The article is devoted to the consideration of the linguocultural potential of neologisms in English language discourse. Neologisms in their totality reflect the spirit of the time, the unity of meanings, values and stereotypes inherent in a particular society in a specific cultural and historical period of its existence. In the process of research, a linguoculturological approach is used, implying consideration of neologisms. With this approach, an important role is played by linguoculturological analysis. During the period of social and cultural evolution, there is an obvious need to conduct comprehensive research on the problem of language change, which allows us to establish main trends in the language system development, dynamics of social transformations reflected in the language, in particular in English language neologisms. Neologisms transmit data of socio-historical, expressive-emotional, evaluative nature are inherent in a particular culture. Similar units of information constitute the national-cultural component in a word structure. Certainly, some ethnocultures have certain universals due to the presence of similar features in socio-historical conditions of humanity development. However, there is also a mass of differences associated with a particular culture. The article emphasizes that neologisms implement the categories that people of a particular nation think, and the boundaries in which they are set for the purpose of perception and analysis of the surrounding world. This topic is relevant, an active replenishment of the vocabulary of modern English by dint of neologisms is currently happening, which allows identifying features of the perception of certain things by different nations.
Keywords: Lexislanguageneologismculturedynamic processpotential
Words bear the imprint of time, and lexical neologisms demonstrate this especially vivid. Even very short-lived nominations dynamically characterize one or another period in the history of language and society. The study of new words is in the circle of the most important issues of modern linguistics, since the study of neologism composition, its structural features, functional purpose contributes to the solution of many problems of lexicology, word formation, grammar, stylistics.
The new vocabulary reflects all innovations in the social, economic, political, and cultural, spiritual areas, which can be included in the concept of cultural space (Katermina, 2017a).
All sciences are related, and it indicates their interdisciplinary. Neology goes beyond traditional linguistics. The study of the processes of new words formation entails the need to appeal to such sciences as sociology, linguoculturology, and psycholinguistics. However, the main complex of problems associated with the study of neologisms remains with linguistics. Neologisms have always been and will remain in sight of linguists, since their appearance in the language is an endless process. Therefore, any problems associated with neologisms are always relevant (Vulfovich, 2016a; Ostrovskaia & Khachmafova, 2016).
The study of neologisms from the perspective of cultural linguistics is a promising direction in linguistics, since the new lexis allows us to trace the perception peculiarities of new life realities by various ethnic groups in different languages.
Neologisms reflect the national characteristics of the life in certain conceptual areas, representing the value priorities of a particular society (Crystal, 1992); neologisms represent new cultural experience and characterize the dynamics of the language system development. The peculiarities of the language, society and culture interaction determine the distribution of neologisms in different conceptual areas in the English language. The dominance of a certain sphere is an indicator of its significance for the lexicon. Neologisms in their totality reflect the spirit of the time, the unity of meanings, values, stereotypes inherent in a given society in a specific cultural and historical period of its existence.
The formation of new words, emergence of new meanings is due to the tireless creative work of human consciousness, endless cognitive process determined by the subject-practical and intellectual activity of a human. The appearance of neologisms marks an important stage in the comprehension of objective reality, representing the pinnacle of the updating process of cognitive-discursive potential of the language, an important stage in the discursive development of nominated objects and phenomena of reality, their features that are important for human life. The emergence of new nominations is a kind of response to social inquiry, the result of cognitive-discursive development and reality interpretation (Boldyrev, 2006; Karasik, 2002; Lipiridi, 2015).
The lexical system of a language is not static; it develops dynamically like the environment in which a particular language operates in a specific society. The modern approach to the language study and, in particular its lexicon, involves the analysis of lexical units as elements of the linguistic space in terms of culturological space, which gives a new dimension to the study of language.
The interaction of linguistic and cultural aspects is most clearly seen in new vocabulary, since the new words reflect the changing needs, interests, capabilities of people and the integration of old language forms with new concepts and ideas (Katermina, 2017b; Ratsiburskaia, 2011; Ratsiburskaia, Samylicheva, & Shumilova, 2015).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this work is studying the linguocultural potential of neologisms in English language discourse; identifying ways to reflect the dynamics of linguistic and culturological processes in English neologisms. The research is aimed at considering neologisms as national-specific units that reveal the specific worldview of a certain speaker of a language and culture.
The study was conducted using the following methods: method of complex analysis; structural-semantic method, which is based on the study of neologisms structure, identification of their derivational features and consideration of their meaning; linguoculturological method, which consists in studying the relationship and interaction of culture and language in order to establish and explain how culture is transmitted through neologisms.
The linguoculturological approach, implying consideration of neologisms through the prism of culture and mentality, makes it possible to view the linguocultural potential of neologisms in the English language discourse as a dynamic system reflecting the cultural and national specifics of reality perception by members of a certain ethnic group (Tameryan et al., 2018).
In the course of the study, we have identified and analyzed the following groups: 1) neologisms in the field of music and dance; 2) neologisms associated with holidays, traditions and customs; 3) neologisms in the field of gastronomy.
Language and music are the product of national spirit and constitute indissoluble dialectical unity, therefore it is logical to search for the recurrence of themes and symbols not only in the grammar and vocabulary of a natural language, but also in the musical continuum of a nation, since certain general patterns that are determined by the unity of the world picture, recreated both in the national language and music, exist.
It should be noted that musical discourse is a type of national discourse continuum and obeys the functioning laws of national language and communication.
In the course of the neologisms analysis, included in semantic sphere of “music” we have defined the following lexical groups: 1) neologisms characterizing genres and kinds of music (J-pop - pop music from Japan; K-pop - pop music from Korea; wonk-pop - a type of quirky but accessible pop music; chipmusic — a type of music using the sound chips of game systems as instruments; emo - a music genre that features a heavy, guitar-based sound and melodic, emotional tunes); 2) neologisms characterizing dance styles (Jaleo – a lively dance of Andalusian origin, or the music or handclapping that accompanies it; flexing – a style of dancing, originally from Brooklyn, New York, that involves extreme body contortions and disjointed movements).
When analyzing the group of neologisms devoted to the field of music and dance, we have concluded that they contain a set of meaningful characteristics and a reflection of various manifestations of particular culture carriers.
Linguistic and cultural studies rhetoric can be is presented by new words denoting synthesis of holidays (Galentine’s day – a celebration of female friendship, invented by the Parks and Recreation character Leslie Knope, played by Amy Poehler, which occurs every year on Feb. 13, the day before Valentine's Day; greycation – a holiday in which several generations of a family, including elderly members, holiday together; lovefest – an occasion or situation where people show unconditional love for and appreciation of one another).
Traditions and customs are by nature of a special layer of neological vocabulary: Black Fiveday − the five-day period around Thanksgiving, when shops reduce the price of goods in order to attract customers; Gray Thursday – the evening of the United States Thanksgiving holiday, when some retailers offer sales and stay open until the early morning or all night; Hygge – a type of lifestyle practiced in Denmark where the focus is on simple pleasures, comfort and cosiness, and spending time with friends and family.
We share the point of view of scientists who believe that the study of language is necessary for understanding the culture which it corresponds to. As a result of our observations, we have come to the conclusion that, despite the established positions of holidays, traditions and customs in the structure of society, interest in them is great. These neologisms reflect the traditions and customs of different cultures (Alefirenko, 2006; Vulfovich, 2016b; Katermina, 2017b).
Gastronomic linguoculture is one of the most extensional and promising objects of study in modern linguistics (Olianich & Nikishkova, 2014; Stano, 2014). In the modern era of globalization, each ethnocultural community faces the problem of preserving national identity along with the need for a better understanding of the characteristics of other ethnic groups features. National gastronomic preferences retain their specificity and are reflected in culture and language. Valuable world picture is built in each linguoculture on the basis of a conceptual picture of the world, which is actualized in the language of people. The primary and main area of the emergence and existence of cultural values is way of life, the core of which as a vital significant phenomenon considered as a complex of processes of obtaining, cooking and consuming of food products (Cherednikova, 2011). The situation of food consumption is nationally determined, reflects the ethnic, cultural, socio-religious peculiarities of peoples. Among neologisms related to gastronomy, we have highlighted the following subgroups: dishes of national cuisine (omurice – a Japanese dish consisting of an omelette filled with fried rice and topped with ketchup; raindrop cake – a translucent Japanese dessert made from mineral water and a type of gelatin; kimchi – a traditional Korean dish made of seasoned fermented vegetables; bunny chow – a South African dish of curry served in a hollowed out loaf); gourmets with their preferences (haloodie – а person who has an ardent interesting halal food; gastrocrat – a wealthy foodie), beverages (aquafaba − the water from cooked beans, used as an egg white substitute in vegan cuisine; matcha – a type of Japanese green tea, popular with health food enthusiasts); diet (Buddha diet – a type of eating plan in which someone eats only during a nine-hour period each day and not at any other time, in order to lose body weight; paleo diet – (also Paleolithic diet; Paleo) a diet that is based on what people were thought to eat during the Stone Age before the development of agriculture).
The linguistic conceptualization of the “food” sphere contributes to a deeper understanding of the cultural meaning nature attached to a certain linguistic sign, as well as all cultural adjustments and traditions of peoples.
As shown by the study, specific features of the mentality of a particular cultural community are reflected in the cultural connotation of neologisms and are the carriers of cultural information. Indeed, the language reflects the reality: way of life, its history, traditions, and customs. The language as a tool of verbal communication is an important part of culture, and all the features of the language structure and its functioning can be considered as manifestations of the culture of the corresponding language community.
Vocabulary composition of the language is most sensitive to the life of people, who are the carriers and creators of the language. The language is directly related to a variety of human activities. Constant and intensive enrichment of its lexical composition through new words is one of the most important processes in the language development.
Studying the national character, linguistic scholars emphasize, primarily, the importance of lexis. Neologisms, being national-specific, through their space, implement the categories that people of a particular nation think, and the boundaries in which they are set for the purpose of perception and analysis of the surrounding world.
The linguoculturological approach, being the basis of this study, confirmed the need to take into consideration various parameters of the relationship, interaction and mutual influence of language and culture.
Globalization process is one of the main factors determining the specifics of modern development and functioning of the language, manifested in the emergence of new words. It should be noted that over the past ten years, the nature of globalization has significantly changed. If earlier globalization processes were linear, that is, they proceeded under the auspice of the penetration of Western culture to different countries, now the situation has changed. There have been a large number of English borrowings in many languages. At present the nature of globalization has become synergistic, that is, the influence of other countries is increasing, in particular Korea and Japan, Middle and Far East, Africa. The words associated with the cultures and traditions of different countries and continents emerge in English language.
- Alefirenko, N. F. (2006). Language, cognition and culture: Cognitive-semiological synergy of the word. Volgograd: Peremena.
- Boldyrev, N. N. (2006). Language categories as a format of knowledge. Questions of cognitive linguistics, 2, 5–22.
- Cherednikova, E. A. (2011). Axiological characteristics of the gastronomic discourse. Bulletin of MRSU. Series “Linguistics”, 5, 78–82.
- Crystal, D. (1992). An Encyclocpedic Dictionary of Language and Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Karasik, V. I. (2002). Language circle: personality, concepts, discourse. Volgograd: Peremena.
- Katermina, V. V. (2017a). Linguocultural Characteristics of English Mass-Media Neologisms. US-China Foreign Language, 15(10), 617–624.
- Katermina, V. V. (2017b). Cultural-interpretive potential of mass media neologisms in English discourse. Issues of cognitive linguistics, 1, 84–90.
- Lipiridi, S. Kh. (2015). Phraseography and culture. Modern Russian lexicology, lexicography and linguogeography. Inst of lingv. researches RAS. St. Petersburg.
- Olianich, A. V., & Nikishkova, M. S. (2014). Discursive actualization of the ethno-linguocultural code. Bulletin of Volgograd State University, ser. 2, Linguistics, 4(23), 70–83.
- Ostrovskaia, T. A., & Khachmafova, Z. R. (2016). Main directions of discourse research in modern linguistics. Bulletin of the Adyghe State University, ser. 2, Philology and Art History, 2(177), 99–105.
- Ratsiburskaia, L. V. (2011). Complicated neologisms in modern media texts. Text Interpretation: linguistic, literary and methodological aspects. Chita: Transbaikal State University.
- Ratsiburskaia, L. V., Samylicheva, N. A., & Shumilova, A. V. (2015). Specificity of modern media word creation. Moscow: Flinta, Nauka.
- Stano, S. (2014). Eating the Other: A Semiotic Approach to the Translation of the Culinary Code. Torino: Universitari Libra.
- Tameryan, T. Yu., Zheltukhina, M. R., Slyshkin, G. G., Shevchenko, A. V., Katermina, V. V., & Sausheva, Y.V. (2018). New Country's Political Discourse: Formation of Speech Technologies. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 8(7), 151–160.
- Vulfovich, B. G. (2016a). Culture as an integral component of modern society development. In Development of the socio-cultural sphere of southern Russia: materials of the regional scientific-practical conference of young scientists, 26–28 April (pp. 40–41). Krasnodar.
- Vulfovich, B.G. (2016b). Modern polycultural space: linguoculturological aspect. In Profile and vocational education in the conditions of a modern multicultural space: Proceedings of the Fourth International Correspondence Practical Conference, December 2016/FSBEI HE “The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration” (pp. 58–32). Chelyabinsk: RANEPA Chelyabinsk branch.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
28 December 2019
Print ISBN (optional)
Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
Cite this article as:
Lipiridi, S., Vulfovich, B., & Katermina*, V. (2019). Linguocultural Aspect Of Dynamic Neologization Processes In English Language Discourse. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1475-1480). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.200