The article presents the results of the study assessing the values of students, as well as the knowledge of teachers about the students' values in the medical faculty in higher education. This was carried out using a questionnaire to identify common and distinctive characteristics of values within each group. Questionnaires were developed for both students and teachers and consisted of several blocks: the first block included the socio-demographic issues, the second one contained twin-questions aimed at studying the instrumental values of students and assessing the knowledge of teachers about these values. The questionnaires for students also had the third block of the questions analysing the choice of the subjects with priority and evaluation methods, as well as forms of teaching at the Department of Management and Economics of Pharmacy. The results showed that the opinions of the surveyed teachers and students on the assessment of the instrumental values differed in the first two years. Starting from the 3rd year both groups of respondents demonstrated similar values. The choice of these indicators for students depends on their age, social status, and marital status. There were determined the types of lectures and practical classes and subjects for each year which enjoyed students' preference. Students of the first year noted such subjects as physiology and anatomy. From the 4th year students were more interested in specialized subjects. This proves that identified inconsistencies in the choice of values among teachers and students will reduce this gap and increase the level of pharmaceutical education.
Keywords: Principles of teachingstudents' competencesvalues
The main challenge of education in the modern world is the tendency to change priorities and social values. In this regard, methods and principles of teaching in a higher education institution (HEI) should be modernized taking into account these changes. Currently, a young specialist who has graduated from university should better have such qualities as competency and mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to pay enough attention not only to the process of cognition itself but also to the cognitive activity of students which influences the effectiveness of training. To achieve a high level of assimilation of the study material it is necessary to consider all the factors influencing this process. These include the following factors: subject and methods of cognition, principles of assimilation of the study material, conditions of material assimilation (authoritarian or humanistic), based on attention, perception, memory or the entire personal potential of the student, thanks to reproductive or active learning methods.
While studying at university, students of each year have their specific values, which do not always coincide with the values and aims of teaching. The duty of the teacher is to identify them as well as to adjust the learning process.
The subject of this study is the value characteristics which are based on social, cultural and other factors. The values, that a person adheres to shape the world view, have an impact on motivation and the concept as a whole. The development of certain values of students becomes one of the priorities for the teacher, especially for such humane professions as pharmacist.
Purpose of the Study
In this regard, we determined the purpose of the study - to conduct a comparative analysis of value orientations among students of the speciality "Pharmacy" in the medical institute.
Research methods - content analysis, logical, system, graphic, sociological (interviewing and questioning), statistical.
Our research was carried out in several stages. At the first stage of the study - the descriptive stage, we have identified the basic theories of study: 1. Gap theory by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (as cited in Brady, 2011) and adapted technique of identifying value orientations. The gap theory reveals the reason for the difference between the expected level of education and the real one. M. Rokich's method was chosen for the experiment due to its proven effectiveness in the study of personality structure and identification of value orientations (as cited in Boluchevskaya, 2010; Bondar, 2010).
• When questioning students, we set the accuracy of the study equal to 0.95 (the Student's confidence factor is 1.96). The maximum error is 0.06 (6%), the variance in this case is 0.25. So, the sample size should be 100 observation units. As a result, we interviewed 237 full-time students and 167 part-time students majoring in "Pharmacy".
The second stage included development of original research tools. To perform the tasks of the study, we had to develop two types of questionnaires: for students and teachers. The twin-questionnaire for teachers consisted of two blocks: the first block, socio-demographic, and the second one containing questions about the teachers' opinion of the instrumental values stated by the students, depending on the year and form of study. The questionnaire for students contained three blocks: socio-demographic characteristics; a block with questions to assess the instrumental values and a block aimed at analysing the students' priority choice of subjects, evaluating methods and forms of teaching by students at the Department of Management and Economics of Pharmacy of the Russian University of Peoples' Friendship. The third stage of the programme (analytical) was to analyse the comparative evaluation of instrumental values among students of the medical institute according to teachers (Stojlik, 2004).
To identify the instrumental values, we interviewed full-time students majoring in "Pharmacy" from the first to the fifth year and part-time students in the same speciality in the 4th, 5th and 6th years. The analysis of the results showed that the following values prevail among full-time students: intransigence, breadth of views, self-confidence, cheerfulness, etc. Among part-time students the prevailing values were as follows: prosperity, work, cognition, rationalism. Next, we evaluated the values depending on the year. The following results were obtained: full-time students in the 1st and 2nd year demonstrated the indicators on the selected priorities without any big difference which include independence, entertainment, intransigence. Full-time students in the 3rd year gave preference to such values as education, activity, diligence, education. The 4th-year students mentioned such values as education, responsibility, self-confidence, productivity, diligence, etc. After analysing the answers of 5th-year students, we have obtained the following results: breadth of views, responsibility, diligence, work, self-control, activity, cheerfulness, etc. Next, we compared the answers of full-time and part-time students in the 4th and 5th year. Part-time students in the 4th and 5th year have priorities in values significantly different from full-time students in similar years. However, full-time students in the 5th year and part-time students in the 6th year demonstrate coincidence in many indicators, namely, cheerfulness, education and work, but there are also those that are different. If full-time students in the 5th year show dominant values as self-control, activity, diligence and work, but students of the 6th year show rationalism, security, family, and health. The analysis of the socio-demographic block in the questionnaire filled by full-time and part-time students in the speciality "Pharmacy" showed that the 6th-year part-time students are mostly females who have specialized secondary professional pharmaceutical education. Most students work in pharmacy organizations. The predominant age of part-time students is over 30 years. Most are married and have 1-2 children. The analysis of the socio-demographic block in the questionnaire filled by full-time students in the fifth year majoring in "Pharmacy" allowed to determine the prevailing characteristics of the fifth-year students: age - 23-26 years old, mostly girls, unmarried, without children. A comparison of the socio-demographic characteristics of the fifth- and sixth-year students explains the difference in instrumental values. The general overview for all years show that the selected values of full-time and part-time students majoring in "Pharmacy", the part-time students put priorities to such values as security, work, family, wisdom, and open mindedness. Full-time students failed to identify a common group of prevailing values. However, we managed to group the values by years. Thus, the first- and second-year students showed such dominant values as cheerfulness and independence; the third- and fourth-year students showed the values of activity, education, self-confidence. The values of the fifth-year students are listed above and their list was different from the values of full-time students in other years of study. Relying on the acquired results it can be concluded that the choice of instrumental values depends on the age, employment, as well as on the marital status of the respondent (Yanitsky, 2000; Atamanchuk & Bobrov, 2003).
The next stage of our research was to study the opinion of teachers about the selected values of students through the developed twin-questionnaires. Teachers had to express their opinion on the fact which values were chosen by full-time and part-time students in the speciality “Pharmacy”. Analysis of surveying teachers showed that the 1st- and 2nd-year students are characterized by such instrumental values as: confidence, mission, open mindedness, rationalism. For the rest of academic courses, the opinion of teachers on the choice of values, made by students, coincided with the choice of students. The analysis of the survey revealed a discrepancy in the knowledge of the choice of values among teachers and students, which allows to apply the theory of gaps to describe the results. In total, this theory defines 4 types of gaps: "knowledge gap", "expectation gap", "gap in service quality specifications" and "gap between services provided and external information". Given that training students in the 1st and 2nd year is significant for forming the ability to learn in the system of higher education, reducing the identified “knowledge gap”, these will increase the level of knowledge assimilation and prepare students for further studying. Due to the fact that knowledge of the students' values was not enough among teachers, the scheme of classes identified the most preferred characteristics of the presented methods of training and the most effective criteria for different methods of training. The second stage of the study included assessment of boundary types of control. At the third stage the progress changes of the first-year students were studied concerning the course "History of pharmacy".
At the final stage of the study, we identified the most preferred characteristics of training students, the most effective criteria for different methods of training, and the most preferred subjects depending on the course. Students were asked to assess main teaching methods (lectures, seminars) and main methods of controlling the knowledge acquired within the course.
First-year students were asked to choose the most preferable type of lecture that helps to better assimilate the material: lecture presentation, lecture without presentation, and a mixed type (presentation+ lecture patterns).
As a result, most students chose a mixed type of lecture: 92% chose a mixed type, 6% chose a lecture presentation, and the rest prefer to attend the classical lecture.
Furthermore, the third block of our questionnaire presented the main characteristics of the lecture as a learning method. Students chose the most effective methods which, in their opinion, assisted assimilation of the material. These characteristics were chosen by the students during the preliminary study.
1. hear more and think without recording;
2. opportunity to record;
3. specific narration of ideas;
4. direction of work and real-world examples are given;
5. opportunity to ask a question during the lecture;
6. opportunity to ask a question after the lecture.
Analysis of the data placed in table
The next block of our questionnaire was devoted to the study of such training method as a seminar. Students were asked to assess significance of the main characteristics of seminars, which were also obtained as a result of the preliminary study.
In order to assess the importance of teaching methods, students had to rank the characteristics of seminars, and the value "1" stood for the least significant indicator.
The results are as follows (table
The need to prepare for classes
Mandatory survey conducted by the teacher
Calling a student to the blackboard
As a result, all 1st-year students unanimously put the highest rank "5" for such criterion as "the need to prepare for the lesson."
At the next stage of the study, students were offered to assess the basic methods of midterm control. This question was answered only by those who noted the need for intermediate control during the semester, and such students turned out to be the majority. The following types of control were proposed for assessment:
Calling at the board
Recitation hold by the teacher based on manuals
The results of the survey show that such types of control as input and output control are not popular among first-year students. Most students have given their preference to such type of control as rating. Students do not exclude such methods of control as calling at the board and recitation hold by the teacher based on manuals at the end of the seminar.
As a result, all 1st-year students unanimously put the highest rank "5" to such criterion as "the need to prepare for the lesson" although when determining the instrumental values they did not choose such values as hard work, etc. 2nd-year students named such most significant indicators as "pure democracy" and calling at the board. The 3rd-year students consider such most important indicator as "calling student at the board", the 4th- and 5th-year students mentioned "the need to prepare for classes" and "calling at the board" as the most significant indicators. When evaluating the main methods to control the acquired knowledge such as input control, output control, calling at the board, recitation hold by the teacher based on manuals, rating, we obtained the following results. Students found rating and calling at the board as the most preferred types of control (Figure
According to the results of surveying students we have compiled a rating of disciplines which were of interest to full-time students in the speciality "Pharmacy". In the first three years students were interested mainly in Physiology and Pathology. Freshmen also mentioned Anatomy as the most interesting subject – 31.3%. In the 4-5th years there appear specialized subjects that are of greater interest than general subjects. This can be attributed to the fact that senior students are more focused on professional activities and are interested in those subjects whose skills will be useful in their work later. The leading positions are occupied by Management and Economics of pharmacy (average 40.0%), the second place belongs to Pharmacology. All students noted Mathematics as one of the least interesting and unnecessary subjects, as well as Medical statistics. Although Advanced mathematics is a compulsory subject, it contributes to the development of logical thinking. Knowledge of Medical statistics is necessary for scientific research. This trend once again confirms that future graduates are not focused on further education and are not ready to engage in scientific activities. The choice of the reasons that aroused interest in the subject is based on the desire of respondents to professionally develop and obtain specialized knowledge, this is more than 50% (table
It can be concluded from the data obtained that students are committed to professional values in terms of mastering the speciality. Junior students are not yet job-oriented, so they have also chosen to pursuit professional knowledge to a greater extent. Let us note the relatively low percentage (generally less than 10%) of respondents planning to use knowledge to continue their studies. This can be explained by the undesirability of further education in graduate school or the desire to change the speciality, to obtain related skills. In any case, the focus on professional activities within companies and pharmacy organizations prevails among respondents over the desire to engage in scientific activities, as well as to simply develop their education as a value itself (information usefulness for everyday life was noted by less than 10% of respondents). The analysis of the reasons why the subject is not interesting showed that the response of respondents covers information uselessness for work as a reason for lacking interest in the subject (generally 20% for all courses), as well as the lack of information use in real life (about 30%).
As a result of the study, we have identified the instrumental values of full-time and part-time students in the speciality “Pharmacy”. The comparative analysis of students' values and teachers' knowledge of these values was carried out. According to the results we revealed a knowledge gap, reduction of which will increase the level of higher pharmaceutical education. At the final stage of the study, the types of lectures and practical classes, that students prefer to attend, were determined. The preferred subjects were determined for different courses.
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28 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Sudarenko, K., Ebzeeva, A., Pak, T., Galkina, G., & Gribkova*, E. (2019). Comparative Assessment Of Students Values At Peoples Friendship University Of Russia. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1169-1176). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.158