In an era of rapidly developing scientific and technological progress, the language's lexical composition keeps pace with this process. The emergence of the Internet promotes a new type of communication - a virtual one, which requires the formation of a new language, in particular a computer language, and at the same time, a discourse. This type of language basically does not differ from any other spoken or written language. The penetration of a large number of computer jargonisms into a common language has accelerated the process of increasing the vocabulary of the language, although changes in languages are much slower. Technological progress allows the transfer of slang expressions from one group to another, which entails significant changes in English and Russian. The objective of the article is to define conditions for the formation of such verbal tools that relate to the colloquial stylistic layer like jargonisms, comparative analysis of jargon expressions in the computer environment of two different linguistic cultures. This article focuses on a contrasting analysis of the use of computer discourse jargonisms in Russian and English. The comparative analysis method is used to compare jargonisms in two languages in terms of differences in their thematic structure. The results of the study demonstrate the penetration of computer jargonisms in everyday speech, as well as in the lexical system English and Russian languages. As computer jargonisms also penetrate other languages, the most interesting are the lexical units in the comparative aspect, in particular with the Russian language.
Keywords: Jargonismslanginternetcomputer discource
In recent years, researchers- linguists pay close attention to different types of non-literary vocabulary, which is a dynamic phenomenon in linguistics. Social, economic and political processes contribute to the emergence of new concepts, which become widely used in certain social communities. Such terms, in particular, become jargonisms. Thanks to which, we can evaluate the development of society, because through them the preferences and attitudes of certain social groups of society are fixed and transmitted. Jargonisms, eliminating clichés and stamps, are an integral part of any developed natural national language. At the same time, the process of jargonism is due to the codification inherent only in the literary version of the language.
The process of the emergence of professional jargonisms is especially important, because in the course of his life, a person constantly enters and uses new words and expressions. Today, the computer language is of great importance in the context of the widespread use of the Internet, in particular social networks, in the context of the development of non-literary vocabulary, because the World Wide Web, as a special area of communication, has its own special slang.
With the emergence of the Internet, new types of communication have emerged through e-mail, chats, blogs and many other forms of communication, which in turn has led to the creation and formation of a new (computer) language, as well as a new type of discourse with it. Although the language used in computer discourse is unique, it still requires a basic knowledge of the literary language that helps communication participants communicate. This type of language is basically no different from any other spoken or written language. It includes words, numbers and numerous graphical tools, such as pictures and abbreviations.
Internet slang is occasionally updated with new terms that serve as a means of information transfer for gamers, IT specialists, bloggers and other people who use the latest computer technologies in their daily lives. Meanwhile, computer language goes beyond the virtual world in which it is used. Frequent and daily use of the Internet and widespread computerization have influenced daily face-to-face communication, so acronyms and abbreviations from computer discourse have penetrated even into spoken language. In addition, it should be noted that the relationship between the Internet and the language is twofold, as they affect each other simultaneously.
Ways and means of creating English and Russian computer jargonisms are very diverse, but have common features in both languages, as they either expand the semantics of an already existing word, introducing it into everyday use, or give a name to a new phenomenon. The spread of computer jargon is also due to the development of the computer language itself, which is necessary to denote the new phenomena of the computer world. Thus, this article is of great importance due to the fact that modern English is characterized by many examples of constant updating of computer jargonisms, and since they penetrate into other languages, including Russian, due to the extensive development of computer technologies, it is interesting to compare the jargon systems of the two languages.
The discourse is called speech, which is actualized through various language means. The choice of these means is influenced by the communicative attitude and social sphere of its use. At the present stage of linguistic research, the discourse becomes an independent area of analysis, reflecting the general trend towards integration of various fields of modern science. The concept of discourse includes not only text, but also non-linguistic characteristics, such as: pragmatic attitudes, goals, and the worldview of the addressee and recipient, necessary to understand the text (Karasik, 2004).
In modern linguistic science, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the term "discourse". Nevertheless, most studies of domestic and foreign scientists have developed a tradition in which the term "discourse" is commonly used to refer to a complete piece of speech in the diversity of its cognitive and communication functions (Sedov, 2004). The most general understanding of the discourse suggests that a new environment has already emerged in interpersonal communication, within which a new type of discourse is born - the computer one, the main features of which are virtuality, globalism, distance, mediocrity, hypertextuality (Mikhailov, 2004). Differences of opinion arise in the definition of the constitutional features of computer discourse, which allow us to call the natural language of communication in the computer environment, style.
The concept of "computer discourse" can be viewed from two perspectives: 1) any communication in computer networks; 2) communication on a topic related to computer style, by which we mean the whole set of texts united by a common theme related to modern computer technologies. Texts of computer technologies are considered as a form of fixation of written, addressed, communicative and process or result oriented information, uzual (partially regulated), free, descriptive and argumentative.
Computer discourse is communication that takes place through electronic means of communication, or computer communication. Note that computer communication is also referred to as electronic discourse, internet discourse, and computer discourse. We believe that these concepts are identical, denote both the exchange of information and communication via computer.
In this study, we will consider a computer discourse to be a type of discourse that represents the speech interaction of users or computer specialists directly in computer networks, which is an implementation of an invariant model of discourse created by representatives of the computer community, in order to obtain new knowledge, which is presented in verbal form and is conditioned by the communicative canons of the computer environment.
In recent decades, computer science has been developing at a rapid pace, influencing not only technical processes, but also language, creating a special terminology system, which is characterized by a variety of technical jargon and professionalism. In the beginning, many computer terms were known only to a small number of specialists, who formed a kind of closed group of users, where each member understood the other instantly. But at this stage, computer jargonisms are used by a wide range of people - users of computers or social networks.
One of the reasons for the emergence of computer slang language is its clarity, specificity and conciseness, when three or four specific words can be conveyed in a large paragraph of a literary processed technical text (Makovsky, 2007). Also, computer jargon can express certain emotions that are almost impossible to reproduce in the reality of the computer industry.
Analysis of the latest researches of famous scientists (Makovsky, 2007; Gorshkov, 2006; Vinogradova, 2001). Partridzh etc. demonstrate that the specified issue begins to be considered, first of all, with the consideration of the term "computer jargonism". These scientists have defined the following definitions, which imply two uses of the term:
- a professional language for communication between people of the same profession - programmers and computer scientists, as well as people whose professional activity is closely related to computers and their use (Gorshkov, 2006).
- an industry of professional language available to ordinary users who use computers and include computer sublanguage in their speech (Vinogradova, 2001).
With other professionals and slang words, typical for the representatives of a certain social group, computer jargon has similar features in that: promotes communication of people of the same profession - programmers, users of information and communication technologies (professionalism); includes rather rough, sometimes naughty words (vulgarism);
includes words that have an incomprehensible secret meaning for people who do not use information and communication technologies (slang) (Gorshkov, 2007).
Thus, in this study we will understand the term "computer jargonisms" to mean words that are characteristic of both representatives of computer specialties and all computer users, in particular social networks and the Internet.
Note that a specific computer slang language is especially popular among young people as a special kind of social dialect. Computer jargonism has become most popular among urban school and college and university students, both in English and Russian.
The use of jargon by young people is no coincidence. Youth sociolect plays a leading role in the lexical system of language and reflects sociocultural changes in the life of society, in particular, youth. It helps young people to identify themselves as an individual in the modern world or to protest against existing social rules and canons. An integral feature of such neoplasms is their expressive coloring (Romanov, 2004). Most of them, undoubtedly, appeared by chance, as a result of experiments with the sound form of words. In other words, the desire to turn a common word or phrase into something more interesting contributes to the emergence of such jargon. For example, young people working in the sphere of IT-technologies call the basic data (Data General) as "Dirty Genitals", the program for graphic drawing Corel Draw - the king of firewood, and the program of automatic designing AutoCAD - Autogad.
Researchers believe that computer slang was largely formed under the influence of the introduction of computers and mobile phones into the lives of teenagers. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine a student who does not have these technical devices and who does not spend most of his free time on their screens.
One of the key differences between computer sublanguage and ordinary jargon is the presence of a written form. This brings some stability to its functioning and allows it to record with sufficient confidence the facts and phenomena associated with it (Ionina, 2012). It is thanks to the transmission of the word through the meaning and images of "Internet jargons" penetrated into the youth speech, including the creation of social networks and mobile applications for communication (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Whatsapp, etc.).
Dunn (1999) notes another, equally important, feature of computer jargonisms - the trend towards multifunctionality of their lexical units. Thus, each new unit is understandable not only to informal carriers of computer slang, but also serves their professional needs, acting as a professional. In addition, in the future it may become an element of the lexical system of literary language (Galichkina, 2001).
Of the two lexical systems compared, English dominates computer technology, while Russian is heavily influenced by computer anglicisms. For example, there is a large number of computer jargonisms that have been transferred to Russian from English calculating and semi-calculation method: device - device; CD-ROM - sit rumka; ROM - rumka; harddrive - hard drive; disk drive - floppy disk; keyboard - keyboard, keybord, cyborg; message - messag; IBM - aibiemka; reboot - retreat, etc.
The status of the compared slang systems is also different, which makes it possible to predict the differences in their thematic structure (Liholitov, 1997). Thus, the classification of the found jargonisms of English and Russian languages according to the thematic feature revealed the differences in the organization of this type of lexicon in two different language systems. However, in both English and Russian computer jargon, the following main thematic groups can be identified:
1. A person connected with programming or related to the world of computers. For example, sys frog, system jock - system programmer, administrator; wirehead - networker; flamer - conflict user of the network; mousepotato - person who sits at the computer a lot; programmer - programmer; modeRATor - moderator; attic, avatar - person who sits in the chat for a long time and does not pay attention to anything; cracker, hacker - the one who breaks the protection of the program, software or system; geek, luser, bagbiter - incompetent user of information and communication technologies, jock - people who are competent users of information and communication technologies.
2. Working with a computer (including failures in this work). For example, to crack / crack, to hack / hack (to hack into a program, computer); buzzer - a corrupted speaker; clusterfunk - an error in a program; clickly - to quickly press the keyboard buttons; ban / ban, ban, to kick, snark, glitch / glitch (the program, the computer is working intermittently); the computer hung / computer hung / hack (the computer does not respond to user actions); debug - to look for errors in the program; LOL - to laugh loudly; offtopic - not on the topic of discussion on the forum; rape - to destroy a file or program without the possibility of its recovery; zip - to move the cursor; gronk - to shut down the computer; to demolish - to delete programs; to saw the disk - to read information from the disk; to rustle - to look for something on the disk; invalid girl (from invalid device - wrong device name).
3. Components of the computer. For example, proc - processor; chipset - a set of chipset on which the board is made; comp/computer (computer); key (keyboard), screw - hard drive; blank - CD, from which it reads data to the recording computer, resuscitation specialist or program from the "revitalization" of the computer or operating system; mother, mother, oregano, mother, uterus - motherboard, inkjet printer; bridge - the device which unites two networks; mouse - the manipulator "mouse", app - the computer software, cash memory - the memory necessary that the central processor less idle because of low activity of the main memory, track ball - a special device in the form of a circle and 2 or 3 buttons, which serves as a substitute for the manipulator "mouse".
4. Name of software products, commands, files, computer games. For instance: virmaker - the creator of computer viruses; finger - a program that displays any information; to play Quake - quake; to play Doom - to doom; shouter, wonderer - shooter, brothel, roller (types of games); Alkash - programmer in Algol, cutter - disk recorder; animal - computer virus, game - gamma, gamma - computer game, gamer, gamer - gamer - player in computer games, viewer - image viewer, Applikuha - application program.
5. Internet (including functions and commands). For example, surf - search for something on the Internet; Inet, net - Internet; mail bomb - email notification, which contains a virus; kewl - short message in blogs and emails, to google / Google, search the search engine "Google", to friend / to get involved (add a friend to a social network).
Socio-cultural differences between the two countries also differentiate the slang system, especially in terms of thematic distribution. For example, it is the English-speaking society that is characterized by the negative aspects of computerization - crimes in cyberspace, excessive passion for computers (Partridge, 2007). This is due to the fact that in an English-speaking society, computerization had previously taken place within the time frame and at a faster pace. Moreover, it is in the English-speaking society that computer jargon has developed.
The system of English jargonism is more complete than the Russian one. The most numerous group of jargons is the "Name of software, commands, files" group, which includes 36% of jargons, followed by "Computer work" - 20% and "Computer components" - 17%.
English and Russian computer jargonisms contain words that denote the realities of the non-professional sphere but are mainly used by carriers of the computer sublanguage. For example, cyberbuddy is an online conversation partner, chatiquette (chat + etiquette) - rules of conduct in chat; hackmem (hack(er) + mem(ory)) - hacker's note.
In both languages, these types of sociolectures are sources of replenishment of youth slang and slang vocabulary in general. In both languages, however, computer jargonisms are influenced by other non-literary language systems, such as colloquialism and argo (Lipatov, 2010). For example, a car is a computer, a hose is a way to connect two computers with wires, and a wet-wetter is an Asambler programmer.
We should also draw attention to the fact that in the Russian-speaking environment there are frequent cases of formation of jargon by borrowing and transformation of English words into the youth environment. An example of such transformed words as "use", "use", "IT guy" can be used as an example. IT) - computer industry worker, "Follow" - subscribe to a page in the social network (from English follow), "decrypt" - cancel the request for friendship in the social network, "cool" - cool, wonderful (from English slang word "cool" - "cool"), etc.
The object of the research is the computer discourse of Russian and English languages. The subject of the study is computer jargon used in English and Russian languages.
Purpose of the Study
The objective of the article is to define the conditions for the formation of suchof verbal tools that relate to the colloquial stylistic layer, like jargonisms, comparative analysis of jargon expressions in the computer environment of two different linguistic cultures - English and Russian.
Achieving this goal will include the following objectives:
- to examine the concept of jargon, to study this concept in the works of domestic and foreign linguists, to analyze the theories and sources of this type of lexicon;
- to identify the peculiarities of computer discourse in English and Russian languages;
-to conduct a comparative analysis of jargonisms in computer discourse in Russian and English.
The following research methods were used to solve the set tasks: theoretical - analysis of the works of modern researchers on the stated research subject; descriptive method (description of terms and concepts); as well as methods of contextual and comparative analysis.
The results of the research and the main theoretical provisions of the article and the actual material used in it have direct practicality in the study of linguistics, stylistics, English and Russian languages, and can be used in the research work of students and all those who are interested in this topic.
The scientific novelty of the work is to conduct a comparative analysis of computer discourse jargonisms in Russian and English in terms of differences in their thematic structure. The results of the study demonstrate the penetration of computer jargonisms in everyday speech, as well as in the lexical system English and Russian languages.
Conclusions and prospects for further research. The results of our research, which included a comparative analysis of jargon in the computer discourse of Russian and English, show that the rapid pace of change on the Internet means that a person accepts new words faster than ever before. Changes in languages themselves are slow, but global computerization has accelerated the process of these changes, so a large number of computer jargonisms that were previously used only by members of certain communities and social groups penetrate into a person's everyday speech. Technology is evolving and allows slang to be transferred from one group to another much faster (Crystal, 2004), thus significantly changing both English and Russian. Today, the dictionary of computer jargonisms of two linguistic systems has a relatively large number of words that have different syntactic functions, grammatical categories and their own peculiarities. By analyzing computer jargonisms, we can trace all the phenomena that are characteristic of both the professional communication environment and the youth, as well as the oral communication environment as a whole.
Thus, whether we believe that computer jargon enlivens or destroys a language, one cannot deny the extent to which it reveals the computer culture that invents and uses it, as well as how easily modern English and Russian languages adapt to new technologies and concepts. We see prospects for further research in covering the specifics of the use of computer jargon in various social groups, in their functioning in all other areas of communication, in establishing its expressive characteristics resulting from virtuality and the use of multimedia tools, as well as further analysis of the features of the translation of computer jargon from English to Russian.
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21 January 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Usmanov, T., Khakieva*, Z., Zekieva, P., & Bisergaeva, R. (2020). Comparative Analysis Of Computer Discourse Jargonisms In Russian And English Languages. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1553-1560). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.211