of the country's citizens in the public consciousness is emphasized. It is noted that the main contribution to the development of the inaugural protocol was made by Protocol B. Elzin. Changes in the inauguration ceremony are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the participation of the church in the event, which indicates the importance of religion at the current stage of development of Russia, determines and, to the fullest extent, reflects its positive place in a changing society. It is concluded that by 2018, the process of forming the inauguration ceremony of the President had been completed. The Institute of Inauguration made its way from Gorbachev's everyday life to an internal Russian event with a national note that has an ideological function of consolidating the country's citizens.
Keywords: Historicalcultural heritagesymbolisminaugurationpresident
It is impossible to study the history of any state, including such a multi-faceted and significant one as the Russian Federation, without considering the historical and cultural heritage that has always served and will serve as the foundation for the spiritual and ideological development of a progressive society. First of all, it is due to the fact that each generation uses the accumulated historical experience, mastering the achievements of predecessors and moving forward to the creation of new values. To a large extent, it is the historical and cultural heritage, especially its historical component, that contributes to the spiritual development of the individual, fosters patriotism and respect for the national heritage. Elements of historical and cultural heritage, correctly presented to the younger generation, act as a necessary mechanism for integration into modern Russian society. This is especially true today, during the period of the Newest History of Russia, when since 2001 one of the priorities of Russian education has been patriotic education, which is carried out in accordance with the relevant state programs. The most important means of patriotic upbringing of citizens is defined by the historical and cultural heritage of the country, among the components of which the state ideology has a special significance, which significantly influences modern political processes. At the same time, one of the main elements forming the state ideology throughout history and playing a leading role in political propaganda and agitation is the political symbolism, among which the national-state and ritual-procedural symbols, expressed, in particular, in parades, party congresses, and, over the past three decades, in the inaugurations of the President of the USSR and the Russian Federation.
It is necessary to note the historiographical peculiarity of the given theme, namely the absence of researches devoted to the study of the history of the institute of inauguration of the president in the USSR and the Russian Federation as a whole, and separately of each of the held inaugurations, in particular, as ritually-procedural symbolism (general problems of political symbolism are devoted to the works of Misyurov, 2000; Zazykina, 2003; McNair, 2003; Pfetsch, 2004). That is why the complex consideration of the dynamics of the formation and development of such a symbol-event as the inauguration of the president, which reflects the complex and controversial process of interaction between the authorities and the population, is of undoubted scientific interest, and the novelty of the study lies in the very formulation of the problem: on the basis of a concrete historical approach, the development, establishment and transformation of the institution of the inauguration of the president in the USSR and the Russian Federation is traced.
Political symbolism, inextricably linked to the political ideology and history of the state, and hence to the historical and cultural heritage as a whole, is an integral part of the formation, fixation and reproduction of the identity of any nation and state as a socio-cultural and political community. Historical perspective, to be more precise, retrospective, by means of political symbols, performs a number of socially significant functions, contributes to the formation, preservation and broadcasting of historical and cultural heritage of the state. Through the assimilation of political symbols that accompany the history of any nation and any state, the ideals and values of the country's historical and cultural heritage are preserved in the human mind, which, in turn, unites society and forms a sense of patriotism and citizenship. It is the significant "national symbols" that identify and reinforce the basic values of society, which helps to reveal the values of statehood in the context of the formation of a sense of national unity (Delaney, 2004).
In general, political symbols are symbols that exist and are used in political life, the language of politics. At the same time, political symbolism is an integral part of politics, culture and human history. To a large extent, the role of symbols is to provide the mechanism of social memory through which society preserves and uses the accumulated historical and cultural experience (Zazykina, 2003).
As a result, it turns out that political symbolism performs two functions: on the one hand, it is an exponent of the existing political ideology in a certain period of time, and on the other hand, it is political symbolism that contributes to the formation and consolidation of this ideology in the consciousness of man.
Political symbols are also an indispensable means of integrating and mobilizing society, as they are used when it is necessary to demonstrate the strength of the unity and cohesion of the State. It is also the "marker" of various people united in organization and state (Misyurov, 2000).
In general, as a component of the historical and cultural heritage, any symbolism, including political one, is a complex structural formation consisting of symbolic systems of various kinds involved in the political process. The central place among them is occupied by the national-state and ritualistically-procedural symbolism, expressed, in particular, in parades, party congresses, ceremonies of inauguration of the president. It is obvious that in each individual era they live simultaneously, and sometimes closely intertwine, contributing to the formation of different layers of cultural heritage, traditions and innovations.
Nowadays it is difficult to imagine a Russian state without symbols - a coat of arms, a flag, an anthem. However, along with other significant symbols of the state, the historical value is also represented today by symbols of the presidential power, such as the Constitution, the Presidential Service Badge, the Presidential Standard, and the inauguration. These political symbols play an important cultural, historical and consolidating role in the history of the modern Russian Federation (Romanovsky, 2002).
Today, historians are trying to objectively recreate the events of the end of the second millennium. In them the certain mix of an epoch of the USSR and an epoch of post-Soviet Russia is visible: the social cataclysms and the changes which have led to global changes in destinies, both separate people, and the whole peoples, breaking of ideological stereotypes of generations, other direction of public, spiritual and historical development. At the same time, along with the abovementioned destructive tendencies, it is impossible to ignore the creative achievements, without which it is impossible to achieve the historical truth and transmit the historical experience to the younger generation. In this regard, the consideration of the institution of the inauguration of the President deserves special interest and attention.
Thus, from the moment the post of the president appeared in Russia, it was the inauguration, the official ceremony accompanying the inauguration of the president, that came to the fore among the political symbols. It is important to emphasize the ideological role of the inauguration as a symbol that forms the national image of the head of state and the consolidation of the country's citizens in the public consciousness.
The subject of the study is the process of formation and development of the ceremony of taking office of the President of the USSR and the Russian Federation.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the work is a comprehensive study of the dynamics and features of the formation and development of the institute of inauguration of the President of the USSR and the Russian Federation from the perspective of political symbolism in the context of historical and cultural heritage.
The methodological basis of the study was the understanding of the possibilities of applying the principles, approaches and methods in the process of conducting scientific research.
The research is based on the aspiration to implement the principle of objectivity through a comprehensive coverage of various aspects of the process under study; facts and events related to the emergence and evolution of the institution of inauguration of the president in Russia.
A key role in the study of history is played by the emergence and development of the institution of inauguration of the President of the USSR and Russia, following the principle of historicism, which allows to consider the problem in historical dynamics in conjunction with specific historical conditions and socio-cultural processes in the world, the state and society.
In the course of studying institutions that have political and socio-cultural significance for the modern state and society, which, of course, include the institution of the inauguration of the president, the application of the value approach becomes relevant. It provides an opportunity not only to develop an attitude and to evaluate the phenomenon under study, but also to identify its specific features.
Taking into account the nature of the topic under study, the application of the sociological method is of great importance. It makes it possible to consider the process of formation and development of the institution of inauguration of the President as a sphere of purposeful communications between the authorities and society, the nature of which is determined by a wide range of social factors.
Studying the problem in a historical retrospect is not possible without application of the historical and genetic method, which allows to penetrate deeper into the investigated process, to understand its content aspects, to establish cause-and-effect relations.
Inauguration occupies a special place in the progressive development of our state at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. For the first time the term "inauguration" appeared in common use by compatriots on March 15, 1990, the day when Mikhail Gorbachev took office as President of the USSR. It is worth noting that this inauguration ceremony, the first in the history of our people, was not very solemn and was based on the French model. Thus, immediately after the announcement of the results of the voting on the results of the presidential elections in the USSR at the 3rd Congress of People's Deputies, Mikhail Gorbachev swore an oath on the Constitution. He was the first and last president in the history of the Soviet Union. The event was held in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, where 2249 deputies of different factions were present. Only the Russian tricolor made up of carnations and a red flag standing next to the president were among the state symbols.
A year later, new presidential elections were held in the RSFSR. Boris Nikolaevich Yeltsin won them. The inauguration ceremony took place on June 10, 1991, in the same Palace of Congresses, where Mikhail Gorbachev was sworn in. This time, the ceremony was more festive and decorated with a red velvet banner, a trumpet and an orchestra. Boris Nikolaevich was sworn in with his right hand on his heart. He was supported by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the RSFSR. After that M.I. Glinka played "Patriotic Song" written in 1833, which was sung as the anthem of the Russian Federation from 1990 to 2000 (Yeltsin, 1996).
The fact that for the first time Patriarch Alexiy the Second took part in the ceremony was also symbolic. The head of the Russian Orthodox Church delivered a parting speech in which he stressed the importance of the ceremony for the spiritual development of the country and expressed congratulations to the incoming president from representatives of different spiritual denominations. His speech made it clear that the Russian Orthodox Church will always act as the closest partner of the state, it will help the government and the president at difficult stages of the country's development. At the end of the inauguration, the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev congratulated the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, thus symbolizing the peaceful transfer of power and its succession.
It is important to emphasize that from the moment of the first inauguration until now, the course of the inauguration ceremony of the highest official of the state is not enshrined in legal acts, but there is a protocol of the ceremony. The main contribution to the development of the inaugural protocol was made by Protocol of B. Elzin.
By tradition, Boris Yeltsin's second inauguration ceremony took place on August 9, 1996 at the State Kremlin Palace. Initially, the event was planned to be held outdoors, but due to the ill health of the head of state, the State Kremlin Palace was abandoned as its previous venue. This ceremony was more official and solemn than the previous one. By that time, the symbols of presidential power had been approved. The flag and Standard were the first to be introduced into the hall, followed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Badge of the President (which is not a state award, but a distinctive sign of the Head of the Russian Federation). The whole process of removal was accompanied by a solemn march, which was also the first time. The Chairman of the Constitutional Court, Vladimir Tumanov, put the Constitution on a special stand and the Badge of Presidential Power on a special table. After the oath of office of Yeltsin (1996), a hymn was heard and 30 artillery salvos were heard in the air (the tradition of giving salvos to commemorate important events dates back to 1709, when salvos were given to commemorate the victory at Poltava). Then Chairman of the Federation Council Yegor Stroev put the Presidential Power Badge around the President's neck and congratulated him on assuming office (Yeltsin, 1996).
On the New Year's Eve of December 31, 1999, President Boris Yeltsin announced his retirement. The congratulatory speech was continued by Acting President V.V. Putin, who took it over. Following his victory in the early elections on 26 March 2000, Vladimir Putin also held a ceremony for the official inauguration of the highest state official, but it underwent a number of changes. The main purpose of changing the protocol of inauguration is to emphasize the historical continuity of the state power of modern Russia to the pre-revolutionary traditions (Putin, 2000).
First of all, the location was new. This time the event was held in the St. Andrew's Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which in tsarist times played the role of the throne: it was there that royal regalia were attributed immediately after the anointing. Secondly, representatives of other States were not invited. This was due to the fact that the inauguration of the President is an internal Russian holiday. However, the heads of the diplomatic corps and heads of diplomatic missions, representatives of the government and federal government authorities were present about one and a half thousand people. Thirdly, the renewed ceremony began with the flag and Standard from the Vladimir Hall of the Presidential Regiment's guard of honor. In addition, a specially drafted Constitution was introduced together with the Badge of the President, which, unlike previous ceremonies, was not put on and placed on stands in the Andreyevsky Hall. An exact copy of the Standard was lifted over Senate Square immediately after Vladimir Putin came took over office. Apart from that, the Spasskie Gate was opened for the passage of the presidential motorcade, which also symbolizes the continuity of imperial Russia, as the Russian tsars traditionally entered through the gate. Since 2000, after each inauguration, the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia has been making a solemn prayer service in the Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Moscow Kremlin, blessing the new ruler for the service of Russia (the first one was in 1498 under Ivan III, and the last one in 1896 under Nicholas II).
It is worth noting that this ceremony is also notable for the presentation to the new commander-in-chief of the presidential regiment, who ensures the security of the Kremlin and the top officials of the state. Here also it is possible to trace certain continuity of generations as the history of regiment conducts from times of princely teams of Ancient Russia, imperial streltsy, imperial guard and the Kremlin cadets.
Exactly four years later, in 2004, when the newly elected head of state V.V. Putin took office for a second term, and the inauguration took place again. 1700 people were invited to the ceremony. In general, the inauguration activities have not undergone any global changes. A novelty was the participation in the ceremony of cavalrymen in blue uniform of the Patriotic War of 1812, which symbolizes the continuity of Russia's military glory (Vorobyov, 2004).
In 2008, the tradition of the event under consideration is only slightly modified, as it was 4 years ago. President Dmitry Medvedev is already coming from the Government House to the Kremlin as part of the ceremony, while Vladimir Putin is leaving the Kremlin's presidential corps. The presidential regiment is being built by the order of the president, and according to the established tradition of the regiment commander, he addresses the commander-in-chief "Comrade President" symbolizing friendly relations between them.
For the inauguration of Dmitry Anatolievich, a new item has appeared in the script. The current president should empower the person who takes over. Therefore, at first, Vladimir Putin made a speech in which he summed up the results of his presidency and transferred the powers to Dmitry Medvedev. Then the most important part of the ceremony began - the vow to the people. It consisted of 33 words, which are enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. After that, the chairman of the Constitutional Court, V.D. Zorkin, confirmed the legality of the entry into office of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. According to the established tradition, the Sign of Presidential Power remained on the stand and was not imposed on the head of state. As in previous ceremonies, 30 Andreyevsky salutes were given and a Presidential Regiment review was held (Medvedev, 2008).
The inauguration of 2008 was attended by two thousand four hundred people, and in 2012 - more than three thousand. This time V.V. Putin, who held the post of the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation for 4 years, arrived from the Government House, and the motorcade of D.A. Medvedev left the Kremlin presidential corps. As it is according to the protocol of the ceremony, representatives of the legislative and judicial branches first met in the Andreyevsky Hall, and then the President arrived.
At the inauguration in 2012, Vladimir Putin met, for the first time built at this event, a cavalry honorary escort of the presidential regiment and commandant of the Moscow Kremlin, Lieutenant General S.D. Khlebnikov. Cavalry Honorary Escort was established in 2002, and its main task is to provide state, ceremonial and protocol events. This regiment is a symbol of Russian military glory and is a kind of visiting card of Russia.
The inauguration ceremony of 2018 was held in a remarkable forrmat. About 5,000 people were invited to it. It has become the largest ceremony in the history of the inaugurations in Russia. Once again, to the sounds of the march, the standard-bearers of the state flag guard of honor introduced the Standard of the President, a canvas of tricolor with a two-headed eagle embroidered on it. On the right hand of the president everyone saw a special copy of the Constitution of the Russian Federation covered with red leather of a ram, on the left - the Sign of the president in the form of the Order of the I degree for services to the Fatherland with a gold chain, with the inscription on the back side "Benefit. Honor. Glory", initials and the date of entry into office (all the above symbols are kept in the Senate building in the awards hall of the Moscow Kremlin).
The first to enter the Andriyivsky Hall were Valentina Matviyenko, Chairman of the Upper House of Parliament, Vyacheslav Volodin, Chairman of the Lower House of Parliament, and Valery Zorkin, Chairman of the Constitutional Court. This action symbolized that all three branches of government were waiting for the newly elected president. This time, after a signal informing him that everything is ready for the ceremony, the president leaves his office in the Kremlin Senate Corps. For the first time, the President's move was carried out inside the Kremlin with a new domestically produced car of the Aurus brand within the framework of the Cortezh project. And under the fanfare of "Our President" entered V.V.Putin, who was met by invited guests placed in three halls.
After the solemn vow, the anthem of Russia was performed by the Presidential Orchestra and the combined choir (the Alexander Alexandrov Ensemble and the Academic Grand Choir "Master of Choral Singing"). At that moment, Standard was rising above the Cathedral Square. After the traditional speech, the President held a review of the presidential regiment. However, it is worth noting that he did not come out through the St. Andrew's, St. Alexander's and St. George's Hall, but through the Holy Shadows to the cathedral square, where the head of state was waiting not only for the guard of honor, but also 1.5 thousand guests.
The study concluded that the process of forming the inauguration ceremony of the President had been completed by 2018. The Institute of Inauguration made its way from Gorbachev's everyday life to an internal Russian event with a national note that has an ideological function of consolidating the country's citizens.
The main contribution to the development of the inaugural protocol was made by Protocol of B. Elzin. The biggest changes in the inauguration ceremony were made in 2000 to emphasize the historical continuity of the state power of modern Russia to the pre-revolutionary traditions, which is a national peculiarity.
Thus, the continuity with pre-revolutionary traditions since 2000 is manifested, first of all, by the fact that after the oath of office of the President, 30 artillery salvos are traditionally distributed as a symbol of an important event, originating from the times of Peter the Great. Secondly, the ceremony takes place in the Andrew's Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which in tsarist times played the role of the throne: it was there that royal regalia were attributed immediately after the coronation. Third, the Spasskie Gate, which was traditionally used by Russian tsars, is being opened for the passage of the presidential motorcade. Fourthly, the mandatory participation of the presidential regiment and the cavalry honorary escort, symbolizing the continuity of Russia's military glory (soldiers in uniform from different eras).
In addition, the presidential symbols of power represent a certain continuity with the imperial regalia of imperial Russia: a standard of their own, a specially made copy of the Constitution, and a presidential sign.
It is also impossible to ignore the fact that there is a close connection between the inauguration and the spiritual traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church to hold parting services for the head of state. Participation of the church in the event speaks, first of all, about the importance of religion at the present stage of development of Russia, defines and, to the full, reflects its positive place in the renewing society.
The inauguration procedure was carefully worked out to give it a certain ideological and symbolic meaning, showing that the modern Russian Federation, though a democratic country, but has a national specificity and continuity of historical traditions, thus preserving the historical and cultural heritage of the country.
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28 December 2019
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Emtyl, Z., Bochkaryova, A., & Khotina*, Y. (2019). Origin And Development Of Inauguration Institute Of President Of Ussr And Russia. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1636-1643). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.222